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stripe-ctf
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Description

Many-armed network simulator

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Octopus

A network simulator built on UNIX sockets.

Usage

Octopus has usage documentation which can be retrieved by typing

octopus -h

If you're attempting to test

sqlcluster
, however, you probably want to use the
test/harness
distributed with the
sqlcluster
source: it will provide options to Octopus that closely resemble the CTF testing environment.

One of the characteristic features of distributed systems is their nondeterminism, and Octopus cannot produce completely deterministic network simulations. That being said, Octopus will make an effort to provide similar results when run twice with the same seed value and other parameters.

Design

Octopus attempts to simulate a variable-latency and lossy fully-connected network topology between N hosts. It will never violate TCP-like behavior: all bytes that arrive at the destination are guaranteed to arrive in the order they were sent, without any data corruption along the way. That being said, Octopus is free to split up the byte stream in whatever way it desires, to arbitrarily delay the stream, or to close the stream at any point (discarding any traffic that was "in-flight" at the time).

Octopus has two primary design goals:

  1. To simulate both connection-level and network-level events. A simple network simulator might simulate each network link individually, with every connection failing independently. However, this poorly models real network events, where failures are highly correlated. For instance, a network split will cause some of the nodes to be able to communicate amongst themselves, but not with the nodes on the other side of the split.

  2. To provide roughly-reproducible results. In particular, the system should be architected in such a way that running it twice with the same seed on agents with roughly the same communication pattern will exercise similar code paths and trigger similar application-level bugs.

To satisfy these goals, Octopus has two primary object types: a single network director, and several point-to-point connections.

We model the network as a completely connected graph between N nodes, where each edge represents a connection. Each connection has an associated delay and queue size, which represents the latency of the connection between the nodes and the (rough) number of bytes that are allowed to be in-flight at any point in time respectively. Furthermore, each connection has a flag that represents whether it is currently connected. The network as a whole, then, can be described as a state machine over the states of each of its N(N-1)/2 connections.

The network director, then, is simply a process which randomly selects a sequence of state transitions and times at which they occur. These network events can be point mutations (changing the latency of a single link, for instance) or bulk operations (disrupting the network along some split). And since the director's state transitions represent the bulk of the nondeterminism in the system, seeding its random number generator is sufficient to produce roughly reproducible network traces.

One side effect of modeling node-to-node connection state as opposed to the state of individual transport-level connections is that if node A makes a lot of connections to node B, they will all exhibit similar latency, and all fail at roughly the same time. It's unclear if this it at all realistic, but the reproducibility benefits we get from node-to-node state probably outweighs the cost of the unrealism.

Monkeys

The network director controls several monkeys, whose job it is to wreak havok across the network in a particular way:

  • The Latency Monkey selects a single network link and manipulates its latency.
  • The Jitter Monkey selects a single network link and manipulates its latency jitter (Octopus uses "jitter" to refer to random perturbations added to the base latency. A connection with higher jitter will have more variance in the latency of individual chunks of data).
  • The Lag Split Monkey partitions the agents into two groups and makes connections between agents in different partitions significantly slower for some amount of time.
  • The Link Monkey selects a single network link and terminates it (dropping any in-flight data). It also prohibits new connections for some period of time.
  • The Net Split Monkey partitions the agents into two groups and terminates any network links between agents in different halves of the partition. It also prohibits new connections for some period of time.
  • The Freeze Monkey freezes an agent in place (similar to pressing
    Ctrl-Z
    in a terminal) for some period of time.
  • The Murder Monkey kills an agent's process and respawns it after some period of time.
  • The SPOF Monkey tries to detect if a node is a single point of failure by netsplitting it away from the rest of the cluster. It only restores network access to that node if the remainder of the cluster can make progress without it.

Each monkey enters the fray after some set delay, and will act in a Poisson fashion until the Octopus run terminates.

Each monkey is also controlled by an ambient "intensity," which is a number that oscillates sinusoidally between 0 and 1, starting at 0, with a period of 30 seconds. Each monkey treats intensity differently, but in most cases they will act less severely (or not at all) when intensity is low, and will unleash their full fury when intensity is highest.

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