Need help with cocoa?
Click the “chat” button below for chat support from the developer who created it, or find similar developers for support.

About the developer

134 Stars 58 Forks 1.9K Commits 2 Opened issues


Framework for learning dialogue agents in a two-player game setting.

Services available


Need anything else?

Contributors list

CoCoA (Collaborative Communicating Agents)

CoCoA is a dialogue framework written in Python, providing tools for data collection through a text-based chat interface and model development in PyTorch (largely based on OpenNMT).

This repo contains code for the following tasks: - MutualFriends: two agents, each with a private list of friends with multiple attributes (e.g. school, company), try to find their mutual friends through a conversation. - CraigslistBargain: a buyer and a seller negotiate the price of an item for sale on Craigslist. - DealOrNoDeal: two agents negotiate to split a group of items with different points among them. The items are books, hats and balls.

Papers: - Learning Symmetric Collaborative Dialogue Agents with Dynamic Knowledge Graph Embeddings. He He, Anusha Balakrishnan, Mihail Eric and Percy Liang. Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL), 2017. - Decoupling Strategy and Generation in Negotiation Dialogues. He He, Derek Chen, Anusha Balakrishnan and Percy Liang. Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP), 2018.

Note: We have not fully integrated the MutualFriends task with the

package. For now please refer to the
branch for the ACL 2017 paper.


Dependencies: Python 2.7, PyTorch 0.4.1.

NOTE: MutualFriends still depends on Tensorflow 1.2 and uses different leanring modules. See details on the

pip install -r requirements.txt
python develop

Main concepts/classes

Schema and scenarios

A dialogue is grounded in a scenario. A schema defines the structure of scenarios. For example, a simple scenario that specifies the dialogue topic is

| Topic | | -------- | | Artificial Intelligence |

and its schema (in JSON) is

    "attributes": [
        "value_type": "topic",
        "name": "Topic"

Systems and sessions

A dialogue agent is instantiated in a session which receives and sends messages. A system is used to create multiple sessions (that may run in parallel) of a specific agent type. For example,

system = NeuralSystem(model)
loads a trained model and
is called to create a new session whenever a human user is available to chat.

Events and controllers

A dialogue controller takes two sessions and have them send/receive events until the task is finished or terminated. The most common event is

, which sends some text data. There are also task-related events, such as
in MutualFriends, which sends the selected item.

Examples and datasets

A dialogue is represented as an example which has a scenario, a series of events, and some metadata (e.g. example id). Examples can be read from / write to a JSON file in the following structure:

|  |--"uuid": ""
|  |--"scenario_uuid": ""
|  |--"scenario": "{scenario dict}"
|  |--"agents": {0: "agent type", 1: "agent type"}
|  |--"outcome": {"reward": R}
|  |--"events"
|     |--[j]
|        |--"action": "action"
|        |--"data": "event data"
|        |--"agent": agent_id
|        |--"time": "event sent time"
A dataset reads in training and testing examples from JSON files.

Code organization

CoCoA is designed to be modular so that one can add their own task/modules easily. All tasks depend on the

pacakge. See documentation in the task folder for task-specific details.

Data collection

We provide basic infrastructure (see

) to set up a website that pairs two users or a user and a bot to chat in a given scenario.

Generate scenarios

The first step is to create a

schema file and then (randomly) generate a set of scenarios that the dialogue will be situated in.

Setup the web server

The website pairs a user with another user or a bot (if available). A dialogue scenario is displayed and the two agents can chat with each other. Users are then directed to a survey to rate their partners (optional). All dialogue events are logged in a SQL database.

Our server is built by Flask. The backend (

) contains code for pairing, logging, dialogue quality check. The frontend code is in

To deploy the web server, run

cd ;
PYTHONPATH=. python web/ --port  --config web/app_params.json --schema-path  --scenarios-path  --output 
- Data and log will be saved in
. Important: note that this will delete everything in 
 if it's not empty.
: total number of scenarios to sample from. Each scenario will have
num_HITs / num_scenarios
chats. You can also specify ratios of number of chats for each system in the config file. Note that the final result will be an approximation of these numbers due to concurrent database calls.

To collect data from Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), workers should be directed to the link

makes sure that workers will receive a Mturk code at the end of the task to submit the HIT.

Dump the database

Dump data from the SQL database to a JSON file (see Examples and datasets for the JSON structure).

cd ;
PYTHONPATH=. python ../scripts/web/ --db /chat_state.db --output /transcripts/transcripts.json --surveys /transcripts/surveys.json --schema  --scenarios-path  
Render JSON transcript to HTML:
PYTHONPATH=. python ../scripts/ --dialogue-transcripts  --html-output  --css-file ../chat_viewer/css/my.css
Other options for HTML visualization: -
: path to
if survey is enabled during data collection. -
: only visualize dialgoues with submitted surveys. -
: statistics of the dialogues.

Dialogue agents

To add an agent for a task, you need to implement a system

and a session

Model training and testing

See documentation in the under each task (e.g.,



To deploy bots to the web interface, add the

field in the website config file, e.g.
"models": {
    "rulebased": {
        "active": true,
        "type": "rulebased",
See also set up the web server.

We use cookies. If you continue to browse the site, you agree to the use of cookies. For more information on our use of cookies please see our Privacy Policy.