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timescale

Description

An open-source time-series SQL database optimized for fast ingest and complex queries. Packaged as a PostgreSQL extension.

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TimescaleDB

TimescaleDB is an open-source database designed to make SQL scalable for time-series data. It is engineered up from PostgreSQL and packaged as a PostgreSQL extension, providing automatic partitioning across time and space (partitioning key), as well as full SQL support.

Timescale Cloud is our fully managed, hosted version of TimescaleDB, available in the cloud of your choice (pay-as-you-go, with free trial credits to start). To determine which option is best for you, see Timescale Products for more information about our Apache-2 version, TimescaleDB Community (self-hosted) and Timescale Cloud (hosted), including: feature comparisons, FAQ, documentation, and support.

Below is an introduction to TimescaleDB. For more information, please check out these other resources: - Developer Documentation - Slack Channel - Timescale Release Notes & Future Plans

For reference and clarity, all code files in this repository reference licensing in their header (either Apache License, Version 2.0 or Timescale License (TSL)). Apache-2 licensed binaries can be built by passing

-DAPACHE_ONLY=1
to
bootstrap
.

Contributors welcome.

(To build TimescaleDB from source, see instructions in Building from source.)

Using TimescaleDB

TimescaleDB scales PostgreSQL for time-series data via automatic partitioning across time and space (partitioning key), yet retains the standard PostgreSQL interface.

In other words, TimescaleDB exposes what look like regular tables, but are actually only an abstraction (or a virtual view) of many individual tables comprising the actual data. This single-table view, which we call a hypertable, is comprised of many chunks, which are created by partitioning the hypertable's data in either one or two dimensions: by a time interval, and by an (optional) "partition key" such as device id, location, user id, etc. (Architecture discussion)

Virtually all user interactions with TimescaleDB are with hypertables. Creating tables and indexes, altering tables, inserting data, selecting data, etc., can (and should) all be executed on the hypertable.

From the perspective of both use and management, TimescaleDB just looks and feels like PostgreSQL, and can be managed and queried as such.

Before you start

PostgreSQL's out-of-the-box settings are typically too conservative for modern servers and TimescaleDB. You should make sure your

postgresql.conf
settings are tuned, either by using timescaledb-tune or doing it manually.

Creating a hypertable

-- Do not forget to create timescaledb extension
CREATE EXTENSION timescaledb;

-- We start by creating a regular SQL table CREATE TABLE conditions ( time TIMESTAMPTZ NOT NULL, location TEXT NOT NULL, temperature DOUBLE PRECISION NULL, humidity DOUBLE PRECISION NULL );

-- Then we convert it into a hypertable that is partitioned by time SELECT create_hypertable('conditions', 'time');

Inserting and querying data

Inserting data into the hypertable is done via normal SQL commands:

INSERT INTO conditions(time, location, temperature, humidity)
  VALUES (NOW(), 'office', 70.0, 50.0);

SELECT * FROM conditions ORDER BY time DESC LIMIT 100;

SELECT time_bucket('15 minutes', time) AS fifteen_min, location, COUNT(*), MAX(temperature) AS max_temp, MAX(humidity) AS max_hum FROM conditions WHERE time > NOW() - interval '3 hours' GROUP BY fifteen_min, location ORDER BY fifteen_min DESC, max_temp DESC;

In addition, TimescaleDB includes additional functions for time-series analysis that are not present in vanilla PostgreSQL. (For example, the

time_bucket
function above.)

Installation

TimescaleDB is available pre-packaged for several platforms:

Timescale Cloud (database-as-a-service) is available via free trial. You create database instances in the cloud of your choice and use TimescaleDB to power your queries, automating common operational tasks and reducing management overhead.

We recommend following our detailed installation instructions.

To build from source, see instructions here.

Resources

Useful tools

  • timescaledb-tune: Helps set your PostgreSQL configuration settings based on your system's resources.
  • timescaledb-parallel-copy: Parallelize your initial bulk loading by using PostgreSQL's
    COPY
    across multiple workers.

Additional documentation

Community & help

Releases & updates

Contributing

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