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A bounded single-producer single-consumer wait-free and lock-free queue written in C++11

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Build Status C/C++ CI License

A single producer single consumer wait-free and lock-free fixed size queue written in C++11.


SPSCQueue q(2);
auto t = std::thread([&] {
  while (!q.front());
  std::cout << *q.front() << std::endl;


for the full example.


  • SPSCQueue(size_t capacity);

Create a

holding items of type
with capacity
. Capacity need to be greater than 2.
  • void emplace(Args &&... args);

Enqueue an item using inplace construction. Blocks if queue is full.

  • bool try_emplace(Args &&... args);

Try to enqueue an item using inplace construction. Returns

on success and
if queue is full.
  • void push(const T &v);

Enqueue an item using copy construction. Blocks if queue is full.

  • template  void push(P &&v);

Enqueue an item using move construction. Participates in overload resolution only if

std::is_constructible::value == true
. Blocks if queue is full.
  • bool try_push(const T &v);

Try to enqueue an item using copy construction. Returns

on success and
if queue is full.
  • template  void try_push(P &&v);

Try to enqueue an item using move construction. Returns

on success and
if queue is full. Participates in overload resolution only if
std::is_constructible::value == true
  • T *front();

Return pointer to front of queue. Returns

if queue is empty.
  • pop();

Dequeue first elment of queue. Invalid to call if queue is empty. Requires

std::is_nothrow_destructible::value == true

Only a single writer thread can perform enqueue operations and only a single reader thread can perform dequeue operations. Any other usage is invalid.

Huge page support

In addition to supporting custom allocation through the standard custom allocator interface this library also supports standard proposal P0401R3 Providing size feedback in the Allocator interface. This allows convenient use of huge pages without wasting any allocated space. Using size feedback is only supported when C++17 is enabled.

The library currently doesn't include a huge page allocator since the APIs for allocating huge pages are platform dependent and handling of huge page size and NUMA awareness is application specific.

Below is an example huge page allocator for Linux: ```cpp


template struct Allocator { using value_type = T;

struct AllocationResult { T *ptr; size_t count; };

sizet roundup(sizet n) { return (((n - 1) >> 21) + 1) << 21; }

AllocationResult allocateatleast(sizet n) { sizet count = roundup(sizeof(T) * n); auto p = staticcast(mmap(nullptr, count, PROTREAD | PROTWRITE, MAPPRIVATE | MAPANONYMOUS | MAPHUGETLB, -1, 0)); if (p == MAPFAILED) { throw std::badalloc(); } return {p, count / sizeof(T)}; }

void deallocate(T *p, size_t n) { munmap(p, roundup(sizeof(T) * n)); } }; ```


for the full example on how to use huge pages on Linux.


Memory layout

The underlying implementation is a ring buffer.

Care has been taken to make sure to avoid any issues with false sharing. The head and tail pointers are aligned and padded to the false sharing range (cache line size). The slots buffer is padded with the false sharing range at the beginning and end.



Testing lock-free algorithms is hard. I'm using two approaches to test the implementation:

  • A single threaded test that the functionality works as intended, including that the element constructor and destructor is invoked correctly.
  • A multithreaded fuzz test that all elements are enqueued and dequeued correctly under heavy contention.


Throughput benchmark measures throughput between 2 threads for a

of size 256.

Latency benchmark measures round trip time between 2 threads communicating using 2 queues of type


The following numbers are for a 2 socket machine with 2 x Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2620 0 @ 2.00GHz.

| NUMA Node / Core / Hyper-Thread | Throughput (ops/ms) | Latency RTT (ns) | | ------------------------------- | -------------------:| ----------------:| | #0,#0,#0 & #0,#0,#1 | 63942 | 60 | | #0,#0,#0 & #0,#1,#0 | 37739 | 238 | | #0,#0,#0 & #1,#0,#0 | 25744 | 768 |

Cited by

SPSCQueue have been cited by the following papers: - Peizhao Ou and Brian Demsky. 2018. Towards understanding the costs of avoiding out-of-thin-air results. Proc. ACM Program. Lang. 2, OOPSLA, Article 136 (October 2018), 29 pages. DOI:


This project was created by Erik Rigtorp <[email protected]>.

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