A collection of interesting new networks and tech aiming at decentralisation (in some form).
A collection of interesting networks and technology aiming at re-decentralizing the Internet. If you would like to help in categorising these projects, please submit a PR to this README.md file.
Searx is a privacy-respecting, hackable metasearch engine.
YACY is a peer-to-peer search that anyone can use to build a search portal for their intranet or to help search the public internet. When contributing to the world-wide peer network, the scale of YaCy is limited only by the number of users in the world and can index billions of web pages. It is fully decentralized, all users of the search engine network are equal, the network does not store user search requests and it is not possible for anyone to censor the content of the shared index.
Aktie A decentralized and anonymous forum and file sharing app for I2P.
The Decentralized Library of Alexandria is an open-source standard in active development to allow users to publish and distribute original content themselves, from music to videos to feature films, 3d printable inventions, recipes, books and just about anything else.
Askemos creates an "autonomous virtual execution environment for applications" - designed to be tamper-proof and fault tolerant. Users share not only static files but dynamic objects too. Code is taken as equivalent to contracts ("smart contracts") and hosts check each others compliance.
BaseParadigm is an open source (GPLv3) library for managing a content addressable binary semantic graph. Content addressability means enabling a number of dataexchange protocols (including p2p) for a developer using BaseParadigm.
BipIO is an open source personal content and workflow automation platform. 'Bips' are dynamic named graphs which are cheap to create, can auto-expire, and serve or transform public/private content across multiple protocols.
Beaker Browser an experimental browser for exploring the p2p web.
BitTorrent Sync by BitTorrent Labs. Easy and effortless file replication between computers (and mobile devices) without using the cloud, so the only limit is available storage. All data transfers are encrypted. Works on Windows, Linux, OSX, Android and iOS. Recently they've opened up their API to developers.
bitlove-ui Bitlove creates Torrents for all enclosures of an RSS/ATOM feed and seeds them for podcasts.
Commotion Wireless is an open-source communication tool that uses mobile phones, computers, and other wireless devices to create decentralized mesh networks.
Corda.net is an open source blockchain platform to record, manage and synchronise agreements and transfer value. It was designed for business from the start. It is promoted and supported by the Cordite Foundation
The Cryptosphere is a global peer-to-peer cryptosystem for publishing and securely distributing both data and HTML5/JS applications pseudonymously with no central point of failure. It's built on top of the next-generation Networking and Cryptography (NaCl) library and the Git data model. Code
DAOStack is a community merit-based governance system and a new form of human association: the DAO. Decentralized Autonomous Organizations are open, self-organized networks coordinated by crypto-economic incentives and self-executing code. We believe that DAOs will impact every territory of life and will jumpstart the evolution of society toward a more cooperative and sustainable future.
DNSChain aims to fix web security by Man-in-the-Middle proofing connections. It's a secure, decentralized PKI (public key infrastructure) that makes blockchain tech (like Namecoin, Blockstore, etc.) usable for arbitrary devices.
Firestr is a simple decentralized communication and computation platform. Apps are written in Lua and are pushed to peers where they automatically run and connect. All communication is P2P and encrypted.
FreedomBone Designed primarily for the Beaglebone Black, but also capable of running on any system with Debian Jessie installed, the FreedomBone allows you to self-host a variety of useful web services with a reasonable degree of security and privacy.
Freedom Box is about privacy, control, ease of use and dehierarchicalization. Inspired by Eben Moglen's vision of a small, cheap and simple computer that serves freedom in the home. We are building a Debian based platform for distributed applications.
Freenet is free software which lets you anonymously share files, browse and publish "freesites" (web sites accessible only through Freenet) and chat on forums, without fear of censorship. Freenet is decentralised to make it less vulnerable to attack, and if used in "darknet" mode, where users only connect to their friends, is very difficult to detect.
Friendica is a decentralised network which focuses on federation of social networking sites and projects into a common stream.
GNUnet is GNU's framework for secure peer-to-peer networking that does not use any centralized or otherwise trusted services.
GUN is an open source, real-time, fully decentralized, offline-first, graph database that is also simple to setup and use for web development.
git-bug is a distributed, offline-first bug tracker embedded in git.
git-dit git-dit - the distributed issue tracker for git.
GitTorrent is a peer-to-peer network of Git repositories being shared over BitTorrent.
Grimwire is a browser OS which uses Web Workers for process isolation, and WebRTC for peer-to-peer communication.
Guifi is a european (especially from Catalonia, Spain) large network with over 22000 active nodes. Uses wifi in both infrastructure and mesh mode. Over 25km of fiber as well so far.
The Hubzilla is a decentralised identity and communications platform which provides internet-wide single-sign-on with nomadic identity, internet-wide access control, communications, content management and personal cloud storage.
Hyperboria is a global decentralized network of "nodes" running cjdns software. The goal of Hyperboria is to provide an alternative to the internet with the principles of security, scalability and decentralization at the core. Anyone can participate in the network by locating a peer that is already connected.
I2P is an anonymizing network, offering a simple layer that identity-sensitive applications can use to securely communicate. All data is wrapped with several layers of encryption, and the network is both distributed and dynamic, with no trusted parties.
KA Lite is an open-source, lightweight, pure-Python web server and web app for serving Khan Academy content (videos and exercises) -- including progress tracking, coach reports, and gamification -- without needing persistent internet connectivity.
KadNode delegates DNS requests (*.p2p) from any application and tries to resolve it using the BitTorrent Mainline DHT. Own addresses can be announced and combined with public/secret keys. KadNode can be used as a decentralized DynDNS system, but also covers many other use cases.
Keybits makes it easy to run your own personal server. Setup and maintenance is made simple by using Docker and Ansible. (Similar to Sovereign but using Docker to 'containerize' applications.)
Kevacoin is a key-value database on blockchain. It can be used as a decentralized database for decentralized applications.
Known is a simple way to share your story with a variety of media, from any device. Aligned with the indie web movement, Known sites can be installed on your own server, and each one will operate as a node in a global social network, together with other indie web platforms. Known is fully extensible and supports microblogging, photos, articles, events, location check-ins and bookmarks out of the box. It is a responsive web platform that works on anything with a web browser.
Libertree is free, libre, open-source software which is intended to provide a way for people to create their own social network. Libertree social networks can be free from commercial influence and manifestation, such as behaviour tracking, user profiling, advertising, data mining and analysis, and covert information filtering.
LibraryBox is an open source, portable digital file distribution tool based on inexpensive hardware that enables delivery of educational, healthcare, and other vital information to individuals off the grid.
MORPHiS is a global encrypted distributed datastore intended to replace the cloud for storage and far more. Free open source peer-to-peer high-performance distributed datastore.
The MaidSafe network is a fully distributed platform on which application developers can build distributed applications. The network is made up by individual users who contribute storage, computing power and bandwidth to what is a global, public cloud.
MediaCrush is free software (as in freedom and as in beer) for hosting media on the web. It's designed from the ground up to protect users' privacy and it losslessly compresses media whenever possible. It supports more than 500 formats of images, video and audio. If ffmpeg accepts it, MediaCrush can process it. It also converts GIFs to HTML5 video.
GNU MediaGoblin (also shortened to MediaGoblin or GMG) is a free, decentralized Web platform (server software) for hosting and sharing digital media, aimed at providing an extensible, adaptive, and freedom-respectful software alternative to major media publishing services such as Flickr, deviantArt, YouTube, etc.-- Wikipedia
MettaNode is a tool for fully decentralized communications - grab data you like and store it forever, share data with your friends, start chats, voice or video calls, form groups by interest, transparently keep all your notes between all of your devices; all based on a simple ideas of UIA. It is still in its infancy and only base transport protocol is done, work is now going on on overlay routing network. Final target is to have a bunch of clients for desktop and mobile platforms (Win, Mac, Linux, Android, iOS) as well as own operating system implementation (Metta) running together.
Mixminion is a new remailer approach. The so-called type III remailer allows it to receive and send anonymous messages. However the development has stalled and the current software needs improvement.
NameCoin is a decentralized naming system based on Bitcoin technology.
1TY is "One Time Self Destructing Links For Sharing Sensitive Information"
OpenLibernet is a project to create a robust decentralized global mesh communication network that regards security and privacy as a priority and makes internet regulation and censorship impossible. OpenLibernet is built around a robust payment system based on Bitcoin that rewards its users for actively joining, expanding and maintaining the network, and creates a traffic economy with perpetually decreasing prices.
Ori is a distributed file system built for offline operation and empowers the user with control over synchronization operations and conflict resolution. It provides history through light weight snapshots and allows users to verify the history has not been tampered with. Through the use of replication instances it is resilient and can recover damaged data from other nodes.
Osiris is software for decentralized portal, managed and shared via P2P between members.
PageKite is a dynamic reverse proxy designed to allow hosting of live (web-)servers on devices that are mobile, stuck behind strict firewalls or otherwise lack public IPs.
PeerCDN automatically serves a site's static resources (images, videos, and file downloads) over a peer-to-peer network made up of the visitors currently on the site.
PeerServer is a peer-to-peer client server using WebRTC, where your browser acts as a server for other browsers across WebRTC peer-to-peer data channels.
Peerm Anonymous P2P inside browsers, no installation, encrypted and secure. The browsers are talking the Tor protocol extended to P2P and are connecting to the nodes using WebSockets, multi-sources and streaming are supported. The final goal is to build a complete serverless P2P where anonymizer nodes are inside the browsers too relaying the traffic, using WebRTC.
Phantom is (was?) a system for generic, decentralized, unstoppable internet anonymity
PirateBox is a self-contained mobile communication and file sharing device. Simply turn it on to transform any space into a free and open communications and file sharing network.
Piwik is the leading open web analytics platform currently used by individuals, companies and governments all over the world. With Piwik, your data will always be yours. Piwik is an alternative to Google Universal Analytics.
Psyced is a scalable multi-protocol multi-casting chat, messaging and social server solution to build decentralized chat networks upon, released as open source.
Quick mesh project is an openwrt based mesh networking firmware. Can be installed on any openwrt supported system. Auto configures any needed connections, auto detects internet connections and aunounces them. Native IPv6 support with IPv4 tunnels for current networking support.
Samizdat is a self-replicating LiveCD which creates an IPSec VPN between each newly-created LiveCD node and the system that created it. It is thus "rhizomal" in the sense of Serval, but its objectives are more like those of arkOS: each node runs peer-to-peer services intended to replace the centralized services of github, skype, facebook, gmail, etc.. Samizdat provides strong cryptography for authentication of users over the network, and full disk encryption for installed systems, providing novice users fully-automated (zero-learning-curve) access to high-grade security. Samizdat's installer does not ask any questions of the user except where to install. The goal of Samizdat is to provide the benefits of public key cryptography to users who do not even understand what public key cryptography is.(Samizdat is also -- incidentally -- a generic framework for creating and managing LiveCD images for other purposes, such as managing multiple systems on a LAN, or system backup.)Send mail to [email protected] (public mailing list) or [email protected] (private email of project founder) for more information.
Sandstorm.io is a personal cloud platform that makes it easy to run web apps on your own server. Apps are installed through an app-store-like web interface. Every app runs in a separate secure sandbox.
Serf is a decentralized solution for service discovery and orchestration that is lightweight, highly available, and fault tolerant.
SlapOS is a decentralized Cloud Computing technology. It can automate the deployment and configuration of applications in a heterogeneous environment, either in datacenters or self-hosted. SlapOS is a Free Software (GPL).
Smallest Federated Wiki innovates in three ways. It shares through federation, composes by refactoring and wraps data with visualization. The project aims to demonstrate that wiki would have been better had it been effectively federated from the beginning, and explore federation policies necessary to sustain an open creative community.
Sneer is a free and open source sovereign computing platform. It runs on your Windows, Mac or Linux machine (like Skype or Firefox) using the Java VM. It enables you to create your personal cluster by sharing hardware resources (CPU, disk space, network bandwidth) with your friends, host your own social network, information and media, create sovereign applications and share them with others, download and run sovereign applications created by others.You can do all these things directly with your peers, in an autonomous, sovereign way, without depending on online service providers such as email providers, Google, Facebook, etc.
SocietyOfMind is a complete information model to make a p2p network and 3-d visualization layer that can scale to billions, re-make the Internet, and form a meta-mind for the planet. For the full scope of the project and philosophy see the wiki.
Sovereign is a set of Ansible playbooks that you can use to build and maintain your own personal cloud. It’s based entirely on open source software, so you’re in control.
Sparkleshare is a self-hosted file sync service, similar to Dropbox and based on Git.
SubToMe is a universal follow button. It decouples the publishing platform and the subscribing platform so that it's as easy to follow someone's RSS/Atom feed than it is to follow them on Twitter or Google+!
SyncNet is a decentralized web browser built on top of BitTorrent Sync and (soon) Colored Coins for name resolution. Every time you access a site, you store all of its contents on your machine. The next user to request the site can get the contents from both your machine and the original server. As more people access a page, it becomes available from more machines, reducing the load on the original server.
Syncthing replaces Dropbox and BitTorrent Sync with something open, trustworthy and decentralized. Your data is your data alone and you deserve to choose where it is stored, if it is shared with some third party and how it's transmitted over the Internet.
Syndie is an open source system for operating distributed forums offering a secure and consistent interface to various anonymous and non-anonymous content networks.
Tent is a protocol that puts users back in control. Users should control the data they create, choose who can access it, and change service providers without losing their social graph.Tent is a protocol, not a platform. Like email, anyone can build Tent apps or host Tent servers, all Tent servers can talk to each other, and there is no central authority to restrict users or developers.
Dyne's Tomb the crypto-undertaker is free software for easy encryption and backup of personal files, written in a single ZShell script that is easy to review and links commonly shared components (such as cryptsetup), unlike TrueCrypt. Tomb implements and encourages OPSEC best-practice, and comes with bind and execution hooks, steganography of keys and fast search over filenames and contents, and a graphical user interface.
Tor protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, and it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location.
Tribler Aims to create a censorship-free Internet. Already deployed, used and incrementally improved for 8-years. Tribler uses an upcoming IETF Internet Standard for video streaming and is backward compatible with Bittorrent. Future aim is using smartphones to even bypass Internet kill switches. An early proof-of-principle Tribler-mobile is available on the Android Market. Key principle: 'the only way to take it down is to take The Internet down'. Overview paper.
Trovebox is an open source photo sharing webapp (like Instagram), which you can self-host. iOS and Android apps also open source. Uses cloud or local storage for the actual photos. Originally known as OpenPhoto; see also theopenphotoproject.org.
TrueCrypt Free open source disk encryption software for Windows 7/Vista/XP/Mac OSX/ & Linux. Creates a virtual encrypted disk within a file and mounts it as a real disk. Encrypts an entire partition or storage device such as USB flash drive or hard drive. Encrypts a partition or drive where Windows is installed (pre-boot authentication). Encryption is automatic, real-time (on-the-fly) and transparent. Parallelization and pipelining allow data to be read and written as fast as if the drive was not encrypted. Encryption can be hardware-accelerated on modern processors. Provides plausible deniability, in case an adversary forces you to reveal the password: Hidden volume (steganography) and hidden operating system. More information on documentation page
UBOS is a new Linux distro for personal servers and IoT devices. Installing and maintaining web applications tends to take a lot of time; UBOS aims to make this much simpler.
UBOSbox Nextcloud is a ready-to-use home server appliance that does a lot of what Dropbox and Google Calendar do, but locally on hardware controlled by the user. It enables multi-user, multi-device file sharing, group calendaring, contact management, and includes a web mail client, an RSS/news reader, a note-taking app, text and video calls, and task management, provided by the FLOSS web application platform Nextcloud and a number of Nextcloud apps. It is designed to be used as a home server without attached keyboard or monitor.
Unhosted - also known as "serverless", "client-side", or "static" web apps, unhosted web apps do not send your user data to their server. Either you connect your own server at runtime, or your data stays within the browser.
Urbit - an operating function, from Mars.
Village Telco is a an easy-to-use, scalable, standards-based, wireless, local, DIY, telephone company toolkit. Their mission is to making voice and data communication affordable and accessible to anyone.
Wave is a distributed, near-real-time, rich collaboration platform that allows users to work together in new and exciting ways. Wave allows for flexible modes of communication, blending chat, email and collaborative document editing in to one seamless environment.
Webfist is a fallback for when providers don't support WebFinger natively. It lets you do WebFinger lookups for email addresses even if the owner of the domain name isn't playing along. WebFist works because of a judo move on an existing infrastructure: DKIM.
Webmentions are an interesting method of notify another site that a comment /post on your own site is written in response to a post on their site. The site receiving the webmention notification can then verify the request and gather the message adding into a conversation flow in their post.This project is working on a unified API.
Yaler is a simple, open and scalable relay infrastructure for secure Web and SSH access to embedded systems located behind a firewall, NAT or mobile network router.
Zero Bin is an open source alternative for pastebin with burn-after-read function & client side encryption. Source code is also available on github https://github.com/sametmax/0bin
ZeroTier One is an open source application that creates huge distributed Ethernet networks. It makes use of supernodes, but these run the same code as ordinary nodes and end-to-end encryption protects all unicast traffic. Semi-commercial with a freemium model.
arkOS is an operating system and software stack to easily host your own websites, email addresses, cloud services and more. It uses a graphical interface (called Genesis) to do all of this, with a focus on end-user experience and simple design. Presently in active development, it is currently functional on the Raspberry Pi with new services and platforms in the works.
cjdns - Encrypted networking for regular people. cjdns implements an encrypted IPv6 network using public key cryptography for address allocation and a distributed hash table for routing. This provides near zero-configuration networking without many of the security and robustness issues that regular IPv4 and IPv6 networks have.
dn42 is a big dynamic VPN network, which employs Internet technologies (BGP, whois database, DNS, etc). Participants connect to each other using network tunnels (GRE, OpenVPN, Tinc, IPsec), and exchange routes thanks to the Border Gateway Protocol. Network addresses are assigned in the 172.22.0.0/15 range, and private AS numbers are used: see registry. See the About page for more information.
eDonkey network is a decentralized, mostly server-based, peer-to-peer file sharing network best suited to share big files among users, and to provide long term availability of files
The ePlug is a tiny circuit board that resides inside of 'ePlug Certified' electrical outlets. Decentralized Meshnet, distributed computing, 6 gig WiFi. ISP's, CDN's and racks of servers, switches and wire no longer needed.
edgenet is a peer-to-peer opportunistic network built over mobile devices (and potentially home routers). It is a concept, with many layers already build (ZeroMQ, Zyre). It uses temporary 'cells' to connect devices and exchange information opportunistically. It's suited to decentralized chat and proximity networking.
gitsync is a git repository synchronisation and discovery tool. Its goal is to allow developers to coordinate without a central master repository.
pubsubhubbub is a simple, open, server-to-server webhook-based pubsub (publish/subscribe) protocol for any web accessible resources.
pump.io Described as "a stream server that does most of what people really want from a social network". It's a social stream with support for federated comunication.
qaul.net implements a redundant, open communication principle, in which wireless-enabled computers and mobile devices can directly form a spontaneous network. Chat functions, file sharing and voice chat is possible independent of internet and cellular networks.
Storj is an open source project actively developing a completely decentralized, secure and efficient cloud storage service that integrates a peer-to-peer protocols based on Bitcoin.
unSYSTEM is a collective dedicated to creating popular tools that promote privacy, independence, and integrity in contradistinction to those used for mass surveillance and suppression. Software projects include Libbitcoin, SX, and Lorea.
weborganiZm is an Ad-Free NON-indexed network for creating and sharing of the knowledges that follows these principles: Non-Profit, Reproducible, Reinforcing the Digital Commons, Grassroots.
wlan slovenija is developing technologies for easy deployment of community wireless mesh networks. The main idea is that power is in numbers so deployment should be so easy that anybody can do it, that anybody can start a new wireless mesh network and create a new community.
Airlock A decentralized dropbox / mega upload style app. Uses a combination of Ethereum and IPFS to index and list content
Avatar is a distributed "operating system for the internet" running inside the web browser. It allows for secure messaging (think email, social networks) and distributed data storage, employing a policy of "privacy and data security by default". Building its own encrypted P2P network, it does not rely upon any central authority. (Appears to be inactive)
Cactus player Decentralized P2P Music Player - main site has gone, but linking to source in case someone wants to know how it worked.
ClearSkies is a peer-to-peer file sync program. It is inspired by BitTorrent Sync, but has an open and fully-documented protocol.
Cowbox is a hand-held standalone server, broadcasting its own network and containing web applications for coworking.
Fermat.org is an framework for developing Internet of People apps.
Nymote is a set of tools and software infrastructure, created from the ground up, to provide end-users with life-long control of their networks and personal data. It starts with fundamental infrastructure to solve the problems around operating systems for the future, identity for users and devices and data-persistence across those devices. Think of it as the toolstack to recapture the original vision of a resilient, decentralised Internet.
Nightweb connects your Android device or PC to an anonymous, peer-to-peer social network. You can write posts and share photos, and your followers will retrieve them using BitTorrent running over the I2P anonymous network. It is still experimental.
DeadC Create a one-click expiring link (NB: Uses Google Analytics...)
G0Bin is a client side encrypted pastebin written in Go. The server has zero knowledge of pasted data. Data is encrypted/decrypted in the browser using 256 bits AES.
Grand Decentral Station is a concept for a server OS that enables designers and developers to build beautiful and secure self-hosted applications for everyone.
INDX is a decentralised Web-based Personal Data Store and app platform from the SOCIAM EPSRC project in the UK, focused about giving individuals autonomy to effectively consolidate their cloud data into personal databases they control. The platform is build out of a core of robust open source tools, including Postgres, Twisted, NodeJS, and AngularJS. The platform is released under GPLv3 on Github.
OpenBazaar is a decentralized marketplace proof of concept. It is based off of the POC code by the darkmarket team and is now licensed under the MIT license.
Syme is an experimental project that aims at bringing more privacy and security to online communication through end-to-end encryption. Syme's zero-knowledge key infrastructure enables persistent multiparty communication and secure key exchanges on minimally trusted servers and relays.
BitPhone is a mobile communications device with the features of a modern smartphone built on top of decentralized BitCoin-style proof-of-work networking.
Coinpunk is a web application that allows anyone to run their own self-hosted Bitcoin wallet service that is accessible from your web browser anywhere in the world. It's free, open source, and you can install it on your server right now.
CryptAByte CryptAByte.com is a free online drop box that enables secure (encrypted) message and file sharing over the web using a public-key infrastructure. Messages and files are encrypted using a public key and can only be decrypted using the passphrase entered when your key is created. Your data is never stored in plaintext, and is impossible to decrypt without your passphrase.
DAppStore is a fully decentralized App store focussing entirely on decentralized software. Primarily to index DApps like Bitcoin, BitTorrent etc, but also indexes projects relating to DApps, wether that be a documentary, software library or coffee shop that supports a particular DApp.
Dendrio is a video distribution network that leverages the peer to peer WebRTC protocol to transfer website content between browsers. This allows us to make data downloads faster for users but without any installation requirements. For website owners, we are trivial to set up, and are transparent to existing CDN setups. Our technology is geared towards streaming video and we support a multitude of different video formats and players.
The Enigmabox is a ready to use cjdns appliance. cjdns is a public-key crypto network protocol, the fingerprint is your IPv6 address. This means, your IP is your identity. So we can use it for various useful things, e.g. as an email address or a phone number. We will start preparing existing internet services like email or VoIP to use cjdns in this decentral manner. Our goal is to encrypt the entire internet, make crypto accessible and make secure and decentralized internet services available for the rest of us.
Firecloud is a P2P web publishing platform in your using Persona and WebRTC to work its magic.
Lemon.email is encrypted and decentralized e-mail service. It can be totally decentralized (works as a dApp) or it can work as a mail service that uses IPFS/Ethereum as a storage for previously encrypted emails. The way encryption works is that the passphrase that is used to unlock emails is not saved anywhere and therefore nobody cannot read user’s emails. Also, third party email services cannot read or decrypt lemon emails, because only notification about incoming email is sent to those services and user must go to external link to read private email.
Lighthouse is a peer to peer crowdfunding app that uses Bitcoin.
Project Byzantium - Ad-hoc wireless mesh networking for the zombie apocalypse. The goal of Project Byzantium is to develop a communication system by which users can connect to each other and share information in the absence of convenient access to the Internet. This is done by setting up an ad-hoc wireless mesh network that offers services which replace popular websites often used for this purpose, such as Twitter and IRC.
The Refuge Project aims to provide a fully decentralized and opensource data platform. It is built in Erlang and includes RCouch, a static distribution of couchdb using rebar, and Coffer, a blob server.
Tavern is a distributed, anonymous, unblockable network designed to ensure that no one is silenced, censored, or cut off from the rest of the world
Younity is a "personal cloud" that lets users share their files between their devices, without uploading them to one centralised server.