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Sumokoin - Digital Cash For Highly-Confidential Transactions

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Copyright (c) 2017-2021, Sumokoin Projects

Portions Copyright (c) 2014-2021, The Monero Project

Portions Copyright (c) 2012-2013, The Cryptonote developers

Table of Contents

Development Resources

Please note that code is developed on the dev branch, if you want to check out the latest updates, before they are merged on main branch, please refer there. Master branch will always point to a version that we consider stable, so you can download the code by simply typing

git clone


| Type | Status | |--------------|-----------| |Workflows | WorkFlow Status


Sumokoin (スモコイン in Japanese) is a fork from Monero, one of the most respectable cryptocurrency well-known for security, privacy, untraceability and active development. Starting as an educational project, we found that it would be great to create a new coin with high level of privacy by (1) moving forward right away to Ring Confidential Transactions (RingCT), (2) setting minimum transaction mixin to 12 (current minimum mixin set at 48) that would greatly reduce chance of being attacked, traced or identified by (blockchain) statistical analysis.

Sumokoin, therefore, is a new Monero without its legacy, a truely fungible cryptocurrency among just a few ones in the market.

Coin Supply & Emission

  • Total supply: 88,888,888 coins in first 20 years, then 263,000 coins each year for inflation. About 10% (~8.8 million) was premined to reserve for future development, i.e. 80 million coins available for community mining.
  • Coin symbol: SUMO
  • Coin Units:
    • 1 Sumoshi  = 0.000000001 SUMO (10-9 - the smallest coin unit)
    • 1 Sumokun = 0.000001 SUMO (10-6)
    • 1 Sumosan = 0.001 SUMO (10-3)
  • Hash algorithm: CryptoNight R (cnR, CNv4) (Proof-Of-Work)
  • Emission scheme: Sumokoin's block reward changes every 6-months as the following "Camel" distribution* (inspired by real-world mining production like of crude oil, coal etc. that is often slow at first, accelerated in the next few years before declined and depleted). However, the emission path of Sumokoin is generally not far apart from what of Bitcoin (view charts below).

* The emulated algorithm of Sumokoin block-reward emission can be found in Python and C++ scripts at scripts directory.

About this Project

This is the core implementation of Sumokoin. It is open source and completely free to use without restrictions, except for those specified in the license agreement below. There are no restrictions on anyone creating an alternative implementation of Sumokoin that uses the protocol and network in a compatible manner.

As with many development projects, the repository on Github is considered to be the "staging" area for the latest changes. Before changes are merged into that branch on the main repository, they are tested by individual developers in their own branches, submitted as a pull request, and then subsequently tested by contributors who focus on testing and code reviews. That having been said, the repository should be carefully considered before using it in a production environment, unless there is a patch in the repository for a particular show-stopping issue you are experiencing. It is generally a better idea to use a tagged release for stability.

Anyone is welcome to contribute to Sumokoin's codebase! If you have a fix or code change, feel free to submit is as a pull request directly to the "master" branch. In cases where the change is relatively small or does not affect other parts of the codebase it may be merged in immediately by any one of the collaborators. On the other hand, if the change is particularly large or complex, it is expected that it will be discussed at length either well in advance of the pull request being submitted, or even directly on the pull request.


Please view LICENSE


Compiling Sumokoin from source


The following table summarizes the tools and libraries required to build. A few of the libraries are also included in this repository (marked as "Vendored"). By default, the build uses the library installed on the system, and ignores the vendored sources. However, if no library is found installed on the system, then the vendored source will be built and used. The vendored sources are also used for statically-linked builds because distribution packages often include only shared library binaries (

) but not static library archives (

| Dep | Min. version | Vendored | Debian/Ubuntu pkg | Arch pkg | Fedora | Optional | Purpose | | ------------ | ------------- | -------- | -------------------- | ------------ | ------------------- | -------- | --------------- | | GCC | 5.4.0 | NO |

| NO | | | CMake | 3.5 | NO |
| NO | | | pkg-config | any | NO |
| NO | | | Boost | 1.58 | NO |
| NO | C++ libraries | | OpenSSL | basically any | NO |
| NO | sha256 sum | | libzmq | 4.2.0 | NO |
| NO | ZeroMQ library | | OpenPGM | ? | NO |
| NO | For ZeroMQ | | libnorm[2] | ? | NO |
| | | YES | For ZeroMQ | | libunbound | 1.4.16 | YES |
| NO | DNS resolver | | libevent | ? | NO |
| YES | For unbound | libsodium | ? | NO |
| NO | cryptography | | libunwind | any | NO |
| YES | Stack traces | | liblzma | any | NO |
| YES | For libunwind | | libreadline | 6.3.0 | NO |
| YES | Input editing | | ldns | 1.6.17 | NO |
| YES | SSL toolkit | | expat | 1.1 | NO |
| YES | XML parsing | | GTest | 1.5 | YES |
[1] |
| YES | Test suite | | Doxygen | any | NO |
| YES | Documentation | | Graphviz | any | NO |
| YES | Documentation | | libhidapi | ? | NO |
| YES | Hardware wallet | | libusb | ? | NO |
| YES | Hardware wallet | | protoc | ? | NO |
| YES | Hardware wallet | | libudev | ? | No |
| YES | Hardware wallet |

[1] On Debian/Ubuntu

only includes sources and headers. You must build the library binary manually. This can be done with the following command
sudo apt-get install libgtest-dev && cd /usr/src/gtest && sudo cmake . && sudo make && sudo mv libg* /usr/lib/
[2] libnorm-dev is needed if your zmq library was built with libnorm, and not needed otherwise

Install all dependencies at once on Debian/Ubuntu:

sudo apt update && sudo apt install build-essential cmake pkg-config libboost-all-dev libssl-dev libzmq3-dev libunbound-dev libevent-dev libsodium-dev libunwind8-dev liblzma-dev libreadline6-dev libldns-dev libexpat1-dev doxygen graphviz libpgm-dev libhidapi-dev libusb-1.0-0-dev libudev-dev

Install all dependencies at once on macOS with the provided Brewfile:

brew update && brew bundle --file=contrib/brew/Brewfile

FreeBSD one liner for required to build dependencies

pkg install git gmake cmake pkgconf boost-libs libzmq4 libsodium

Cloning the repository

$ git clone

Build instructions

Sumokoin uses the CMake build system and a top-level Makefile that invokes cmake commands as needed.

On Linux and macOS

  • Install the dependencies (see the list above)

    - On Ubuntu, essential dependencies can be installed with the following command:

    sudo apt update && sudo apt install build-essential cmake pkg-config libboost-all-dev libssl-dev libzmq3-dev libunbound-dev libsodium-dev libunwind8-dev liblzma-dev libreadline6-dev libldns-dev libexpat1-dev doxygen graphviz libpgm-dev libhidapi-dev libusb-dev
  • Change to the root of the source code directory and build:

    cd sumokoin

    Optional: If your machine has several cores and enough memory, enable parallel build by running

    make -j
    instead of
    . For this to be worthwhile, the machine should have one core and about 2GB of RAM available per thread.

    Note: The instructions above will compile the most stable release of the Sumokoin software. If you would like to use and test the most recent software, use

    git checkout master
    . The master branch may contain updates that are both unstable and incompatible with release software, though testing is always encouraged.
  • The resulting executables can be found in

  • Add

  • Run Sumokoin with

    sumokoind --detach
  • Optional: build and run the test suite to verify the binaries:

    make release-test


    test may take a few hours to complete.
  • Optional: to build binaries suitable for debugging:

    make debug
  • Optional: to build statically-linked binaries:

    make release-static

Dependencies need to be built with -fPIC. Static libraries usually aren't, so you may have to build them yourself with -fPIC. Refer to their documentation for how to build them.

  • Optional: build documentation in

    is not installed):
    HAVE_DOT=YES doxygen Doxyfile

On the Raspberry Pi

Tested on a Raspberry Pi Zero with a clean install of minimal Raspbian Stretch (2017-09-07 or later) from If you are using Raspian Jessie, please see note in the following section.

  • apt-get update && apt-get upgrade
    to install all of the latest software
  • Install the dependencies for Sumokoin from the 'Debian' column in the table above.

  • Increase the system swap size:

    sudo /etc/init.d/dphys-swapfile stop
    sudo nano /etc/dphys-swapfile
    sudo /etc/init.d/dphys-swapfile start
  • If using an external hard disk without an external power supply, ensure it gets enough power to avoid hardware issues when syncing, by adding the line "maxusbcurrent=1" to /boot/config.txt

  • Clone sumokoin and checkout most recent release version:

    git clone
    cd sumokoin
    git checkout tags/v0.8.0.0
  • Build:

    make release
  • Wait 4-6 hours

  • The resulting executables can be found in

  • Add

  • Run Sumokoin with

    sumokoind --detach
  • You may wish to reduce the size of the swap file after the build has finished, and delete the boost directory from your home directory

Note for Raspbian Jessie users:

If you are using the older Raspbian Jessie image, compiling Sumokoin is a bit more complicated. The version of Boost available in the Debian Jessie repositories is too old to use with Sumokoin, and thus you must compile a newer version yourself. The following explains the extra steps, and has been tested on a Raspberry Pi 2 with a clean install of minimal Raspbian Jessie.

  • As before,

    apt-get update && apt-get upgrade
    to install all of the latest software, and increase the system swap size
    sudo /etc/init.d/dphys-swapfile stop
    sudo nano /etc/dphys-swapfile
    sudo /etc/init.d/dphys-swapfile start
  • Then, install the dependencies for Sumokoin except

  • Install the latest version of boost (this may first require invoking

    apt-get remove --purge libboost*
    to remove a previous version if you're not using a clean install):
    tar xvfo boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2
    cd boost_1_64_0
    sudo ./b2
  • Wait ~8 hours

    sudo ./bjam cxxflags=-fPIC cflags=-fPIC -a install
  • Wait ~4 hours

  • From here, follow the general Raspberry Pi instructions from the "Clone sumokoin and checkout most recent release version" step.

On Windows:

Binaries for Windows are built on Windows using the MinGW toolchain within MSYS2 environment. The MSYS2 environment emulates a POSIX system. The toolchain runs within the environment and cross-compiles binaries that can run outside of the environment as a regular Windows application.

Preparing the build environment

  • Download and install the MSYS2 installer, either the 64-bit or the 32-bit package, depending on your system.
  • Open the MSYS shell via the
    MSYS2 Shell
  • Update packages using pacman:

    pacman -Syu
  • Exit the MSYS shell using Alt+F4

  • Edit the properties for the

    MSYS2 Shell
    shortcut changing "msys2shell.bat" to "msys2shell.cmd -mingw64" for 64-bit builds or "msys2_shell.cmd -mingw32" for 32-bit builds
  • Restart MSYS shell via modified shortcut and update packages again using pacman:

    pacman -Syu
  • Install dependencies:

    To build for 64-bit Windows:

    pacman -S mingw-w64-x86_64-toolchain make mingw-w64-x86_64-cmake mingw-w64-x86_64-boost mingw-w64-x86_64-openssl mingw-w64-x86_64-zeromq mingw-w64-x86_64-libsodium mingw-w64-x86_64-hidapi mingw-w64-x86_64-unbound

    To build for 32-bit Windows:

    pacman -S mingw-w64-i686-toolchain make mingw-w64-i686-cmake mingw-w64-i686-boost mingw-w64-i686-openssl mingw-w64-i686-zeromq mingw-w64-i686-libsodium mingw-w64-i686-hidapi mingw-w64-i686-unbound
  • Open the MingW shell via

    MinGW-w64-Win64 Shell
    shortcut on 64-bit Windows or
    MinGW-w64-Win64 Shell
    shortcut on 32-bit Windows. Note that if you are running 64-bit Windows, you will have both 64-bit and 32-bit MinGW shells.


  • To git clone, run:

    git clone


  • Change to the cloned directory, run:

    cd sumokoin
  • If you would like a specific version/tag, do a git checkout for that version. eg. 'v0.8.0.0'. If you don't care about the version and just want binaries from master, skip this step:

    git checkout v0.8.0.0
  • If you are on a 64-bit system, run:

    make release-static-win64
  • If you are on a 32-bit system, run:

    make release-static-win32
  • The resulting executables can be found in

  • Optional: to build Windows binaries suitable for debugging on a 64-bit system, run:

    make debug-static-win64
  • Optional: to build Windows binaries suitable for debugging on a 32-bit system, run:

    make debug-static-win32
  • The resulting executables can be found in


On FreeBSD:

The project can be built from scratch by following instructions for Linux above(but use

instead of
). If you are running Sumokoin in a jail, you need to add
to your jail configuration, otherwise lmdb will throw the error message:
Failed to open lmdb environment: Function not implemented

On OpenBSD:

You will need to add a few packages to your system.

pkg_add cmake gmake zeromq libiconv boost


packages are optional and require the xbase set. Running the test suite also requires

Build sumokoin:

env DEVELOPER_LOCAL_TOOLS=1 BOOST_ROOT=/usr/local gmake release-static

Note: you may encounter the following error, when compiling the latest version of sumokoin as a normal user:

LLVM ERROR: out of memory
c++: error: unable to execute command: Abort trap (core dumped)

Then you need to increase the data ulimit size to 2GB and try again:

ulimit -d 2000000

On NetBSD:

Check that the dependencies are present:

pkg_info -c libexecinfo boost-headers boost-libs protobuf readline libusb1 zeromq git-base pkgconf gmake cmake | more
, and install any that are reported missing, using
or from your pkgsrc tree. Readline is optional but worth having.

Third-party dependencies are usually under

, but if you have a custom setup, adjust the "/usr/pkg" (below) accordingly.

Clone the sumokoin repository and checkout the most recent release as described above. Then build sumokoin:

gmake BOOST_ROOT=/usr/pkg LDFLAGS="-Wl,-R/usr/pkg/lib" release
. The resulting executables can be found in
build/NetBSD/[Release version]/Release/bin/

On Solaris:

The default Solaris linker can't be used, you have to install GNU ld, then run cmake manually with the path to your copy of GNU ld:

mkdir -p build/release
cd build/release
cmake -DCMAKE_LINKER=/path/to/ld -D CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release ../..
cd ../..

Then you can run make as usual.

Building portable statically linked binaries

By default, in either dynamically or statically linked builds, binaries target the specific host processor on which the build happens and are not portable to other processors. Portable binaries can be built using the following targets:

  • make release-static-linux-x86_64
    builds binaries on Linux on x8664 portable across POSIX systems on x8664 processors
  • make release-static-linux-i686
    builds binaries on Linux on x86_64 or i686 portable across POSIX systems on i686 processors
  • make release-static-linux-armv8
    builds binaries on Linux portable across POSIX systems on armv8 processors
  • make release-static-linux-armv7
    builds binaries on Linux portable across POSIX systems on armv7 processors
  • make release-static-linux-armv6
    builds binaries on Linux portable across POSIX systems on armv6 processors
  • make release-static-win64
    builds binaries on 64-bit Windows portable across 64-bit Windows systems
  • make release-static-win32
    builds binaries on 64-bit or 32-bit Windows portable across 32-bit Windows systems

Cross Compiling

You can also cross-compile static binaries on Linux for Windows and macOS with the

system. Read more at contrib/depends/
  • make depends target=x86_64-linux-gnu
    for 64-bit linux binaries.
  • make depends target=x86_64-w64-mingw32
    for 64-bit windows binaries.
    • Requires:
      python3 g++-mingw-w64-x86-64 wine1.6 bc
  • make depends target=x86_64-apple-darwin14
    for macOS binaries.
    • Requires:
      cmake imagemagick libcap-dev librsvg2-bin libz-dev libbz2-dev libtiff-tools python-dev python-pip
      , and
      pip install setuptools
  • make depends target=i686-linux-gnu
    for 32-bit linux binaries.
    • Requires:
      g++-multilib bc
  • make depends target=i686-w64-mingw32
    for 32-bit windows binaries.
    • Requires:
      python3 g++-mingw-w64-i686
  • make depends target=arm-linux-gnueabihf
    for armv7 binaries.
    • Requires:
  • make depends target=aarch64-linux-gnu
    for armv8 binaries.
    • Requires:
  • make depends target=riscv64-linux-gnu
    for RISC V 64 bit binaries.
    • Requires:
  • make depends target=x86_64-unknown-freebsd
    for FreeBSD 64-bit binaries.
    • Requires:
  • make depends target=arm-linux-android
    for 32bit android binaries
  • make depends target=aarch64-linux-android
    for 64bit android binaries

The required packages are the names for each toolchain on apt. Depending on your distro, they may have different names.


might also be easier to compile Sumokoin on Windows than using MSYS. Activate Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) with a distro (for example Ubuntu), install the apt
and follow the
steps as depicted above.

The produced binaries still link libc dynamically. If the binary is compiled on a current distribution, it might not run on an older distribution with an older installation of libc. Passing

to cmake will make sure that the binary will run on systems having at least libc version 2.17.

Running sumokoind

The build places the binary in

sub-directory within the build directory from which cmake was invoked (repository root by default). To run in foreground:

To list all available options, run

./bin/sumokoind --help
. Options can be specified either on the command line or in a configuration file passed by the
argument. To specify an option in the configuration file, add a line with the syntax
, where
is the name of the argument without the leading dashes, for example

To run in background:

    ./bin/sumokoind --log-file sumokoind.log --detach

To run as a systemd service, copy sumokoind.service to

and sumokoind.conf to
. The example service assumes that the user
exists and its home is the data directory specified in the example config.

If you're on Mac, you may need to add the

--max-concurrency 1
option to sumo-wallet-cli, and possibly sumokoind, if you get crashes refreshing.

Using Tor

There is a new, still experimental, integration with Tor. The feature allows connecting over IPv4 and Tor simulatenously - IPv4 is used for relaying blocks and relaying transactions received by peers whereas Tor is used solely for relaying transactions received over local RPC. This provides privacy and better protection against surrounding node (sybil) attacks.

While Sumokoin isn't made to integrate with Tor, it can be used wrapped with torsocks, by setting the following configuration parameters and environment variables:

  • --p2p-bind-ip
    on the command line or
    in sumokoind.conf to disable listening for connections on external interfaces.
  • --no-igd
    on the command line or
    in sumokoind.conf to disable IGD (UPnP port forwarding negotiation), which is pointless with Tor.
  • DNS_PUBLIC=tcp
    where x.x.x.x is the IP of the desired DNS server, for DNS requests to go over TCP, so that they are routed through Tor. When IP is not specified, sumokoind uses the default list of servers defined in src/common/dns_utils.cpp.
    to tell torsocks to allow sumokoind to bind to interfaces to accept connections from the wallet. On some Linux systems, torsocks allows binding to localhost by default, so setting this variable is only necessary to allow binding to local LAN/VPN interfaces to allow wallets to connect from remote hosts. On other systems, it may be needed for local wallets as well.
  • Do NOT pass
    when running through torsocks with systemd, (see utils/systemd/sumokoind.service for details).
  • If you use the wallet with a Tor daemon via the loopback IP (eg,, then use
    unless it is your own hidden service.

Example command line to start sumokoind through Tor:

DNS_PUBLIC=tcp torsocks sumokoind --p2p-bind-ip --no-igd

Using Tor on Tails

TAILS ships with a very restrictive set of firewall rules. Therefore, you need to add a rule to allow this connection too, in addition to telling torsocks to allow inbound connections. Full example:

    sudo iptables -I OUTPUT 2 -p tcp -d -m tcp --dport 19734 -j ACCEPT
    DNS_PUBLIC=tcp torsocks ./sumokoind --p2p-bind-ip --no-igd --rpc-bind-ip \
        --data-dir /home/amnesia/Persistent/your/directory/to/the/blockchain


As of June 2021, The full Sumokoin blockchain file is on about 22 GB. One can store a pruned blockchain, which is less than one fourth in size from the full blockchain size (June 2020 4.6 GB). A pruned blockchain can only serve part of the historical chain data to other peers, but is otherwise identical in functionality to the full blockchain. To use a pruned blockchain, it is best to start the initial sync with --pruned-blockchain. However, it is also possible to prune an existing blockchain using the sumo-blockchain-prune tool or using the --pruned-blockchain sumokoind option with an existing chain. If an existing chain exists, pruning will temporarily require disk space to store both the full and pruned blockchains.


This section contains general instructions for debugging failed installs or problems encountered with Sumokoin. First, ensure you are running the latest version built from the Github repo.

Obtaining stack traces and core dumps on Unix systems

We generally use the tool

(GNU debugger) to provide stack trace functionality, and
to provide core dumps in builds which crash or segfault.
  • To use
    in order to obtain a stack trace for a build that has stalled:

Run the build.

Once it stalls, enter the following command:

gdb /path/to/sumokoind `pidof sumokoind`


thread apply all bt
within gdb in order to obtain the stack trace
  • If however the core dumps or segfaults:


ulimit -c unlimited
on the command line to enable unlimited filesizes for core dumps


echo core | sudo tee /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern
to stop cores from being hijacked by other tools

Run the build.

When it terminates with an output along the lines of "Segmentation fault (core dumped)", there should be a core dump file in the same directory as sumokoind. It may be named just

, or
with numbers appended.

You can now analyse this core dump with

as follows:
gdb /path/to/sumokoind /path/to/dumpfile

Print the stack trace with

  • If a program crashed and cores are managed by systemd, the following can also get a stack trace for that crash:
coredumpctl -1 gdb

To run sumokoin within gdb:


gdb /path/to/sumokoind

Pass command-line options with

followed by the relevant arguments


to run sumokoind

Analysing memory corruption

There are two tools available:


Configure Sumokoin with the -D SANITIZE=ON cmake flag, eg:

cd build/debug && cmake -D SANITIZE=ON -D CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug ../..

You can then run the Sumokoin tools normally. Performance will typically halve.


Install valgrind and run as

valgrind /path/to/sumokoind
. It will be very slow.


Instructions for debugging suspected blockchain corruption as per @HYC

There is an

command in the LMDB source that can print statistics about the database but it's not routinely built. This can be built with the following command:
cd ~/sumokoin/src/lmdb/db_drivers/liblmdb && make

The output of

mdb_stat -ea 
will indicate inconsistencies in the blocks, blockheights and blockinfo table.

The output of

mdb_dump -s blocks 
mdb_dump -s block_info 
is useful for indicating whether blocks and block_info contain the same keys.

These records are dumped as hex data, where the first line is the key and the second line is the data.

Known Issues



Because of the nature of the socket-based protocols that drive sumokoin, certain protocol weaknesses are somewhat unavoidable at this time. While these weaknesses can theoretically be fully mitigated, the effort required (the means) may not justify the ends. As such, please consider taking the following precautions if you are a sumokoin node operator:

  • Run
    on a "secured" machine. If operational security is not your forte, at a very minimum, have a dedicated a computer running
    and do not browse the web, use email clients, or use any other potentially harmful apps on your
    machine. Do not click links or load URL/MUA content on the same machine. Doing so may potentially exploit weaknesses in commands which accept "localhost" and "".
  • If you plan on hosting a public "remote" node, start
    . This is a must.


Certain blockchain "features" can be considered "bugs" if misused correctly. Consequently, please consider the following:

  • When receiving sumokoin, be aware that it may be locked for an arbitrary time if the sender elected to, preventing you from spending that sumokoin until the lock time expires. You may want to hold off acting upon such a transaction until the unlock time lapses. To get a sense of that time, you can consider the remaining blocktime until unlock as seen in the

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