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fd

by sharkdp

sharkdp /fd

A simple, fast and user-friendly alternative to 'find'

14.1K Stars 361 Forks Last release: about 2 months ago (v8.1.1) Other 660 Commits 23 Releases

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fd

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fd is a simple, fast and user-friendly alternative tofind.

While it does not seek to mirror all of find's powerful functionality, it provides sensible (opinionated) defaults for 80% of the use cases.

Features

  • Convenient syntax:
    fd PATTERN
    instead of
    find -iname '\*PATTERN\*'
    .
  • Colorized terminal output (similar to ls).
  • It's fast (see benchmarks below).
  • Smart case: the search is case-insensitive by default. It switches to case-sensitive if the pattern contains an uppercase character*.
  • Ignores hidden directories and files, by default.
  • Ignores patterns from your
    .gitignore
    , by default.
  • Regular expressions.
  • Unicode-awareness.
  • The command name is 50% shorter* than
    find
    :-).
  • Parallel command execution with a syntax similar to GNU Parallel.

Demo

Demo

Benchmark

Let's search my home folder for files that end in

[0-9].jpg

. It contains ~190.000 subdirectories and about a million files. For averaging and statistical analysis, I'm usinghyperfine. The following benchmarks are performed with a "warm"/pre-filled disk-cache (results for a "cold" disk-cache show the same trends).

Let's start with

find

: ``` Benchmark #1: find ~ -iregex '.*[0-9].jpg$'

Time (mean ± σ): 7.236 s ± 0.090 s

Range (min … max): 7.133 s … 7.385 s ```

find

is much faster if it does not need to perform a regular-expression search: ``` Benchmark #2: find ~ -iname '*[0-9].jpg'

Time (mean ± σ): 3.914 s ± 0.027 s

Range (min … max): 3.876 s … 3.964 s ```

Now let's try the same for

fd

. Note that

fd

always performs a regular expression search. The options

--hidden

and

--no-ignore

are needed for a fair comparison, otherwise

fd

does not have to traverse hidden folders and ignored paths (see below): ``` Benchmark #3: fd -HI '.*[0-9].jpg$' ~

Time (mean ± σ): 811.6 ms ± 26.9 ms

Range (min … max): 786.0 ms … 870.7 ms ``

For this particular example,

fd

is approximately nine times faster than

find -iregex

and about five times faster than

find -iname`. By the way, both tools found the exact same 20880 files :smile:.

Finally, let's run

fd

without

--hidden

and

--no-ignore

(this can lead to different search results, of course). If fd does not have to traverse the hidden and git-ignored folders, it is almost an order of magnitude faster: ``` Benchmark #4: fd '[0-9].jpg$' ~

Time (mean ± σ): 123.7 ms ± 6.0 ms

Range (min … max): 118.8 ms … 140.0 ms ```

Note: This is one particular benchmark on one particular machine. While I have performed quite a lot of different tests (and found consistent results), things might be different for you! I encourage everyone to try it out on their own. Seethis repository for all necessary scripts.

Concerning fd's speed, the main credit goes to the

regex

and

ignore

crates that are also used in ripgrep (check it out!).

Colorized output

fd

can colorize files by extension, just like

ls

. In order for this to work, the environment variable [

LS\_COLORS

](https://linux.die.net/man/5/dir_colors) has to be set. Typically, the value of this variable is set by the

dircolors

command which provides a convenient configuration format to define colors for different file formats. On most distributions,

LS\_COLORS

should be set already. If you are on Windows or if you are looking for alternative, more complete (or more colorful) variants, see here,here orhere.

fd

also honors the [

NO\_COLOR

](https://no-color.org/) environment variable.

Parallel command execution

If the

-x

/

--exec

option is specified alongside a command template, a job pool will be created for executing commands in parallel for each discovered path as the input. The syntax for generating commands is similar to that of GNU Parallel:

{}

: A placeholder token that will be replaced with the path of the search result (

documents/images/party.jpg

).

{.}

: Like

{}

, but without the file extension (

documents/images/party

).

{/}

: A placeholder that will be replaced by the basename of the search result (

party.jpg

).

{//}

: Uses the parent of the discovered path (

documents/images

).

{/.}

: Uses the basename, with the extension removed (

party

).

# Convert all jpg files to png files: fd -e jpg -x convert {} {.}.png # Unpack all zip files (if no placeholder is given, the path is appended): fd -e zip -x unzip # Convert all flac files into opus files: fd -e flac -x ffmpeg -i {} -c:a libopus {.}.opus # Count the number of lines in Rust files (the command template can be terminated with ';'): fd -x wc -l \; -e rs

The number of threads used for command execution can be set with the

--threads

/

-j

option.

Installation

Packaging status

On Ubuntu

... and other Debian-based Linux distributions.

If you run Ubuntu 19.04 (Disco Dingo) or newer, you can install theofficially maintained package:

sudo apt install fd-find

Note that the binary is called

fdfind

as the binary name

fd

is already used by another package. It is recommended that you add an

alias fd=fdfind

to your shells initialization file, in order to use

fd

in the same way as in this documentation.

If you use an older version of Ubuntu, you can download the latest

.deb

package from therelease page and install it via:

bash sudo dpkg -i fd\_8.1.0\_amd64.deb # adapt version number and architecture

On Debian

If you run Debian Buster or newer, you can install theofficially maintained Debian package:

sudo apt-get install fd-find

Note that the binary is called

fdfind

as the binary name

fd

is already used by another package. It is recommended that you add an

alias fd=fdfind

to your shells initialization file, in order to use

fd

in the same way as in this documentation.

On Fedora

Starting with Fedora 28, you can install

fd

from the official package sources:

bash dnf install fd-find

For older versions, you can use this Fedora copr to install

fd

:

bash dnf copr enable keefle/fd dnf install fd

On Alpine Linux

You can install the fd packagefrom the official sources, provided you have the appropriate repository enabled:

apk add fd

On Arch Linux

You can install the fd package from the official repos:

pacman -S fd

On Gentoo Linux

You can use the fd ebuild from the official repo:

emerge -av fd

On openSUSE Linux

You can install the fd package from the official repo:

zypper in fd

On Void Linux

You can install

fd

via xbps-install:

xbps-install -S fd

On macOS

You can install

fd

with Homebrew:

brew install fd

… or with MacPorts:

sudo port install fd

On Windows

You can download pre-built binaries from the release page.

Alternatively, you can install

fd

via Scoop:

scoop install fd

Or via Chocolatey:

choco install fd

On NixOS / via Nix

You can use the Nix package manager to install

fd

:

nix-env -i fd

On FreeBSD

You can install the fd-find package from the official repo:

pkg install fd-find

From NPM

On linux and macOS, you can install the fd-find package:

npm install -g fd-find

From source

With Rust's package manager cargo, you can install fd via:

cargo install fd-find

Note that rust version 1.36.0 or later is required.

From binaries

The release page includes precompiled binaries for Linux, macOS and Windows.

Development

git clone https://github.com/sharkdp/fd # Build cd fd cargo build # Run unit tests and integration tests cargo test # Install cargo install

Command-line options

USAGE: fd [FLAGS/OPTIONS] [<pattern>] [<path>...]

FLAGS:
    -H, --hidden Search hidden files and directories
    -I, --no-ignore Do not respect .(git|fd)ignore files
    -s, --case-sensitive Case-sensitive search (default: smart case)
    -i, --ignore-case Case-insensitive search (default: smart case)
    -g, --glob Glob-based search (default: regular expression)
    -a, --absolute-path Show absolute instead of relative paths
    -l, --list-details Use a long listing format with file metadata
    -L, --follow Follow symbolic links
    -p, --full-path Search full path (default: file-/dirname only)
    -0, --print0 Separate results by the null character
    -h, --help Prints help information
    -V, --version Prints version information

OPTIONS:
    -d, --max-depth <depth> Set maximum search depth (default: none)
    -t, --type <filetype>... Filter by type: file (f), directory (d), symlink (l),
                                       executable (x), empty (e), socket (s), pipe (p)
    -e, --extension <ext>... Filter by file extension
    -x, --exec <cmd> Execute a command for each search result
    -X, --exec-batch <cmd> Execute a command with all search results at once
    -E, --exclude <pattern>... Exclude entries that match the given glob pattern
    -c, --color <when> When to use colors: never, *auto*, always
    -S, --size <size>... Limit results based on the size of files.
        --changed-within <date> Filter by file modification time (newer than)
        --changed-before <date> Filter by file modification time (older than)

ARGS:
    <pattern> the search pattern - a regular expression unless '--glob' is used (optional)
    <path>... the root directory for the filesystem search (optional)
</path></pattern></date></date></size></when></pattern></cmd></cmd></ext></filetype></depth></path></pattern>

This is the output of

fd -h

. To see the full set of command-line options, use

fd --help

which also includes a much more detailed help text.

Tutorial

First, to get an overview of all available command line options, you can either run

fd -h

for a concise help message (see above) or

fd --help

for a more detailed version.

Simple search

fd is designed to find entries in your filesystem. The most basic search you can perform is to run fd with a single argument: the search pattern. For example, assume that you want to find an old script of yours (the name included

netflix

): ``` bash

fd netfl Software/python/imdb-ratings/netflix-details.py ``

If called with just a single argument like this, \*fd\* searches the current directory recursively for any entries that \*contain\* the pattern

netfl`.

Regular expression search

The search pattern is treated as a regular expression. Here, we search for entries that start with

x

and end with

rc

: ``` bash

cd /etc fd '^x.*rc$' X11/xinit/xinitrc X11/xinit/xserverrc ```

Specifying the root directory

If we want to search a specific directory, it can be given as a second argument to fd: ``` bash

fd passwd /etc /etc/default/passwd /etc/pam.d/passwd /etc/passwd ```

Running fd without any arguments

fd can be called with no arguments. This is very useful to get a quick overview of all entries in the current directory, recursively (similar to

ls -R

): ``` bash

cd fd/tests fd testenv testenv/mod.rs tests.rs ```

If you want to use this functionality to list all files in a given directory, you have to use a catch-all pattern such as

.

or

^

: ``` bash

fd . fd/tests/ testenv testenv/mod.rs tests.rs ```

Searching for a particular file extension

Often, we are interested in all files of a particular type. This can be done with the

-e

(or

--extension

) option. Here, we search for all Markdown files in the fd repository: ``` bash

cd fd fd -e md CONTRIBUTING.md README.md ```

The

-e

option can be used in combination with a search pattern: ``` bash

fd -e rs mod src/fshelper/mod.rs src/lscolors/mod.rs tests/testenv/mod.rs ```

Hidden and ignored files

By default, fd does not search hidden directories and does not show hidden files in the search results. To disable this behavior, we can use the

-H

(or

--hidden

) option: ``` bash

fd pre-commit fd -H pre-commit .git/hooks/pre-commit.sample ```

If we work in a directory that is a Git repository (or includes Git repositories), fd does not search folders (and does not show files) that match one of the

.gitignore

patterns. To disable this behavior, we can use the

-I

(or

--no-ignore

) option: ``` bash

fd num_cpu fd -I num_cpu target/debug/deps/libnum_cpus-f5ce7ef99006aa05.rlib ```

To really search all files and directories, simply combine the hidden and ignore features to show everything (

-HI

).

Excluding specific files or directories

Sometimes we want to ignore search results from a specific subdirectory. For example, we might want to search all hidden files and directories (

-H

) but exclude all matches from

.git

directories. We can use the

-E

(or

--exclude

) option for this. It takes an arbitrary glob pattern as an argument: ``` bash

fd -H -E .git … ```

We can also use this to skip mounted directories: ``` bash

fd -E /mnt/external-drive … ```

.. or to skip certain file types: ``` bash

fd -E '*.bak' … ```

To make exclude-patterns like these permanent, you can create a

.fdignore

file. They work like

.gitignore

files, but are specific to

fd

. For example: ``` bash

cat ~/.fdignore /mnt/external-drive *.bak ``

Note:

fd

also supports

.ignore

files that are used by other programs such as

rg

or

ag`.

If you want

fd

to ignore these patterns globally, you can put them in

fd

's global ignore file. This is usually located in

~/.config/fd/ignore

in macOS or Linux, and

%APPDATA%\fd\ignore

in Windows.

Using fd with

xargs

or

parallel

If we want to run a command on all search results, we can pipe the output to

xargs

: ``` bash

fd -0 -e rs | xargs -0 wc -l ``

Here, the

-0

option tells \*fd\* to separate search results by the NULL character (instead of newlines). In the same way, the

-0

option of

xargs` tells it to read the input in this way.

Deleting files

You can use

fd

to remove all files and directories that are matched by your search pattern. If you only want to remove files, you can use the

--exec-batch

/

-X

option to call

rm

. For example, to recursively remove all

.DS\_Store

files, run: ``` bash

fd -H '^.DS_Store$' -tf -X rm

If you are unsure, always call `fd` without `-X rm` first. Alternatively, use `rm`s "interactive" option:

bash fd -H '^.DS_Store$' -tf -X rm -i ```

If you also want to remove a certain class of directories, you can use the same technique. You will have to use

rm

s

--recursive

/

-r

flag to remove directories.

Note: there are scenarios where using

fd … -X rm -r

can cause race conditions: if you have a path like

…/foo/bar/foo/…

and want to remove all directories named

foo

, you can end up in a situation where the outer

foo

directory is removed first, leading to (harmless) "'foo/bar/foo': No such file or directory" errors in the

rm

call.

Troubleshooting

fd

does not find my file!

Remember that

fd

ignores hidden directories and files by default. It also ignores patterns from

.gitignore

files. If you want to make sure to find absolutely every possible file, always use the options

-H

and

-I

to disable these two features: ``` bash

fd -HI … ```

fd

doesn't seem to interpret my regex pattern correctly

A lot of special regex characters (like

[]

,

^

,

$

, ..) are also special characters in your shell. If in doubt, always make sure to put single quotes around the regex pattern:

\> fd '^[A-Z][0-9]+$'

If your pattern starts with a dash, you have to add

--

to signal the end of command line options. Otherwise, the pattern will be interpreted as a command-line option. Alternatively, use a character class with a single hyphen character:

\> fd -- '-pattern' \> fd '[-]pattern'

Integration with other programs

Using fd with

fzf

You can use fd to generate input for the command-line fuzzy finder fzf:

bash export FZF\_DEFAULT\_COMMAND='fd --type file' export FZF\_CTRL\_T\_COMMAND="$FZF\_DEFAULT\_COMMAND"

Then, you can type

vim <ctrl-t></ctrl-t>

on your terminal to open fzf and search through the fd-results.

Alternatively, you might like to follow symbolic links and include hidden files (but exclude

.git

folders):

bash export FZF\_DEFAULT\_COMMAND='fd --type file --follow --hidden --exclude .git'

You can even use fd's colored output inside fzf by setting:

bash export FZF\_DEFAULT\_COMMAND="fd --type file --color=always" export FZF\_DEFAULT\_OPTS="--ansi"

For more details, see the Tips section of the fzf README.

Using fd with

emacs

The emacs package find-file-in-project can use fd to find files.

After installing

find-file-in-project

, add the line

(setq ffip-use-rust-fd t)

to your

~/.emacs

or

~/.emacs.d/init.el

file.

In emacs, run

M-x find-file-in-project-by-selected

to find matching files. Alternatively, run

M-x find-file-in-project

to list all available files in the project.

Printing fd's output as a tree

To format the output of

fd

similar to the

tree

command, install [

as-tree

](https://github.com/jez/as-tree) and pipe the output of

fd

to

as-tree

:

bash fd | as-tree

This can be more useful than running

tree

by itself because

tree

does not ignore any files by default, nor does it support as rich a set of options as

fd

does to control what to print:

bash ❯ fd --extension rs | as-tree . ├── build.rs └── src ├── app.rs └── error.rs

For more information about

as-tree

, see [the

as-tree

README](https://github.com/jez/as-tree).

Maintainers

License

Copyright (c) 2017-2020 The fd developers

fd

is distributed under the terms of both the MIT License and the Apache License 2.0.

See the LICENSE-APACHE and LICENSE-MIT files for license details.

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