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API-Security-Checklist

by shieldfy

Checklist of the most important security countermeasures when designing, testing, and releasing your...

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API Security Checklist

Checklist of the most important security countermeasures when designing, testing, and releasing your API.


Authentication

  • [] Don't use
    Basic Auth
    . Use standard authentication instead (e.g. JWT, OAuth).
  • [] Don't reinvent the wheel in
    Authentication
    ,
    token generation
    ,
    password storage
    . Use the standards.
  • [] Use
    Max Retry
    and jail features in Login.
  • [] Use encryption on all sensitive data.

JWT (JSON Web Token)

  • [] Use a random complicated key (
    JWT Secret
    ) to make brute forcing the token very hard.
  • [] Don't extract the algorithm from the header. Force the algorithm in the backend (
    HS256
    or
    RS256
    ).
  • [] Make token expiration (
    TTL
    ,
    RTTL
    ) as short as possible.
  • [] Don't store sensitive data in the JWT payload, it can be decoded easily.

OAuth

  • [] Always validate
    redirect\_uri
    server-side to allow only whitelisted URLs.
  • [] Always try to exchange for code and not tokens (don't allow
    response\_type=token
    ).
  • [] Use
    state
    parameter with a random hash to prevent CSRF on the OAuth authentication process.
  • [] Define the default scope, and validate scope parameters for each application.

Access

  • [] Limit requests (Throttling) to avoid DDoS / brute-force attacks.
  • [] Use HTTPS on server side to avoid MITM (Man in the Middle Attack).
  • [] Use
    HSTS
    header with SSL to avoid SSL Strip attack.

Input

  • [] Use the proper HTTP method according to the operation:
    GET (read)
    ,
    POST (create)
    ,
    PUT/PATCH (replace/update)
    , and
    DELETE (to delete a record)
    , and respond with
    405 Method Not Allowed
    if the requested method isn't appropriate for the requested resource.
  • [] Validate
    content-type
    on request Accept header (Content Negotiation) to allow only your supported format (e.g.
    application/xml
    ,
    application/json
    , etc.) and respond with
    406 Not Acceptable
    response if not matched.
  • [] Validate
    content-type
    of posted data as you accept (e.g.
    application/x-www-form-urlencoded
    ,
    multipart/form-data
    ,
    application/json
    , etc.).
  • [] Validate user input to avoid common vulnerabilities (e.g.
    XSS
    ,
    SQL-Injection
    ,
    Remote Code Execution
    , etc.).
  • [] Don't use any sensitive data (
    credentials
    ,
    Passwords
    ,
    security tokens
    , or
    API keys
    ) in the URL, but use standard Authorization header.
  • [] Use an API Gateway service to enable caching, Rate Limit policies (e.g.
    Quota
    ,
    Spike Arrest
    , or
    Concurrent Rate Limit
    ) and deploy APIs resources dynamically.

Processing

  • [] Check if all the endpoints are protected behind authentication to avoid broken authentication process.
  • [] User own resource ID should be avoided. Use
    /me/orders
    instead of
    /user/654321/orders
    .
  • [] Don't auto-increment IDs. Use
    UUID
    instead.
  • [] If you are parsing XML files, make sure entity parsing is not enabled to avoid
    XXE
    (XML external entity attack).
  • [] If you are parsing XML files, make sure entity expansion is not enabled to avoid
    Billion Laughs/XML bomb
    via exponential entity expansion attack.
  • [] Use a CDN for file uploads.
  • [] If you are dealing with huge amount of data, use Workers and Queues to process as much as possible in background and return response fast to avoid HTTP Blocking.
  • [] Do not forget to turn the DEBUG mode OFF.

Output

  • [] Send
    X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
    header.
  • [] Send
    X-Frame-Options: deny
    header.
  • [] Send
    Content-Security-Policy: default-src 'none'
    header.
  • [] Remove fingerprinting headers -
    X-Powered-By
    ,
    Server
    ,
    X-AspNet-Version
    , etc.
  • [] Force
    content-type
    for your response. If you return
    application/json
    , then your
    content-type
    response is
    application/json
    .
  • [] Don't return sensitive data like
    credentials
    ,
    Passwords
    , or
    security tokens
    .
  • [] Return the proper status code according to the operation completed. (e.g.
    200 OK
    ,
    400 Bad Request
    ,
    401 Unauthorized
    ,
    405 Method Not Allowed
    , etc.).

CI & CD

  • [] Audit your design and implementation with unit/integration tests coverage.
  • [] Use a code review process and disregard self-approval.
  • [] Ensure that all components of your services are statically scanned by AV software before pushing to production, including vendor libraries and other dependencies.
  • [] Design a rollback solution for deployments.

See also:


Contribution

Feel free to contribute by forking this repository, making some changes, and submitting pull requests. For any questions drop us an email at

[email protected]

.

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