webrtc tor censorship-circumvention Go
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WebRTC Pluggable Transport

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Pluggable Transport using WebRTC, inspired by Flashproxy.

Table of Contents


cd client/
go get
go build
tor -f torrc

This should start the client plugin, bootstrapping to 100% using WebRTC.


Client: - pion/webrtc - Go 1.10+

More Info

Tor can plug in the Snowflake client via a correctly configured

. For example:
ClientTransportPlugin snowflake exec ./client \
-url https://snowflake-broker.azureedge.net/ \
-front ajax.aspnetcdn.com \
-ice stun:stun.l.google.com:19302
-max 3

The flags

allow the Snowflake client to speak to the Broker, in order to get connected with some volunteer's browser proxy.
is a comma-separated list of ICE servers, which are required for NAT traversal.

For logging, run

tail -F snowflake.log
in a second terminal.

You can modify the

to use your own broker:
ClientTransportPlugin snowflake exec ./client --meek

Test Environment

There is a Docker-based test environment at https://github.com/cohosh/snowbox.


Q: How does it work?

In the Tor use-case:

  1. Volunteers visit websites which host the "snowflake" proxy. (just like flashproxy)
  2. Tor clients automatically find available browser proxies via the Broker (the domain fronted signaling channel).
  3. Tor client and browser proxy establish a WebRTC peer connection.
  4. Proxy connects to some relay.
  5. Tor occurs.

More detailed information about how clients, snowflake proxies, and the Broker fit together on the way...

Q: What are the benefits of this PT compared with other PTs?

Snowflake combines the advantages of flashproxy and meek. Primarily:

  • It has the convenience of Meek, but can support magnitudes more users with negligible CDN costs. (Domain fronting is only used for brief signalling / NAT-piercing to setup the P2P WebRTC DataChannels which handle the actual traffic.)

  • Arbitrarily high numbers of volunteer proxies are possible like in flashproxy, but NATs are no longer a usability barrier - no need for manual port forwarding!

Q: Why is this called Snowflake?

It utilizes the "ICE" negotiation via WebRTC, and also involves a great abundance of ephemeral and short-lived (and special!) volunteer proxies...


-- Testing with Standalone Proxy --
cd proxy
go build

More documentation on the way.

Also available at: torproject.org/pluggable-transports/snowflake

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