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Quadsort is a stable adaptive merge sort which is faster than quicksort.

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This document describes a stable bottom-up adaptive merge sort named quadsort.

At the core of quadsort is the quad swap. Traditionally most sorting algorithms have been designed using the binary swap where two variables are sorted using a third temporary variable. This typically looks as following.

c if (val[0] > val[1]) { swap[0] = val[0]; val[0] = val[1]; val[1] = swap[0]; }Instead the quad swap sorts four variables using four swap variables. During the first stage the four variables are partially sorted in the four swap variables, in the second stage they are fully sorted back to the original four variables.

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This process is visualized in the diagram above.

After the first round of sorting a single if check determines if the four swap variables are sorted in-order, if that's the case the swap finishes up immediately. Next it checks if the swap variables are sorted in reverse-order, if that's the case the sort finishes up immediately. If both checks fail the final arrangement is known and two checks remain to determine the final order.

This eliminates 1 wasteful comparison for in-order sequences while creating 1 additional comparison for random sequences. However, in the real world we are rarely comparing truly random data, so in any instance where data is more likely to be orderly than disorderly this shift in probability will give an advantage.

There is also an overall performance increase due to the elimination of wasteful swapping. In C the basic quad swap looks as following: ```c if (val[0] > val[1]) { swap[0] = val[1]; swap[1] = val[0]; } else { swap[0] = val[0]; swap[1] = val[1]; }

if (val[2] > val[3]) { swap[2] = val[3]; swap[3] = val[2]; } else { swap[2] = val[2]; swap[3] = val[3]; }if (swap[1] <= swap[2]) { val[0] = swap[0]; val[1] = swap[1]; val[2] = swap[2]; val[3] = swap[3]; } else if (swap[0] > swap[3]) { val[0] = swap[2]; val[1] = swap[3]; val[2] = swap[0]; val[3] = swap[1]; } else { if (swap[0] <= swap[2]) { val[0] = swap[0]; val[1] = swap[2]; } else { val[0] = swap[2]; val[1] = swap[0]; }

if (swap[1] <= swap[3]) { val[2] = swap[1]; val[3] = swap[3]; } else { val[2] = swap[3]; val[3] = swap[1]; } }

In the case the array cannot be perfectly divided by 4, the tail, existing of 1-3 elements, is sorted using the traditional swap.## In-place quad swap

There are however several problems with the simple quad swap above. If an array is already fully sorted it writes a lot of data back and forth from swap unnecessarily. If an array is fully in reverse order it will change

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1to5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4which reduces the degree of orderliness rather than increasing it.To solve these problems the quad swap needs to be implemented in-place.

## Chain swap

The chain swap is easiest explained with an example. Traditionally many sorts would sort three random values by executing three binary swaps.

`int swap_two(int a, int b, int swap) { swap = a; a = b; b = swap; } int swap_three(int array[], swap) { swap_two(array[0], array[1], swap); swap_two(array[1], array[2], swap); swap_two(array[0], array[1], swap); } </pre> <p>While placing the swap operation </p><pre>swap = a;a = b;b = swap;</pre> on one line might be confusing, it does illustrate the symmetric nature of the assignment better than placing it on three lines. <p>Swapping like this, while convenient, is obviously not the most efficient route to take. So an in-place quadswap implements the sorting of three values as following. </p><pre>c int swap_three(int array[], swap) { if (array[0] > array[1]) { if (array[0] <= array[2]) { swap = array[0]; array[0] = array[1]; array[1] = swap; } else if (array[1] > array[2]) { swap = array[0]; array[0] = array[2]; array[2] = swap; } else { swap = array[0]; array[0] = array[1]; array[1] = array[2]; array[2] = swap; } } else if (array[1] > array[2]) { if (array[0] > array[2]) { swap = array[2]; array[2] = array[1]; array[1] = array[0]; array[0] = swap; } else { swap = array[2]; array[2] = array[1]; array[1] = swap; } } } </pre> While swapping like this takes up a lot more real estate the advantages should be pretty clear. By doing a triple swap you always perform 3 comparisons and up to 3 swaps. By conjoining the three operations you perform only 2 comparisons in the best case and the swaps are chained together turning a worst case of 9 assignments into a worst case of 4. <p>If the array is already in-order no assignments take place.</p> <h2>Reverse order handling</h2> <p>As mentioned previously, reverse order data has a high degree of orderliness and subsequently it can be sorted efficiently. In fact, if a quad swap were to turn <strong>9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</strong> into <strong>6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 1</strong> it would be taking a step backward instead of forward. Reverse order data is typically handled using a simple reversal function, as following. </p><pre>c int reverse(int array[], int start, int end, int swap) { while (start < end) { swap = array[start]; array[start++] = array[end]; array[end--] = swap; } } </pre> While random data can only be sorted using <strong>n log n</strong> comparisons and <strong>n log n</strong> moves, reverse-order data can be sorted using <strong>n</strong> comparisons and <strong>n</strong> moves through run detection. Without run detection the best you can do is sort it in <strong>n</strong> comparisons and <strong>n log n</strong> moves. <p>Run detection, as the name implies, comes with a detection cost. Thanks to the laws of probability a quad swap can cheat however. The chance of 4 random numbers having the order <strong>4 3 2 1</strong> is 1 in 24. So when sorting random blocks of 4 elements, by expanding the sorting network, a quad swap only has to check if it's dealing with a reverse-order run when it encounters a reverse order sequence (like <strong>4 3 2 1</strong>), which for random data occurs in 4.16% of cases.</p> <p>What about run detection for in-order data? While we're turning <strong>n log n</strong> moves into <strong>n</strong> moves with reverse order run detection, we'd be turning <strong>0</strong> moves into <strong>0</strong> moves with forward run detection. There would still be the advantage of only having to check in-order runs in 4.16% of cases. However, the benefit of turning <strong>n log n</strong> moves into <strong>0</strong> moves is so massive that we want to check for in-order runs in 100% of cases.</p> <p>But doing in-order run checks in the quad swap routine is not efficient because that would mean we need to start remembering run lengths and perform other kinds of algorithmic gymnastics. Instead we keep it simple and check in-order runs at a later stage.</p> <p>One last optimization is to write the quad swap in such a way that we can perform a simple check to see if the entire array was in reverse order, if so, the sort is finished. If not, we know the array has been turned into a series of ordered blocks of 4 elements.</p> <h2>Quad merge</h2> <p>In the first stage of quadsort the quad swap is used to pre-sort the array into sorted 4-element blocks as described above.</p> <p>The second stage uses an approach similar to the quad swap, but it's sorting blocks of 4, 16, 64, or more elements.</p> <p>The quad merge can be visualized as following: </p><pre> main memory: [A][B][C][D] swap memory: [A B] step 1 swap memory: [A B][C D] step 2 main memory: [A B C D] step 3 </pre> <p>In the first row quad swap has been used to create 4 blocks of 4 sorted elements each. In the second row, step 1, block A and B have been merged to swap memory into a single sorted block of 8 elements. In the third row, step 2, block C and D have also been merged to swap memory. In the last row, step 3, the blocks are merged back to main memory and we're left with 1 block of 16 sorted elements. The following is a visualization of an array with 64 random elements getting sorted.</p> <p><img src="https://github.com/scandum/quadsort/raw/master/images/quadsort.gif" alt="quadsort visualization"></p> <h2>Skipping</h2> <p>Just like with the quad swap it is beneficial to check whether the 4 blocks are in-order.</p> <p>In the case of the 4 blocks being in-order the merge operation is skipped, as this would be pointless. This does however require an extra if check, and for randomly sorted data this if check becomes increasingly unlikely to be true as the block size increases. Fortunately the frequency of this if check is quartered each loop, while the potential benefit is quadrupled each loop.</p> <p>Because reverse order data is handled in the quad swap there is no need to check for reverse order blocks.</p> <p>In the case only 2 out of 4 blocks are in-order the comparisons in the merge itself are unnecessary and subsequently omitted. The data still needs to be copied to swap memory.</p> <p>This allows quadsort to sort in-order sequences using <strong>n</strong> comparisons instead of <strong>n * log n</strong> comparisons.</p> <h2>Boundary checks</h2> <p>Another issue with the traditional merge sort is that it performs wasteful boundary checks. This looks as following: </p><pre>c while (a <= a_max && b <= b_max) if (a <= b) [insert a++] else [insert b++] </pre> To optimize this quadsort compares the last element of sequence A against the last element of sequence B. If the last element of sequence A is smaller than the last element of sequence B we know that the (b < b_max) if check will always be false because sequence A will be fully merged first. <p>Similarly if the last element of sequence A is greater than the last element of sequence B we know that the (a < a<em>max) if check will always be false. This looks as following: ```c if (val[a</em>max] <= val[b<em>max]) while (a <= a</em>max) { while (a > b) [insert b++] [insert a++] } else while (b <= b_max) { while (a <= b) [insert a++] [insert b++] }`

This unguarded merge optimization is most effective in the final tail merge.

## tail merge

When sorting an array of 65 elements you end up with a sorted array of 64 elements and a sorted array of 1 element in the end. If a program sorts in intervals it should pick an optimal array size (64, 256, 1024, etc) to do so.

Another problem is that a sub-optimal array size results in wasteful swapping. To work around these two problems the quad merge routine is aborted when the block size reaches 1/8th of the array size, and the remainder of the array is sorted using a tail merge.

The main advantage of the tail merge is that it allows reducing the swap space of quadsort to

n / 2and that it has been optimized to merge arrays of different lengths. It also simplifies the quad merge routine which only needs to work on arrays of equal length.## Big O

┌───────────────────────┐┌───────────────────────┐ │comparisons ││swap memory │ ┌───────────────┐├───────┬───────┬───────┤├───────┬───────┬───────┤┌──────┐┌─────────┐┌─────────┐ │name ││min │avg │max ││min │avg │max ││stable││partition││adaptive │ ├───────────────┤├───────┼───────┼───────┤├───────┼───────┼───────┤├──────┤├─────────┤├─────────┤ │mergesort ││n log n│n log n│n log n││n │n │n ││yes ││no ││no │ ├───────────────┤├───────┼───────┼───────┤├───────┼───────┼───────┤├──────┤├─────────┤├─────────┤ │quadsort ││n │n log n│n log n││1 │n │n ││yes ││no ││yes │ ├───────────────┤├───────┼───────┼───────┤├───────┼───────┼───────┤├──────┤├─────────┤├─────────┤ │quicksort ││n │n log n│n² ││1 │1 │1 ││no ││yes ││no │ └───────────────┘└───────┴───────┴───────┘└───────┴───────┴───────┘└──────┘└─────────┘└─────────┘Quadsort makes n comparisons when the data is already sorted or reverse sorted.

## Data Types

The C implementation of quadsort supports long doubles and 8, 16, 32, and 64 bit data types. By using pointers it's possible to sort any other data type.

## Interface

Quadsort uses the same interface as qsort, which is described in man qsort.

## Cache

Because quadsort uses n / 2 swap memory and does not partition its cache utilization is not as ideal as quicksort. Based on my benchmarks it appears that quadsort is faster than in-place sorts for array sizes that do not exhaust the L1 cache, which can be up to 64KB on modern processors.

While quadsort is faster than quicksort it will be slower than a well written hybrid quicksort on larger random distributions. It will beat hybrid quicksorts on ordered distributions.

## Variants

gridsort is a hybrid cubesort / quadsort with improved performance on random data. It is currently the fastest stable comparison sort for random data.

twinsort is a simplified quadsort with a much smaller code size. Twinsort might be of use to people who want to port or understand quadsort; it does not use pointers or gotos.

wolfsort is a hybrid radixsort / quadsort with improved performance on random data. It's mostly a proof of concept that only work on unsigned 32 and 64 bit integers.

fluxsort is a hybrid partition / quadsort with improved performance on random data. It doesn't have its own project page and is just tossed in with the other sorts in the wolfsort benchmark. It has performance similar to gridsort.

octosort is based on quadsort and WikiSort. It operates with O(1) memory with performance similar but slower than quadsort.

In the visualization below four tests are performed. The first test is on a random distribution, the second on an ascending distribution, the third on a descending distribution, and the fourth on an ascending distribution with a random tail.

The upper half shows the swap memory and the bottom half shows the main memory. Colors are used to differentiate between skip, swap, merge, and copy operations.

The following benchmark was on WSL 2 gcc version 7.5.0 (Ubuntu 7.5.0-3ubuntu1~18.04) using the wolfsort benchmark. The source code was compiled using

g++ -O3 -w -fpermissive bench.c. Each test was ran 100 times and only the best run is reported. Stablesort is g++'s std:stablesort function.

Name | Items | Type | Best | Average | Loops | Samples | Distribution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

stablesort | 100000 | 32 | 0.006082 | 0.006121 | 1 | 100 | random order |

quadsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.005745 | 0.005782 | 1 | 100 | random order |

timsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.007605 | 0.007645 | 1 | 100 | random order |

stablesort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000780 | 0.000824 | 1 | 100 | ascending order |

quadsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000052 | 0.000053 | 1 | 100 | ascending order |

timsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000044 | 0.000045 | 1 | 100 | ascending order |

stablesort | 100000 | 32 | 0.001464 | 0.001556 | 1 | 100 | ascending saw |

quadsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000845 | 0.000854 | 1 | 100 | ascending saw |

timsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000849 | 0.000859 | 1 | 100 | ascending saw |

stablesort | 100000 | 32 | 0.003936 | 0.003983 | 1 | 100 | generic order |

quadsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.003620 | 0.003642 | 1 | 100 | generic order |

timsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.005556 | 0.005596 | 1 | 100 | generic order |

stablesort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000900 | 0.000918 | 1 | 100 | descending order |

quadsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000050 | 0.000052 | 1 | 100 | descending order |

timsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000101 | 0.000104 | 1 | 100 | descending order |

stablesort | 100000 | 32 | 0.001091 | 0.001123 | 1 | 100 | descending saw |

quadsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000357 | 0.000365 | 1 | 100 | descending saw |

timsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000458 | 0.000464 | 1 | 100 | descending saw |

stablesort | 100000 | 32 | 0.002150 | 0.002217 | 1 | 100 | random tail |

quadsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.001531 | 0.001543 | 1 | 100 | random tail |

timsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.002000 | 0.002030 | 1 | 100 | random tail |

stablesort | 100000 | 32 | 0.003615 | 0.003674 | 1 | 100 | random half |

quadsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.003034 | 0.003064 | 1 | 100 | random half |

timsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.004027 | 0.004061 | 1 | 100 | random half |

stablesort | 100000 | 32 | 0.001106 | 0.001130 | 1 | 100 | ascending tiles |

quadsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000800 | 0.000811 | 1 | 100 | ascending tiles |

timsort | 100000 | 32 | 0.000824 | 0.000973 | 1 | 100 | ascending tiles |

The following benchmark was on WSL 2 gcc version 7.5.0 (Ubuntu 7.5.0-3ubuntu1~18.04) using the wolfsort benchmark. The source code was compiled using

g++ -O3 -w -fpermissive bench.c. Each test was ran 100 times and only the best run is reported. It measures the performance on random data with array sizes ranging from 16 to 262144.

Name | Items | Type | Best | Average | Loops | Samples | Distribution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

stablesort | 8 | 32 | 0.003131 | 0.003163 | 32768 | 100 | random 8 |

quadsort | 8 | 32 | 0.001940 | 0.001956 | 32768 | 100 | random 8 |

timsort | 8 | 32 | 0.003165 | 0.003389 | 32768 | 100 | random 8 |

stablesort | 16 | 32 | 0.003880 | 0.003923 | 16384 | 100 | random 16 |

quadsort | 16 | 32 | 0.003229 | 0.003248 | 16384 | 100 | random 16 |

timsort | 16 | 32 | 0.004531 | 0.004646 | 16384 | 100 | random 16 |

stablesort | 64 | 32 | 0.005068 | 0.005469 | 4096 | 100 | random 64 |

quadsort | 64 | 32 | 0.004159 | 0.004376 | 4096 | 100 | random 64 |

timsort | 64 | 32 | 0.007023 | 0.007769 | 4096 | 100 | random 64 |

stablesort | 256 | 32 | 0.007124 | 0.007369 | 1024 | 100 | random 256 |

quadsort | 256 | 32 | 0.005686 | 0.006134 | 1024 | 100 | random 256 |

timsort | 256 | 32 | 0.009631 | 0.010303 | 1024 | 100 | random 256 |

stablesort | 1024 | 32 | 0.009412 | 0.009486 | 256 | 100 | random 1024 |

quadsort | 1024 | 32 | 0.008142 | 0.008386 | 256 | 100 | random 1024 |

timsort | 1024 | 32 | 0.012786 | 0.013002 | 256 | 100 | random 1024 |

stablesort | 4096 | 32 | 0.011340 | 0.011397 | 64 | 100 | random 4096 |

quadsort | 4096 | 32 | 0.010569 | 0.010634 | 64 | 100 | random 4096 |

timsort | 4096 | 32 | 0.015296 | 0.015402 | 64 | 100 | random 4096 |

stablesort | 16384 | 32 | 0.013342 | 0.013395 | 16 | 100 | random 16384 |

quadsort | 16384 | 32 | 0.012644 | 0.012713 | 16 | 100 | random 16384 |

timsort | 16384 | 32 | 0.017462 | 0.017559 | 16 | 100 | random 16384 |

stablesort | 65536 | 32 | 0.015315 | 0.015391 | 4 | 100 | random 65536 |

quadsort | 65536 | 32 | 0.014576 | 0.014645 | 4 | 100 | random 65536 |

timsort | 65536 | 32 | 0.019557 | 0.019655 | 4 | 100 | random 65536 |

stablesort | 262144 | 32 | 0.017350 | 0.017460 | 1 | 100 | random 262144 |

quadsort | 262144 | 32 | 0.016530 | 0.016616 | 1 | 100 | random 262144 |

timsort | 262144 | 32 | 0.021677 | 0.021792 | 1 | 100 | random 262144 |

The following benchmark was on WSL 2 gcc version 7.5.0 (Ubuntu 7.5.0-3ubuntu1~18.04). The source code was compiled using gcc -O3 bench.c. Each test was ran 10 times and only the best run is reported. It's generated by running the benchmark using 1000000 10 1 as the argument.

Name | Items | Type | Best | Average | Compares | Samples | Distribution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

qsort | 1000000 | 128 | 0.235768 | 0.239245 | 18674196 | 10 | random order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 128 | 0.174400 | 0.175445 | 18913990 | 10 | random order |

Name | Items | Type | Best | Average | Compares | Samples | Distribution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

qsort | 1000000 | 64 | 0.111600 | 0.112593 | 18674640 | 10 | random order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 64 | 0.099463 | 0.099995 | 18913145 | 10 | random order |

Name | Items | Type | Best | Average | Compares | Samples | Distribution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.104453 | 0.105502 | 18674792 | 10 | random order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.091874 | 0.092567 | 18911618 | 10 | random order |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.027044 | 0.028325 | 9884992 | 10 | ascending order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.001743 | 0.001858 | 999999 | 10 | ascending order |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.034983 | 0.036321 | 10884978 | 10 | ascending saw |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.013020 | 0.013133 | 4008060 | 10 | ascending saw |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.072557 | 0.073006 | 18618271 | 10 | generic order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.058651 | 0.059317 | 18854788 | 10 | generic order |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.026516 | 0.027000 | 10066432 | 10 | descending order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.001532 | 0.001559 | 999999 | 10 | descending order |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.034386 | 0.034958 | 11066454 | 10 | descending saw |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.018517 | 0.018657 | 7402112 | 10 | descending saw |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.046482 | 0.047802 | 12248792 | 10 | random tail |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.026082 | 0.026321 | 6687684 | 10 | random tail |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.067025 | 0.068773 | 14529545 | 10 | random half |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.050106 | 0.050525 | 11184427 | 10 | random half |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.049381 | 0.053382 | 14656048 | 10 | ascending tiles |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.044197 | 0.045308 | 14766116 | 10 | ascending tiles |

In the benchmark above quadsort is compared against glibc qsort() using the same general purpose interface and without any known unfair advantage, like inlining.

The following benchmark was on CYGWIN_NT-10.0-WOW gcc version 10.2.0. The source code was compiled using gcc -O3 bench.c. Each test was ran 10 times and only the best run is reported. It's generated by running the benchmark using 1000000 10 1 as the argument.

Name | Items | Type | Best | Average | Compares | Samples | Distribution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

qsort | 1000000 | 96 | 0.206188 | 0.206527 | 20935178 | 10 | random order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 96 | 0.204535 | 0.205050 | 18912237 | 10 | random order |

Name | Items | Type | Best | Average | Compares | Samples | Distribution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

qsort | 1000000 | 64 | 0.168539 | 0.169067 | 20774835 | 10 | random order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 64 | 0.142734 | 0.143287 | 18914064 | 10 | random order |

Name | Items | Type | Best | Average | Compares | Samples | Distribution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.143448 | 0.143770 | 20656249 | 10 | random order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.121374 | 0.121873 | 18912751 | 10 | random order |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.006862 | 0.006983 | 3000004 | 10 | ascending order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.002040 | 0.002132 | 999999 | 10 | ascending order |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.075683 | 0.075918 | 21154228 | 10 | ascending saw |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.019680 | 0.019837 | 4007748 | 10 | ascending saw |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.040867 | 0.041125 | 6261279 | 10 | generic order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.075495 | 0.075964 | 18853566 | 10 | generic order |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.009380 | 0.009484 | 4000015 | 10 | descending order |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.001968 | 0.001998 | 999999 | 10 | descending order |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.076841 | 0.077036 | 21944667 | 10 | descending saw |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.026407 | 0.026593 | 7189182 | 10 | descending saw |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.103838 | 0.104074 | 20627766 | 10 | random tail |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.034555 | 0.034782 | 6688107 | 10 | random tail |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.123635 | 0.124209 | 20703791 | 10 | random half |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.066642 | 0.067130 | 11185919 | 10 | random half |

qsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.015749 | 0.016073 | 4147713 | 10 | ascending tiles |

quadsort | 1000000 | 32 | 0.055769 | 0.056198 | 14766116 | 10 | ascending tiles |

In this benchmark it becomes clear why quicksort is often preferred above a traditional mergesort, it has fewer comparisons for ascending, generic, and descending order data. However, it performs worse than quadsort on all tests except for generic order and ascending tiles. If quadsort was to ignore stability it would beat quicksort on all tests.

The following benchmark was on WSL 2 gcc version 7.5.0 (Ubuntu 7.5.0-3ubuntu1~18.04). The source code was compiled using gcc -O3 bench.c. Each test was ran 10 times and only the best run is reported. It's generated by running the benchmark using 1024 0 0 as the argument. The benchmark is weighted, meaning the number of repetitions halves each time the number of items doubles.

Name | Items | Type | Best | Average | Compares | Samples | Distribution |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

qsort | 4 | 32 | 0.012951 | 0.015632 | 5 | 100 | random 4 |

quadsort | 4 | 32 | 0.005826 | 0.007321 | 5 | 100 | random 4 |

qsort | 8 | 32 | 0.018523 | 0.020900 | 17 | 100 | random 8 |

quadsort | 8 | 32 | 0.010304 | 0.010358 | 17 | 100 | random 8 |

qsort | 16 | 32 | 0.022189 | 0.025041 | 46 | 100 | random 16 |

quadsort | 16 | 32 | 0.017525 | 0.017635 | 51 | 100 | random 16 |

qsort | 32 | 32 | 0.025841 | 0.030131 | 121 | 100 | random 32 |

quadsort | 32 | 32 | 0.020234 | 0.021181 | 129 | 100 | random 32 |

qsort | 64 | 32 | 0.031851 | 0.035673 | 309 | 100 | random 64 |

quadsort | 64 | 32 | 0.024876 | 0.026862 | 328 | 100 | random 64 |

qsort | 128 | 32 | 0.035650 | 0.041490 | 745 | 100 | random 128 |

quadsort | 128 | 32 | 0.026417 | 0.030621 | 782 | 100 | random 128 |

qsort | 256 | 32 | 0.042116 | 0.047296 | 1738 | 100 | random 256 |

quadsort | 256 | 32 | 0.033521 | 0.036011 | 1818 | 100 | random 256 |

qsort | 512 | 32 | 0.049071 | 0.052659 | 3968 | 100 | random 512 |

quadsort | 512 | 32 | 0.038291 | 0.040567 | 4156 | 100 | random 512 |

qsort | 1024 | 32 | 0.055021 | 0.058019 | 8962 | 100 | random 1024 |

quadsort | 1024 | 32 | 0.044939 | 0.045974 | 9312 | 100 | random 1024 |

qsort | 2048 | 32 | 0.060945 | 0.063426 | 19962 | 100 | random 2048 |

quadsort | 2048 | 32 | 0.050165 | 0.050943 | 20640 | 100 | random 2048 |

qsort | 4096 | 32 | 0.067210 | 0.068730 | 43966 | 100 | random 4096 |

quadsort | 4096 | 32 | 0.055807 | 0.056008 | 45358 | 100 | random 4096 |

qsort | 8192 | 32 | 0.072263 | 0.074081 | 96149 | 100 | random 8192 |

quadsort | 8192 | 32 | 0.060956 | 0.061111 | 98928 | 100 | random 8192 |

qsort | 16384 | 32 | 0.077036 | 0.079203 | 208702 | 100 | random 16384 |

quadsort | 16384 | 32 | 0.066100 | 0.066276 | 214366 | 100 | random 16384 |

qsort | 32768 | 32 | 0.082605 | 0.084376 | 450105 | 100 | random 32768 |

quadsort | 32768 | 32 | 0.071050 | 0.071203 | 461448 | 100 | random 32768 |

qsort | 65536 | 32 | 0.088038 | 0.089666 | 965773 | 100 | random 65536 |

quadsort | 65536 | 32 | 0.076240 | 0.076393 | 988248 | 100 | random 65536 |

qsort | 131072 | 32 | 0.093045 | 0.094960 | 2062601 | 100 | random 131072 |

quadsort | 131072 | 32 | 0.081188 | 0.081355 | 2107924 | 100 | random 131072 |

qsort | 262144 | 32 | 0.098222 | 0.099887 | 4387116 | 100 | random 262144 |

quadsort | 262144 | 32 | 0.086321 | 0.086507 | 4477623 | 100 | random 262144 |

qsort | 524288 | 32 | 0.103319 | 0.105183 | 9298689 | 100 | random 524288 |

quadsort | 524288 | 32 | 0.091543 | 0.091808 | 9479486 | 100 | random 524288 |