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High Performance Proxy for MySQL

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ProxySQL is a high performance proxy, currently for MySQL and forks (like Percona Server and MariaDB) only. Future versions of ProxySQL will support a variety database backends.

Its development is driven by the lack of open source proxies that provide high performance. Benchmarks can be found at


Dependencies ~~~~~~~~~~~~ Other than standard libraries, required packages, libraries and header files are:

  • cmake
  • gcc
  • glibc-devel
  • glibc-headers
  • openssl-devel
  • openssl-static
  • glib2-devel
  • zlib-devel
  • libffi-devel

ProxySQL also depends from few libraries that are statically linked. To download and compile these libraries, run the follows::

mkdir ProxySQL cd ProxySQL wget tar -zxf mariadb-native-client.tar.gz cd mariadb-native-client mv zlib/example.c zlib/example1.c cmake . make -i cd .. wget tar -zxf libdaemon-0.14.tar.gz cd libdaemon-0.14 ./configure && make cd .. wget tar -jxf jemalloc-3.6.0.tar.bz2 cd jemalloc-3.6.0 ./configure --enable-xmalloc --enable-prof && make cd .. wget tar -xJf glib-2.40.0.tar.xz cd glib-2.40.0 ./configure --enable-static make cd ..

Compiling ~~~~~~~~~

After compiling the libraries from the previous section, download and compile ProxySQL running the follows::

wget unzip cd proxysql-master/src make

Note that no configure is available yet. You must check for missing dependencies.

Install ~~~~~~~

make install is not available yet.

You can manually install proxysql running the follows::

cp proxysql /usr/bin mkdir /var/run/proxysql

Interactive configuration ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

After compiling, run ./ that will guide you in the creation of the first configuration file. Once completed, copy the configuration file in /etc/proxysql.cnf .

Usage ~~~~~

Usage is the follow::

$ ./proxysql --help Usage: proxysql [OPTION...] - High Performance Advanced Proxy for MySQL

Help Options: -h, --help Show help options

Application Options: --admin-port Administration port --mysql-port MySQL proxy port -c, --config Configuration file

proxysql listens on 3 different TCP ports: 2 of them are configurable via command line arguments:

  • --mysql-port specifies the port that mysql clients should connect to
  • --admin-port specifies the administration port

The 3rd port not configurable via command line is the monitoring port. Note that this module is not completely implemented yet.

Other option(s):

  • --config specifies the configuration file

A configuration file is mandatory. If not specified on the command line it defaults to proxysql.cnf in the current directory if present, or /etc/proxysql.cnf. Currently there is no strong input validation of the configuration file, and wrong parsing of it can cause proxysql to crash at startup. If parsing of config file is successful, proxysql will daemonize

ProxySQL Configuration

ProxySQL uses two source of configuration:

  • a configuration file in key-value format
  • a built-in database that stores more advanced configurations and uses tables to define multiple attributes and relations between them. Currently, this is implemented as an SQLite3 database

Configuration file

Configuration file is key-value file , .ini-like config file ( see for reference ).

Currently 7 groups are available:

  • [global] : generic configuration
  • [admin] : configuration options related to admin and monitoring interface
  • [http] : configuration options related to HTTP servers . Feature not available yet
  • [mysql] : configuration options related to handling of mysql connections
  • [fundadb] : configuration options for the internal storage used for caching
  • [debug] : configuration options related to debugging
  • [mysql users] : specify a list of users and their passwords used to connect to mysql servers

[global] section ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

  • stack_size

    Specify the stack size used by every thread created in proxysql , in bytes . Default is 524288 ( 512KB ) , minimum is 65536 ( 64KB ) , and maximum is 33554432 (32MB).

    Latest versions of ProxySQL use threads pool instead of one thread per connection, therefore the stack size has little memory footprint.

  • netbuffersize

    Each connection to proxysql creates a so called MySQL data stream. Each MySQL data stream has 2 buffers for recv and send. netbuffersize defines the size of each of these buffers. Each connection from proxysql to a mysql server needs a MySQL data stream. Each client connection can have a different number of MySQL data streams associated to it, that can range from just one data stream if no connections are established to mysql servers, to N+1 where N is the number of defined hostgroups.

    Default is 8192 (8KB), minimum is 1024 (1KB), and maximum is 16777216 (16MB). Increasing this variable can slighly boost performance in case of large dataset, at the cost of additional memory usage.

  • backlog

    Defines the backlog argument of the listen() call. Default is 2000, minimum is 50

  • coredumpfile_size

    Defines the maximum size of a core dump file, to be used to debug crashes. Default is 0 (no core dump).

  • datadir

    Defines the datadir. Not absolute files paths are relative to datadir . Default is /var/run/proxysql .

  • error_log

    Path to error log . Default is proxysql.log

  • debug

    Enable or disable debugging messages if ProxySQL was compiled with support for debug. Boolean parameter (0/1) , where 0 is the default (disabled).

  • debug_log

    Path to debug log . Default is debug.log

  • pid_file

    PID file . Default is

  • restartonerror

    When proxysql is executed it forks in 2 processes: an angel process and the proxy itself. If restartonerror is set to 1 , the angel process will restart the proxy if this one dies unexpectedly

  • restart_delay

    If the proxy process dies unexpectedly and the angel process is configured to restart it (restartonerror=1), this one pauses restart_delay seconds before restarting. Default is 5, minimum is 0 and maximum is 600 (10 minutes).

[admin] section ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

  • proxyadminpathdb

    It defines the path of the built-in database that stores advanced configurations. Default is proxysql.db

  • proxyadminbind

    It defines the IP address that the admin interface will bind to. Default is

  • proxyadminport

    It defines the administrative port for runtime configuration and statistics. Default is 6032

  • proxyadminuser

    It defines the user to connect to the admin interface . Default is admin

  • proxyadminpassword

    It defines the password to connect to the admin interface . Default is admin

  • proxyadminrefreshstatusinterval

    ProxySQL doesn't constantly update status variables/tables in the admin interface. These are updates only when read, and up to once every proxyadminrefreshstatusinterval seconds. Default is 600 (10 minutes), minimum is 0 and maximum is 3600 (1 hour).

  • proxymonitorbind

    It defines the IP address that the monitor interface will bind to. Default is

  • proxymonitorport

    It defines the monitoring port for runtime statistics. Default is 6031 . This module is not completely implemented yet

  • proxymonitoruser

    It defines the user to connect to the monitoring interface . Default is monitor . This module is not completely implemented yet

  • proxymonitorpassword

    It defines the password to connect to the monitoring interface . Default is monitor . This module is not completely implemented yet

  • proxymonitorrefreshstatusinterval

    ProxySQL doesn't constantly update status variables/tables in the monitoring interface. These are updates only when read, and up to once every proxymonitorrefreshstatusinterval seconds. Default is 10, minimum is 0 and maximum is 3600 (1 hour). This module is not completely implemented yet

  • synctodiskonflush_command

    When synctodiskonflush_command=1 , in-memory configuration is automatically saved on disk after every FLUSH command. Boolean parameter (0/1) , where 1 is the default (enabled).

  • synctodiskonshutdown

    When synctodiskonshutdown=1 , in-memory configuration is automatically saved on disk when the SHUTDOWN command is executed in the admin interface. Boolean parameter (0/1) , where 1 is the default (enabled).

[http] section ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This module is not implemented yet.

[mysql] section ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

  • mysql_threads

    Early versions of ProxySQL used 1 thread per connection, while recent versions use a pool of threads that handle all the connections. Performance improved by 20% for certain workload and an optimized number of threads. This can also drastically reduces the amount of memory uses by ProxySQL. Further optimizations are expected. Default is number-of-CPU-cores X 2 , minimum is 2 and maximum is 128 .

  • mysqldefaultschema

    Each connection requires a default schema (database). If a client connects without specifying a schema, mysqldefaultschema is applied. It defaults to information_schema.

    If you're using mostly one database, specifying a default schema (database) could save a request for each new connection.

  • proxymysqlbind

    It defines the IP address that the mysql interface will bind to. Default is

  • proxymysqlport

    Specifies the port that mysql clients should connect to. Default is 6033.

  • mysql_socket

    ProxySQL can accept connection also through the Unix Domain socket specified in mysql_socket . This socket is usable only if the client and ProxySQL are running on the same server. Benchmark shows that with workloads where all the queries are served from the internal query cache (that is, very fast), Unix Domain socket provides 50% more throughput than TCP socket. Default is /tmp/proxysql.sock

  • mysql_hostgroups

    ProxySQL groups MySQL backends into hostgroups. mysql_hostgroups defines the maximum number of hostgroups. Default is 8, mimimum is 2 (enough for classic read/write split) and maximum is 64 .

  • mysqlpolltimeout

    Each connection to proxysql is handled by a thread that call poll() on all the file descriptors opened. poll() is called with a timeout of mysqlpolltimeout milliseconds. Default is 10000 (10 seconds) and minimum is 100 (0.1 seconds). The same timeout is applied also in the admin interface and in the monitoring interface.

  • mysqlautoreconnect_enabled

    If a connection to mysql server is dropped because killed or timed out, it automatically reconnects. This feature is very unstable and should not be enabled. Default is 0 (disabled).

  • mysqlquerycache_enabled

    Enable the internal query cache that can be used to cache SELECT statements. Boolean parameter (0/1) , and default is 1 (enabled).

  • mysqlquerycache_partitions

    The internal query cache is divided in several partitions to reduce contentions. Default is 16, minimum is 1 and maximum is 128.

  • mysqlquerycache_size

    It defines the size of the internal query cache, if enabled. Default is 1048576 (1MB), so is its minimum. There is no maximum defined.

  • mysqlquerycache_precheck

    It this option is enabled, the internal query cache is checked for possible resultset for every query even if not configured to be cached. Enabling this option can improved performance if the query cache hit ratio is high, as it prevents the parsing of the queries. Boolean parameter (0/1) , and default is 1 (enabled).

  • mysqlmaxquery_size

    A query received from a client can be of any length. Although, to optimize memory utilization and to improve performance, only queries with a length smaller than mysqlmaxquery_size are analyzed and processed. Any query longer than mysqlmaxquery_size is forwarded to a mysql servers without being processed. That also means that for large queries the query cache is disabled. Default value is 1048576 (1MB), and the maximum length is 16777210 (few bytes less than 16MB).

  • mysqlmaxresultset_size

    When the server sends a resultset to proxysql, the resultset is stored internally before being forwarded to the client. mysqlmaxresultset_size defines the maximum size of a resultset for being buffered: once a resultset passes this threshold it stops the buffering and triggers a fast forward algorithm. Indirectly, it also defines also the maximum size of a cachable resultset. In future a separate option will be introduced. Default is 1048576 (1MB).

  • mysqlquerycachedefaulttimeout

    Every cached resultset has a time to live . mysqlquerycachedefaulttimeout defines the default time to live (in second) for the predefined caching rules when the administrator didn't explicitly configure query rules. Default is 1 seconds.

  • mysqlserverversion

    When a client connects to ProxySQL , this introduces itself as mysql version mysqlserverversion . The default is "5.1.30" ( first GA release of 5.1 ).

  • mysqlusageuser and mysqlusagepassword

    At startup (and in future releases also at regular interval), ProxySQL connects to all the MySQL servers configured to verify connectivity and the status of readonly (this option if used to determine if a server is a master or a slave only during the first automatic configuration: do not rely on this for advanced setup). *mysqlusageuser* and *mysqlusagepassword* define the username and password that ProxySQL uses to connect to MySQL server. As the name suggests, only USAGE privilege is required. Defaults are *mysqlusageuser=proxy* and *mysqlusage_password=proxy* .

  • mysql_servers

    Defines a list of mysql servers to use as backend in the format of hostname:port , separated by ';' . Example : mysql_servers=;; . No default applies.

    Note : this list is used only of the built-in database is not present yet. If the built-in database is already present, this option is ignored.

  • mysqlconnectionpool_enabled

    ProxySQL implements its own connection pool to MySQL backends. Boolean parameter (0/1) , where 1 is the default (enabled).

  • mysqlshareconnections

    When connection pool is enabled, it is also possible to share connections among clients. Boolean parameter (0/1) , where 0 is the default (disabled).

    When this feature is disabled (default) and a connection is assigned to a client, this connection will be used only by that specific client connection and will be never shared. That is: connections to MySQL servers are not shared among client connections . When this feature is enabled, multiple clients can use the same connection to a single backend. This feature is experimental.

  • mysqlwaittimeout

    If connection pool is enabled ( mysqlconnectionpool_enabled=1 ) , unused connection (not assigned to any client) are automatically dropped after mysqlwaittimeout seconds. Default is 28800 (8 hours) , minimum is 1 second and maximum is 604800 (1 week). This option must be smaller than mysql variable wait_timeout .

  • mysqlparsetrx_cmds

    ProxySQL can filter unnecessary transaction commands if irrelevant. For example, if a connection sends BEGIN or COMMIT twice without any command in between, the second command is filtered. Boolean parameter (0/1) , where 0 is the default (disabled). This feature is absolutely unstable.

  • mysqlmaintenancetimeout

    When a backend server is disabled, only the idle connections are immediately terminated. All the other active connections have up to mysqlmaintenancetimeout milliseconds to gracefully shutdown before being terminated. Default is 10000 (10 seconds), minimum is 1000 (1 second) and maximum is 60000 (1 minute).

  • mysqlpolltimeout_maintenance

    When a backend server is disabled, poll() timeout is mysqlpolltimeout_maintenance instead of mysqlpolltimeout. Also this variable is in milliseconds. Default is 100 (0.1 second), minimum is 100 (0.1 second) and maximum is 1000 (1 second).

  • mysqlquerystatistics_enabled

    ProxySQL collects queries statistics when enabled. This option can affect performance. Boolean parameter (0/1) , where 0 is the default (disabled).

  • mysqlquerystatistics_interval

    This option specifies how often (in seconds) ProxySQL dumps query statistics. Default is 10 (seconds), minimum is 5 and maximum is 600 (10 minutes).

[mysql users] section ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This section includes a list of users and relative password in the form user=password . Users without password are in the form user= . For example::

root=secretpass webapp=$ecr3t guest= test=password

[fundadb] section ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This section allows advenced tunings related to the thread responsible to purge the internal query cache. normally there is no need to tune it.

  • fundadbhashpurge_time

    Total time to purge a hash table, in millisecond. Default is 10000 (10 second), miminum is 100 (0.1 second) and maximum is 600000 (10 minutes)

  • fundadbhashpurge_loop

    The purge of a hash table is performed in small chunks of time, defined by fundadbhashpurge_loop . Default is 100 (0.1 second), minimum is 100 (0.1 second) and maximum is 60000 (1 minute)

  • fundadbhashexpire_default

    fundadb hash default expire in second. This is not relevant as every entry in the internal query always have an explicit timeout.

  • fundadbhashpurgethresholdpct_min

    Minimum percentage of memory usage that triggers normal purge. No purge is performed if memory usage is below this threshold. Default is 50 (%), minimum is 0, maximum is 90.

  • fundadbhashpurgethresholdpct_max

    Maximum percentage of memory usage that triggers normal purge. Aggressive purging is performed if memory usage is above this threshold. Default is 90 (%), minimum is 50, maximum is 100.

Quick start Tutorial

Download and compile ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

See above for an example of how to download and compile ProxySQL

Create a small replication environment ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

To try proxysql we can use a standalone mysqld instance, or a small replication cluster for better testing. To quickly create a small replication environment you can use MySQL Sandbox::

[email protected]:~$ makereplicationsandbox mysqlbinaries/mysql-5.5.34-linux2.6-i686.tar.gz installing and starting master installing slave 1 installing slave 2 starting slave 1 .... sandbox server started starting slave 2 .... sandbox server started initializing slave 1 initializing slave 2 replication directory installed in $HOME/sandboxes/rsandboxmysql-5534

Now that the cluster is installed, verify on which ports are listening the various mysqld processes::

[email protected]:~$ cd sandboxes/rsandboxmysql-5534 [email protected]:~/sandboxes/rsandboxmysql-5534$ cat defaultconnection.json { "master":
{ "host": "", "port": "23389", "socket": "/tmp/mysql
sandbox23389.sock", "username": "[email protected]%", "password": "msandbox" } , "node1":
{ "host": "", "port": "23390", "socket": "/tmp/mysqlsandbox23390.sock", "username": "[email protected]%", "password": "msandbox" } , "node2":
{ "host": "", "port": "23391", "socket": "/tmp/mysql
sandbox23391.sock", "username": "[email protected]%", "password": "msandbox" } }

The mysqld processes are listening on port 23389 (master) and 23390 and 23391 (slaves).

Configure ProxySQL ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ProxySQL doesn't have an example configuration file. Create a new one named proxysql.cnf using the follow sample::

[global] datadir=/home/rene/ProxySQL/proxysql-master/src [mysql] mysqlusageuser=proxy mysqlusagepassword=proxy mysqlservers=;; mysqldefaultschema=informationschema mysqlconnectionpoolenabled=1 mysqlmaxresultsetsize=1048576 mysqlmaxquerysize=1048576 mysqlquerycacheenabled=1 mysqlquerycachepartitions=16 mysqlquerycachedefault_timeout=30 [mysql users] msandbox=msandbox test=password

Note the [global] section is mandatory even if unused.

Create users on MySQL ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

We configured ProxySQL to use 3 users:

  • proxy : this user needs only USAGE privileges, and it is used to verify that the server is alive and the value of read_only
  • msandbox and test : these are two normal users that application can use to connect to mysqld through the proxy

User msandbox is already there, so only users proxy and test needs to be created. For example::

[email protected]:~$ mysql -h -u root -pmsandbox -P23389 -e "GRANT USAGE ON . TO 'proxy'@'' IDENTIFIED BY 'proxy'"; [email protected]:~$ mysql -h -u root -pmsandbox -P23389 -e "GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON . TO 'test'@'' IDENTIFIED BY 'password'";

Configure the slaves with read_only=0 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

When ProxySQL is executed for the first time (or when there are no built-in database database available), ProxySQL distinguishes masters from slaves only checking the global variables readonly. This means that you must configure the slaves with readonly=ON or ProxySQL will send DML to them as well. Note that this make ProxySQL suitable for multi-master environments using clustering solution like NDB and Galera.

Verify the status of read_only on all servers::

[email protected]:~$ for p in 23389 23390 23391 ; do mysql -h -u root -pmsandbox -P$p -B -N -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'readonly'" ; done readonly OFF readonly OFF readonly OFF

Change read_only on slaves::

[email protected]:~$ for p in 23390 23391 ; do mysql -h -u root -pmsandbox -P$p -B -N -e "SET GLOBAL read_only=ON" ; done

Verify again the status of read_only on all servers::

[email protected]:~$ for p in 23389 23390 23391 ; do mysql -h -u root -pmsandbox -P$p -B -N -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'readonly'" ; done readonly OFF readonly ON readonly ON

Start ProxySQL ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ProxySQL is now ready to be executed::

[email protected]:~/ProxySQL/proxysql-master/src$ ./proxysql

Note that ProxySQL will run fork into 2 processes, an angel process and the proxy itself::

[email protected]:~/ProxySQL/proxysql-master/src$ ps aux | grep proxysql rene 31007 0.0 0.0 32072 904 ? S 08:03 0:00 ./proxysql rene 31008 0.0 0.0 235964 2336 ? Sl 08:03 0:00 ./proxysql

Connect to ProxySQL ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You can now connect to ProxySQL running any mysql client. For example::

[email protected]:~$ mysql -u msandbox -pmsandbox -h -P6033 Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MySQL connection id is 3060194112 Server version: 5.1.30 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.


An acute observer can immediately understand that we aren't connected directly to MySQL, but to ProxySQL . A less acute observer can probably understand it from the next output::

mysql> \s

mysql Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.5.34, for debian-linux-gnu (i686) using readline 6.2

Connection id: 3060194112 Current database: information_schema Current user: [email protected] SSL: Not in use Current pager: stdout Using outfile: '' Using delimiter: ; Server version: 5.1.30 MySQL Community Server (GPL) Protocol version: 10 Connection: via TCP/IP Server characterset: latin1 Db characterset: utf8 Client characterset: latin1 Conn. characterset: latin1 TCP port: 6033 Uptime: 51 min 56 sec

Threads: 4 Questions: 342 Slow queries: 0 Opens: 70 Flush tables: 1 Open tables: 63 Queries per second avg: 0.109


Did you notice it now? If not, note that line::

Server version: 5.1.30 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

We installed MySQL 5.5.34 , but the client says 5.1.30 . This because during the authentication phase ProxySQL introduces itself as MySQL version 5.1.30 . This is configurable via parameter mysqlserverversion . Note: ProxySQL doesn't use the real version of the backends because it is possible to run backends with different versions.

Additionally, mysql says that the current database is information_schema while we didn't specify any during the connection.

On which server are we connected now? Because of read/write split, it is not always possible to answer this question. What we know is that:

  • SELECT statements without FOR UPDATE are sent to the slaves ( and also to the master if mysqlusemastersforreads=1 , by default ) ;
  • SELECT statements with FOR UPDATE are sent to a master ;
  • any other statement is sent to the master only ;
  • SELECT statements without FOR UPDATE are cached .

Let try to understand to which server are we connected running the follow::

mysql> SELECT @@port; +--------+ | @@port | +--------+ | 23391 | +--------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

We are connected on server using port 23391 . This information is true only the first time we run it. In fact, if we run the same query from another connection we will get the same result because this query is cached. Also, if we disconnect the client and reconnect again, the above query will return the same result also after the cache is invalidated. Why? ProxySQL implement connection pooling, and a if a client connection to the proxy is close the backend connection will be reused by the next client connection.

To verify the effect of the cache, it is enough to run the follow commands::

mysql> SELECT NOW(); +---------------------+ | NOW() | +---------------------+ | 2013-11-20 17:55:25 | +---------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT @@port; +--------+ | @@port | +--------+ | 23391 | +--------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT NOW(); +---------------------+ | NOW() | +---------------------+ | 2013-11-20 17:55:25 | +---------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The resultset of "SELECT NOW()" doesn't change with time. Probably this is not what you want.

Testing R/W split ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The follow is an example of how to test R/W split .

Write on master::

mysql> show databases; +--------------------+ | Database | +--------------------+ | informationschema | | mysql | | performanceschema | | test | +--------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.02 sec)

mysql> use test Database changed mysql> CREATE table tbl1 (id int); Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.25 sec)

mysql> insert into tbl1 values (1); Query OK, 1 row affected (0.03 sec)

Read from a slave::

mysql> SELECT * FROM tbl1; +------+ | id | +------+ | 1 | +------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The follow query retrieves also @@port, so we can verify it is executed on a slave::

mysql> SELECT @@port, t.* FROM tbl1 t; +--------+------+ | @@port | id | +--------+------+ | 23391 | 1 | +--------+------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

To force a read from master, we must specify FOR UPDATE::

mysql> SELECT @@port, t.* FROM tbl1 t FOR UPDATE; +--------+------+ | @@port | id | +--------+------+ | 23389 | 1 | +--------+------+ 1 row in set (0.01 sec)

Default query rules

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