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A summary of must-read papers for Neural Question Generation (NQG)

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Question-Generation-Paper-List

A summary of must-read papers for Neural Question Generation (NQG)

Please follow this link to view papers in chronological order.

Content

1. Survey
2. Models
2.1 Basic Seq2Seq Models 2.2 Encoding Answers
2.3 Linguistic Features 2.4 Question-specific Rewards
2.5 Content Selection 2.6 Question Type Modeling
2.7 Encode wider contexts 2.8 QG with pretraining
2.9 Other Directions
2. Applications
2.1 Difficulty Controllable QG 2.2 Conversational QG
2.3 Asking Deep Questions 2.4 Combining QA and QG
2.5 QG from knowledge graphs 2.6 Visual Question Generation
2.7 Distractor Generation 2.8 Cross-lingual QG
2.9 Clarification Question Generation
3. Evaluation
4. Resources

Survey papers

  1. Recent Advances in Neural Question Generation. arxiv, 2019. paper

    Liangming Pan, Wenqiang Lei, Tat-Seng Chua, Min-Yen Kan

  2. A Systematic Review of Automatic Question Generation for Educational Purposes. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 2020. paper

    Ghader Kurdi, Jared Leo, Bijan Parsia, Uli Sattler, Salam Al-Emari

Models

Basic Seq2Seq Models

Basic Seq2Seq models with attention to generate questions.

  1. Learning to ask: Neural question generation for reading comprehension. ACL, 2017. paper

    Xinya Du, Junru Shao, Claire Cardie.

  2. Neural question generation from text: A preliminary study. NLPCC, 2017. paper

    Qingyu Zhou, Nan Yang, Furu Wei, Chuanqi Tan, Hangbo Bao, Ming Zhou.

  3. Machine comprehension by text-to-text neural question generation. [email protected], 2017. paper

Xingdi Yuan, Tong Wang, Çaglar Gülçehre, Alessandro Sordoni, Philip Bachman, Saizheng Zhang, Sandeep Subramanian, Adam Trischler

Encoding Answers

Applying various techniques to encode the answer information thus allowing for better quality answer-focused questions.

  1. Answer-focused and Position-aware Neural Question Generation. EMNLP, 2018. paper

Xingwu Sun, Jing Liu, Yajuan Lyu, Wei He, Yanjun Ma, Shi Wang

  1. Improving Neural Question Generation Using Answer Separation. AAAI, 2019. paper code

    Yanghoon Kim, Hwanhee Lee, Joongbo Shin, Kyomin Jung.

  2. Improving Question Generation with Sentence-level Semantic Matching and Answer Position Inferring. AAAI, 2020. paper

Xiyao Ma, Qile Zhu, Yanlin Zhou, Xiaolin Li, Dapeng Wu

Linguistic Features

Improve QG by incorporating various linguistic features into the QG process.

  1. Neural Generation of Diverse Questions using Answer Focus, Contextual and Linguistic Features. INLG, 2018. paper

    Vrindavan Harrison, Marilyn Walker

  2. Automatic Question Generation using Relative Pronouns and Adverbs. ACL, 2018. paper

Payal Khullar, Konigari Rachna, Mukul Hase, Manish Shrivastava

  1. Learning to Generate Questions by Learning What not to Generate. WWW, 2019. paper code

    Bang Liu, Mingjun Zhao, Di Niu, Kunfeng Lai, Yancheng He, Haojie Wei, Yu Xu.

  2. Improving Neural Question Generation using World Knowledge. arXiv, 2019. paper

Deepak Gupta, Kaheer Suleman, Mahmoud Adada, Andrew McNamara, Justin Harris

  1. Syn-QG: Syntactic and Shallow Semantic Rules for Question Generation. ACL, 2020. paper

Kaustubh D. Dhole, Christopher D. Manning

Question-specific Rewards

Improving the training via combining supervised and reinforcement learning to maximize question-specific rewards

  1. Teaching Machines to Ask Questions. IJCAI, 2018. paper

Kaichun Yao, Libo Zhang, Tiejian Luo, Lili Tao, Yanjun Wu

  1. Natural Question Generation with Reinforcement Learning Based Graph-to-Sequence Model NeurIPS Workshop, 2019. paper

Yu Chen, Lingfei Wu, Mohammed J. Zaki

  1. Putting the Horse Before the Cart:A Generator-Evaluator Framework for Question Generation from Text CoNLL, 2019. paper

Vishwajeet Kumar, Ganesh Ramakrishnan, Yuan-Fang Li

  1. Addressing Semantic Drift in Question Generation for Semi-Supervised Question Answering EMNLP, 2019. paper code

Shiyue Zhang, Mohit Bansal

  1. Reinforcement Learning Based Graph-to-Sequence Model for Natural Question Generation ICLR, 2020. paper codes

Yu Chen, Lingfei Wu, Mohammed J. Zaki

  1. Exploring Question-Specific Rewards for Generating Deep Questions. COLING, 2020. paper codes

    Yuxi Xie, Liangming Pan, Dongzhe Wang, Min-Yen Kan, Yansong Feng

Content Selection

Improve QG by considering how to select question-worthy contents (content selection) before asking a question.

  1. Identifying Where to Focus in Reading Comprehension for Neural Question Generation. EMNLP, 2017. paper

Xinya Du, Claire Cardie

  1. Neural Models for Key Phrase Extraction and Question Generation. ACL Workshop, 2018. paper

Sandeep Subramanian, Tong Wang, Xingdi Yuan, Saizheng Zhang, Adam Trischler, Yoshua Bengio

  1. A Comparative Study on Question-Worthy Sentence Selection Strategies for Educational Question Generation. AIED, 2019. paper

Guanliang Chen, Jie Yang, Dragan Gasevic

  1. Learning to Generate Questions by Learning What not to Generate. WWW, 2019. paper code

    Bang Liu, Mingjun Zhao, Di Niu, Kunfeng Lai, Yancheng He, Haojie Wei, Yu Xu.

  2. Improving Question Generation With to the Point Context. EMNLP, 2019. paper

    Jingjing Li, Yifan Gao, Lidong Bing, Irwin King, Michael R. Lyu.

  3. Weak Supervision Enhanced Generative Network for Question Generation. IJCAI, 2019. paper

Yutong Wang, Jiyuan Zheng, Qijiong Liu, Zhou Zhao, Jun Xiao, Yueting Zhuang

  1. A Multi-Agent Communication Framework for Question-Worthy Phrase Extraction and Question Generation. AAAI, 2019. paper

Siyuan Wang, Zhongyu Wei, Zhihao Fan, Yang Liu, Xuanjing Huang

  1. Self-Attention Architectures for Answer-Agnostic Neural Question Generation. ACL, 2019. paper

Thomas Scialom, Benjamin Piwowarski, Jacopo Staiano.

  1. Mixture Content Selection for Diverse Sequence Generation. EMNLP, 2019. paper code

Jaemin Cho, Minjoon Seo, Hannaneh Hajishirzi

  1. Asking Questions the Human Way: Scalable Question-Answer Generation from Text Corpus. WWW, 2020. [paper](https://arxiv.org/pdf/2002.00748.pdf

    Bang Liu, Haojie Wei, Di Niu, Haolan Chen, Yancheng He

Question Type Modeling

Improve QG by explicitly modeling question types or interrogative words.

  1. Question Generation for Question Answering. EMNLP,2017. paper

Nan Duan, Duyu Tang, Peng Chen, Ming Zhou

  1. Answer-focused and Position-aware Neural Question Generation. EMNLP, 2018. paper

Xingwu Sun, Jing Liu, Yajuan Lyu, Wei He, Yanjun Ma, Shi Wang

  1. Let Me Know What to Ask: Interrogative-Word-Aware Question Generation EMNLP Workshop, 2019. paper

Junmo Kang, Haritz Puerto San Roman, Sung-Hyon Myaeng

  1. Question-type Driven Question Generation EMNLP, 2019. paper

Wenjie Zhou, Minghua Zhang, Yunfang Wu

Encode Wider Contexts

Improve QG by incorporating wider contexts in the input passage.

  1. Harvesting paragraph-level question-answer pairs from wikipedia. ACL, 2018. paper code&dataset

    Xinya Du, Claire Cardie

  2. Leveraging Context Information for Natural Question Generation ACL, 2018. paper code

Linfeng Song, Zhiguo Wang, Wael Hamza, Yue Zhang, Daniel Gildea

  1. Paragraph-level Neural Question Generation with Maxout Pointer and Gated Self-attention Networks. EMNLP, 2018. paper

Yao Zhao, Xiaochuan Ni, Yuanyuan Ding, Qifa Ke

  1. Capturing Greater Context for Question Generation AAAI, 2020. paper

Luu Anh Tuan, Darsh J Shah, Regina Barzilay

  1. How to Ask Good Questions? Try to Leverage Paraphrases ACL, 2020. paper

Xin Jia, Wenjie Zhou, Xu SUN, Yunfang Wu

  1. PathQG: Neural Question Generation from Facts EMNLP, 2020. paper code

Siyuan Wang, Zhongyu Wei, Zhihao Fan, Zengfeng Huang, Weijian Sun, Qi Zhang, Xuanjing Huang

QG with pretraining

Improve QG ultilizing NLP pretraining models.

  1. Unified Language Model Pre-training for Natural Language Understanding and Generation. NeurIPS, 2019. paper code

Li Dong, Nan Yang, Wenhui Wang, Furu Wei, Xiaodong Liu, Yu Wang, Jianfeng Gao, Ming Zhou, Hsiao-Wuen Hon

  1. A Recurrent BERT-based Model for Question Generation. MRQA Workshop, 2019. paper

Ying-Hong Chan, Yao-Chung Fan

  1. CopyBERT: A Unified Approach to Question Generation with Self-Attention. ACL Workshop, 2020. paper code

Stalin Varanasi, Saadullah Amin, Guenter Neumann

  1. QURIOUS: Question Generation Pretraining for Text Generation. arXiv, 2020. paper

Shashi Narayan, Gonçalo Simoes, Ji Ma, Hannah Craighead, Ryan Mcdonald

  1. UniLMv2: Pseudo-Masked Language Models for Unified Language Model Pre-Training. arXiv, 2020. paper code

Hangbo Bao, Li Dong, Furu Wei, Wenhui Wang, Nan Yang, Xiaodong Liu, Yu Wang, Songhao Piao, Jianfeng Gao, Ming Zhou, Hsiao-Wuen Hon

Other Directions

  1. Generating Question-Answer Hierarchies. ACL, 2019. paper code

Kalpesh Krishna and Mohit Iyyer.

  1. Can You Unpack That? Learning to Rewrite Questions-in-Context. EMNLP, 2019. paper

Ahmed Elgohary, Denis Peskov, Jordan L. Boyd-Graber

  1. Sequential Copying Networks. AAAI, 2018. paper

Qingyu Zhou, Nan Yang, Furu Wei, Ming Zhou

  1. Let's Ask Again: Refine Network for Automatic Question Generation. EMNLP, 2019. paper

Preksha Nema, Akash Kumar Mohankumar, Mitesh M. Khapra, Balaji Vasan Srinivasan, Balaraman Ravindran

Applications

Difficulty Controllable QG

Endowing the model with the ability to control the difficulty of the generated questions.

  1. Easy-to-Hard: Leveraging Simple Questions for Complex Question Generation. arxiv, 2019. paper

    Jie Zhao, Xiang Deng, Huan Sun.

  2. Difficulty Controllable Generation of Reading Comprehension Questions. IJCAI, 2019. paper

Yifan Gao, Lidong Bing, Wang Chen, Michael R. Lyu, Irwin King

  1. Difficulty-controllable Multi-hop Question Generation From Knowledge Graphs. ISWC, 2019. paper code&dataset

Vishwajeet Kumar, Yuncheng Hua, Ganesh Ramakrishnan, Guilin Qi, Lianli Gao, Yuan-Fang Li

Conversational QG

Learning to generate a series of coherent questions grounded in a question answering style conversation.

  1. Learning to Ask Questions in Open-domain Conversational Systems with Typed Decoders. ACL, 2018. paper code dataset

Yansen Wang, Chenyi Liu, Minlie Huang, Liqiang Nie

  1. Answerer in Questioner's Mind: Information Theoretic Approach to Goal-Oriented Visual Dialog. NIPS, 2018. paper

Sang-Woo Lee, Yu-Jung Heo, Byoung-Tak Zhang

  1. Interconnected Question Generation with Coreference Alignment and Conversation Flow Modeling. ACL, 2019. paper code

Yifan Gao, Piji Li, Irwin King, Michael R. Lyu

  1. Reinforced Dynamic Reasoning for Conversational Question Generation. ACL, 2019. paper code dataset

Boyuan Pan, Hao Li, Ziyu Yao, Deng Cai, Huan Sun

  1. Towards Answer-unaware Conversational Question Generation. ACL Workshop, 2019. paper

Mao Nakanishi, Tetsunori Kobayashi, Yoshihiko Hayashi

  1. What Should I Ask? Using Conversationally Informative Rewards for Goal-oriented Visual Dialog. ACL, 2019. paper

Pushkar Shukla, Carlos Elmadjian, Richika Sharan, Vivek Kulkarni, Matthew Turk, William Yang Wang

  1. Visual Dialogue State Tracking for Question Generation. AAAI, 2020. paper

Wei Pang, Xiaojie Wang

  1. Interactive Classification by Asking Informative Questions. ACL, 2020. paper

Lili Yu, Howard Chen, Sida Wang, Tao Lei, Yoav Artzi

  1. Learning to Ask More: Semi-Autoregressive Sequential Question Generation under Dual-Graph Interaction. ACL, 2020. paper dataset

Zi Chai, Xiaojun Wan

  1. Stay Hungry, Stay Focused: Generating Informative and Specific Questions in Information-Seeking Conversations. arXiv, 2020. paper

Peng Qi, Yuhao Zhang, Christopher D. Manning

Asking Deep Questions

This direction focuses on exploring how to ask deep questions that require high cognitive levels, such as multi-hop reasoning questions, mathematical questions, open-ended questions, and non-factoid questions.

  1. Automatic Opinion Question Generation. ICNLG, 2018. paper

Yllias Chali, Tina Baghaee

  1. A Multi-language Platform for Generating Algebraic Mathematical Word Problems. arxiv, 2019. paper

Vijini Liyanage, Surangika Ranathunga

  1. Asking the Crowd: Question Analysis, Evaluation and Generation for Open Discussion on Online Forums. ACL, 2019. paper

Zi Chai, Xinyu Xing, Xiaojun Wan, Bo Huang

  1. Learning to Ask Unanswerable Questions for Machine Reading Comprehension. ACL, 2019. paper

Haichao Zhu, Li Dong, Furu Wei, Wenhui Wang, Bing Qin, Ting Liu

  1. Distant Supervised Why-Question Generation with Passage Self-Matching Attention. IJCNN, 2019. paper

Jiaxin Hu, Zhixu Li, Renshou Wu, Hongling Wang, An Liu, Jiajie Xu, Pengpeng Zhao, Lei Zhao

  1. Conclusion-Supplement Answer Generation for Non-Factoid Questions. AAAI, 2020. paper

Makoto Nakatsuji, Sohei Okui

  1. Generating Multi-hop Reasoning Questions to Improve Machine Reading Comprehension. WWW, 2020. paper

Jianxing Yu, Xiaojun Quan, Qinliang Su, Jian Yin

  1. Low-Resource Generation of Multi-hop Reasoning Questions. ACL, 2020. paper

    Jianxing Yu, Wei Liu, Shuang Qiu, Qinliang Su, Kai Wang, Xiaojun Quan, Jian Yin

  2. Semantic Graphs for Generating Deep Questions. ACL, 2020. paper code

    Liangming Pan, Yuxi Xie, Yansong Feng, Tat-Seng Chua, Min-Yen Kan

  3. Review-based Question Generation with Adaptive Instance Transfer and Augmentation. ACL, 2020. paper

    Qian Yu, Lidong Bing, Qiong Zhang, Wai Lam, Luo Si

  4. Inquisitive Question Generation for High Level Text Comprehension. EMNLP, 2020. paper dataset

    Wei-Jen Ko, Te-Yuan Chen, Yiyan Huang, Greg Durrett, Junyi Jessy Li

  5. Stronger Transformers for Neural Multi-Hop Question Generation. ArXiv, 2020. paper

    Devendra Singh Sachan, Lingfei Wu, Mrinmaya Sachan, William Hamilton

  6. Mathematical Word Problem Generation from Commonsense Knowledge Graph and Equations. ArXiv, 2020. paper

    Tianqiao Liu, Qian Fang, Wenbiao Ding, Zhongqin Wu, Zitao Liu

  7. Reinforced Multi-task Approach for Multi-hop Question Generation. COLING, 2020. paper

    Deepak Gupta, Hardik Chauhan, Akella Ravi Tej, Asif Ekbal, Pushpak Bhattacharyya

  8. Exploring Question-Specific Rewards for Generating Deep Questions. COLING, 2020. paper codes

    Yuxi Xie, Liangming Pan, Dongzhe Wang, Min-Yen Kan, Yansong Feng

  9. Ask to Learn: A Study on Curiosity-driven Question Generation. COLING, 2020. paper codes

    Thomas Scialom, Jacopo Staiano

Combining QA and QG

This direction investigate how to combine the task of QA and QG by multi-task learning or joint training.

  1. Question Generation for Question Answering. EMNLP,2017. paper

Nan Duan, Duyu Tang, Peng Chen, Ming Zhou

  1. Learning to Collaborate for Question Answering and Asking. NAACL, 2018. paper

Duyu Tang, Nan Duan, Zhao Yan, Zhirui Zhang, Yibo Sun, Shujie Liu, Yuanhua Lv, Ming Zhou

  1. Generating Highly Relevant Questions. EMNLP, 2019. paper

Jiazuo Qiu, Deyi Xiong

  1. Learning to Answer by Learning to Ask: Getting the Best of GPT-2 and BERT Worlds. arxiv, 2019. paper

Tassilo Klein, Moin Nabi

  1. Triple-Joint Modeling for Question Generation Using Cross-Task Autoencoder. NLPCC, 2019. paper

Hongling Wang, Renshou Wu, Zhixu Li, Zhongqing Wang, Zhigang Chen, Guodong Zhou

  1. Addressing Semantic Drift in Question Generation for Semi-Supervised Question Answering EMNLP, 2019. paper code

Shiyue Zhang, Mohit Bansal

  1. Synthetic QA Corpora Generation with Roundtrip Consistency ACL, 2019. paper

Chris Alberti, Daniel Andor, Emily Pitler, Jacob Devlin, Michael Collins

  1. Unsupervised Question Answering by Cloze Translation ACL, 2019. paper

Patrick Lewis, Ludovic Denoyer, Sebastian Riedel

  1. Generating Multi-hop Reasoning Questions to Improve Machine Reading Comprehension. WWW, 2020. paper

Jianxing Yu, Xiaojun Quan, Qinliang Su, Jian Yin

  1. Template-Based Question Generation from Retrieved Sentences for Improved Unsupervised Question Answering. ACL, 2020. paper

Alexander R. Fabbri, Patrick Ng, Zhiguo Wang, Ramesh Nallapati, Bing Xiang

  1. On the Importance of Diversity in Question Generation for QA. ACL, 2020. paper

Md Arafat Sultan, Shubham Chandel, Ramón Fernandez Astudillo, Vittorio Castelli

  1. End-to-End Synthetic Data Generation for Domain Adaptation of Question Answering Systems. EMNLP, 2020. paper

Siamak Shakeri, Cicero Nogueira dos Santos, Henry Zhu, Patrick Ng, Feng Nan, Zhiguo Wang, Ramesh Nallapati, Bing Xiang

  1. Tell Me How to Ask Again: Question Data Augmentation with Controllable Rewriting in Continuous Space. EMNLP, 2020. paper

Dayiheng Liu, Yeyun Gong, Jie Fu, Yu Yan, Jiusheng Chen, Jiancheng Lv, Nan Duan, Ming Zhou

  1. Training Question Answering Models From Synthetic Data. EMNLP, 2020. paper

Raul Puri, Ryan Spring, Mostofa Patwary, Mohammad Shoeybi, Bryan Catanzaro

QG from knowledge graphs

This direction is about generating questions from a knowledge graph.

  1. Generating Factoid Questions With Recurrent Neural Networks: The 30M Factoid Question-Answer Corpus. ACL, 2016. paper dataset

Iulian Vlad Serban, Alberto García-Durán, Çaglar Gülçehre, Sungjin Ahn, Sarath Chandar, Aaron C. Courville, Yoshua Bengio

  1. Generating Natural Language Question-Answer Pairs from a Knowledge Graph Using a RNN Based Question Generation Model. ACL, 2017. paper

Mitesh M. Khapra, Dinesh Raghu, Sachindra Joshi, Sathish Reddy

  1. Knowledge Questions from Knowledge Graphs. ICTIR, 2017. paper

Dominic Seyler, Mohamed Yahya, Klaus Berberich.

  1. Zero-Shot Question Generation from Knowledge Graphs for Unseen Predicates and Entity Types. NAACL, 2018. paper code

Hady Elsahar, Christophe Gravier, Frederique Laforest.

  1. A Neural Question Generation System Based on Knowledge Base NLPCC, 2018. paper

Hao Wang, Xiaodong Zhang, Houfeng Wang

  1. Formal Query Generation for Question Answering over Knowledge Bases. ESWC, 2018. paper

Hamid Zafar, Giulio Napolitano, Jens Lehmann

  1. Generating Questions for Knowledge Bases via Incorporating Diversified Contexts and Answer-Aware Loss. EMNLP, 2019. paper

Cao Liu, Kang Liu, Shizhu He, Zaiqing Nie, Jun Zhao

  1. Difficulty-controllable Multi-hop Question Generation From Knowledge Graphs. ISWC, 2019. paper code&dataset

Vishwajeet Kumar, Yuncheng Hua, Ganesh Ramakrishnan, Guilin Qi, Lianli Gao, Yuan-Fang Li

  1. How Question Generation Can Help Question Answering over Knowledge Base. NLPCC, 2019. paper

    Sen Hu, Lei Zou, Zhanxing Zhu

  2. Toward Subgraph Guided Knowledge Graph Question Generation with Graph Neural Networks. arXiv, 2020. paper

    Yu Chen, Lingfei Wu, Mohammed J. Zaki

  3. Generating Semantically Valid Adversarial Questions for TableQA. arXiv, 2020. paper

    Yi Zhu, Menglin Xia, Yiwei Zhou

  4. Knowledge-enriched, Type-constrained and Grammar-guided Question Generation over Knowledge Bases. COLING, 2020. paper

    Sheng Bi, Xiya Cheng, Yuan-Fang Li, Yongzhen Wang, Guilin Qi

Visual Question Generation

Asking questions based on visual inputs (usually an image).

  1. Generating Natural Questions About an Image ACL, 2016. paper

Nasrin Mostafazadeh, Ishan Misra, Jacob Devlin, Margaret Mitchell, Xiaodong He, Lucy Vanderwende

  1. Creativity: Generating Diverse Questions Using Variational Autoencoders CVPR,2017. paper

Unnat Jain, Ziyu Zhang, Alexander G. Schwing

  1. Automatic Generation of Grounded Visual Questions IJCAI, 2017. paper

Shijie Zhang, Lizhen Qu, Shaodi You, Zhenglu Yang, Jiawan Zhang

  1. A Reinforcement Learning Framework for Natural Question Generation using Bi-discriminators COLING, 2018. paper

Zhihao Fan, Zhongyu Wei, Siyuan Wang, Yang Liu, Xuanjing Huang

  1. Customized Image Narrative Generation via Interactive Visual Question Generation and Answering CVPR, 2018. paper

Andrew Shin, Yoshitaka Ushiku, Tatsuya Harada

  1. Multimodal Differential Network for Visual Question Generation EMNLP, 2018. paper

Badri Narayana Patro, Sandeep Kumar, Vinod Kumar Kurmi, Vinay P. Namboodiri

  1. A Question Type Driven Framework to Diversify Visual Question Generation IJCAI, 2018. paper

Zhihao Fan, Zhongyu Wei, Piji Li, Yanyan Lan, Xuanjing Huang

  1. Visual Question Generation as Dual Task of Visual Question Answering. CVPR, 2018. paper

Yikang Li, Nan Duan, Bolei Zhou, Xiao Chu, Wanli Ouyang, Xiaogang Wang, Ming Zhou

  1. Two can play this Game: Visual Dialog with Discriminative Question Generation and Answering. CVPR, 2018. paper

Unnat Jain, Svetlana Lazebnik, Alexander Schwing

  1. Information Maximizing Visual Question Generation. CVPR, 2019. paper

    Ranjay Krishna, Michael Bernstein, Li Fei-Fei

  2. What Should I Ask? Using Conversationally Informative Rewards for Goal-oriented Visual Dialog. ACL, 2019. paper

    Pushkar Shukla, Carlos Elmadjian, Richika Sharan, Vivek Kulkarni, Matthew Turk, William Yang Wang

Distractor Generation

Learning to generate distractors for multi-choice questions.

  1. Generating Questions and Multiple-Choice Answers using Semantic Analysis of Texts. COLING, 2016. paper

Jun Araki, Dheeraj Rajagopal, Sreecharan Sankaranarayanan, Susan Holm, Yukari Yamakawa, Teruko Mitamura

  1. Distractor Generation for Multiple Choice Questions Using Learning to Rank. NAACL Workshop, 2018. paper code

Chen Liang, Xiao Yang, Neisarg Dave, Drew Wham, Bart Pursel, C. Lee Giles

  1. Generating Distractors for Reading Comprehension Questions from Real Examinations. AAAI, 2019. paper

Yifan Gao, Lidong Bing, Piji Li, Irwin King, Michael R. Lyu

Cross-lingual QG

Building cross-lingual models to generate questions in low-resource languages.

  1. Cross-Lingual Training for Automatic Question Generation. ACL, 2019. paper dataset

Vishwajeet Kumar, Nitish Joshi, Arijit Mukherjee, Ganesh Ramakrishnan, Preethi Jyothi

  1. Cross-Lingual Natural Language Generation via Pre-Training. AAAI, 2020. paper

Zewen Chi, Li Dong, Furu Wei, Wenhui Wang, Xian-Ling Mao, Heyan Huang

Clarification Question Generation

Learning to ask clarification questions to better understand user intents in conversation, recommendation system, or search engine.

  1. Are You Asking the Right Questions? Teaching Machines to Ask Clarification Questions. ACL Workshop, 2017. paper

Sudha Rao

  1. Learning to Ask Good Questions: Ranking Clarification Questions using Neural Expected Value of Perfect Information. ACL, 2018. paper code

Sudha Rao, Hal Daumé III

  1. Interpretation of Natural Language Rules in Conversational Machine Reading. EMNLP, 2018. paper dataset

Marzieh Saeidi, Max Bartolo, Patrick Lewis, Sameer Singh, Tim Rocktäschel, Mike Sheldon, Guillaume Bouchard, Sebastian Riedel

  1. Answer-based Adversarial Training for Generating Clarification Questions. NAACL, 2019. paper code

Rao S, Daumé III H.

  1. Asking Clarifying Questions in Open-Domain Information-Seeking Conversations. SIGIR, 2019. paper dataset

Mohammad Aliannejadi, Hamed Zamani, Fabio Crestani, W. Bruce Croft

  1. ClarQ: A large-scale and diverse dataset for Clarification Question Generation. ACL, 2020. paper dataset

Vaibhav Kumar, Alan W. black.

  1. Interactive Classification by Asking Informative Questions. ACL, 2020. paper

Lili Yu, Howard Chen, Sida Wang, Tao Lei, Yoav Artzi

  1. Towards Question-based Recommender Systems. SIGIR, 2020. paper

Jie Zou, Yifan Chen, Evangelos Kanoulas

  1. Generating Clarifying Questions for Information Retrieval. WWW, 2020. paper

Hamed Zamani, Susan T. Dumais, Nick Craswell, Paul N. Bennett, and Gord Lueck

Evaluation

This direction investigates the mechanism behind question asking, and how to evaluate the quality of generated questions.

  1. Question Asking as Program Generation. NeurIPS, 2017. paper

Anselm Rothe, Brenden M. Lake, Todd M. Gureckis.

  1. Towards a Better Metric for Evaluating Question Generation Systems. EMNLP, 2018. paper

Preksha Nema, Mitesh M. Khapra.

  1. Evaluating Rewards for Question Generation Models. NAACL, 2019. paper

Tom Hosking and Sebastian Riedel.

Resources

QG-specific datasets and toolkits.

  1. LearningQ: A Large-Scale Dataset for Educational Question Generation. ICWSM, 2018. paper

Guanliang Chen, Jie Yang, Claudia Hauff, Geert-Jan Houben.

  1. ParaQG: A System for Generating Questions and Answers from Paragraphs. EMNLP Demo, 2019. paper

Vishwajeet Kumar, Sivaanandh Muneeswaran, Ganesh Ramakrishnan, Yuan-Fang Li.

  1. How to Ask Better Questions? A Large-Scale Multi-Domain Dataset for Rewriting Ill-Formed Questions. AAAI, 2020. paper code

Zewei Chu, Mingda Chen, Jing Chen, Miaosen Wang, Kevin Gimpel, Manaal Faruqui, Xiance Si.

  1. ClarQ: A large-scale and diverse dataset for Clarification Question Generation. ACL, 2020. paper dataset

Vaibhav Kumar, Alan W. black.

  1. [Toolkit] Question Generation using transformers . github link

Suraj Patil

  1. Inquisitive Question Generation for High Level Text Comprehension. EMNLP, 2020. paper dataset

    Wei-Jen Ko, Te-Yuan Chen, Yiyan Huang, Greg Durrett, Junyi Jessy Li

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