Github url


by raywenderlich

raywenderlich /swift-style-guide

The official Swift style guide for

10.9K Stars 1.8K Forks Last release: Not found Other 308 Commits 0 Releases

Available items

No Items, yet!

The developer of this repository has not created any items for sale yet. Need a bug fixed? Help with integration? A different license? Create a request here:

The Official Swift Style Guide.

Updated for Swift 5

This style guide is different from others you may see, because the focus is centered on readability for print and the web. We created this style guide to keep the code in our books, tutorials, and starter kits nice and consistent — even though we have many different authors working on the books.

Our overarching goals are clarity, consistency and brevity, in that order.

Table of Contents


Strive to make your code compile without warnings. This rule informs many style decisions such as using


types instead of string literals.

Using SwiftLint

When writing for, you are strongly encouraged — and some teams may require — to use our SwiftLint configuration. See the SwiftLint Policy for more information.


Descriptive and consistent naming makes software easier to read and understand. Use the Swift naming conventions described in the API Design Guidelines. Some key takeaways include:

  • striving for clarity at the call site
  • prioritizing clarity over brevity
  • using
  • using
    for types and protocols,
    for everything else
  • including all needed words while omitting needless words
  • using names based on roles, not types
  • sometimes compensating for weak type information
  • striving for fluent usage
  • beginning factory methods with
  • naming methods for their side effects
    • verb methods follow the -ed, -ing rule for the non-mutating version
    • noun methods follow the formX rule for the mutating version
    • boolean types should read like assertions
    • protocols that describe what something is should read as nouns
    • protocols that describe a capability should end in -able or -ible
  • using terms that don't surprise experts or confuse beginners
  • generally avoiding abbreviations
  • using precedent for names
  • preferring methods and properties to free functions
  • casing acronyms and initialisms uniformly up or down
  • giving the same base name to methods that share the same meaning
  • avoiding overloads on return type
  • choosing good parameter names that serve as documentation
  • preferring to name the first parameter instead of including its name in the method name, except as mentioned under Delegates
  • labeling closure and tuple parameters
  • taking advantage of default parameters


When referring to methods in prose, being unambiguous is critical. To refer to a method name, use the simplest form possible.

  1. Write the method name with no parameters. Example: Next, you need to call
  2. Write the method name with argument labels. Example: Next, you need to call
  3. Write the full method name with argument labels and types. Example: Next, you need to call
    addTarget(\_: Any?, action: Selector?)

For the above example using


, 1 is unambiguous and preferred.

Pro Tip: You can use Xcode's jump bar to lookup methods with argument labels. If you’re particularly good at mashing lots of keys simultaneously, put the cursor in the method name and press Shift-Control-Option-Command-C (all 4 modifier keys) and Xcode will kindly put the signature on your clipboard.

Methods in Xcode jump bar

Class Prefixes

Swift types are automatically namespaced by the module that contains them and you should not add a class prefix such as RW. If two names from different modules collide you can disambiguate by prefixing the type name with the module name. However, only specify the module name when there is possibility for confusion, which should be rare.

import SomeModule let myClass = MyModule.UsefulClass()


When creating custom delegate methods, an unnamed first parameter should be the delegate source. (UIKit contains numerous examples of this.)


swift func namePickerView(\_ namePickerView: NamePickerView, didSelectName name: String) func namePickerViewShouldReload(\_ namePickerView: NamePickerView) -\> Bool

Not Preferred:

swift func didSelectName(namePicker: NamePickerViewController, name: String) func namePickerShouldReload() -\> Bool

Use Type Inferred Context

Use compiler inferred context to write shorter, clear code. (Also see Type Inference.)


swift let selector = #selector(viewDidLoad) view.backgroundColor = .red let toView = context.view(forKey: .to) let view = UIView(frame: .zero)

Not Preferred:

swift let selector = #selector(ViewController.viewDidLoad) view.backgroundColor = let toView = context.view(forKey: let view = UIView(frame:


Generic type parameters should be descriptive, upper camel case names. When a type name doesn't have a meaningful relationship or role, use a traditional single uppercase letter such as




, or




swift struct Stack<element> { ... }
func write<target: outputstream>(to target: inout Target)
func swap<t>(_ a: inout T, _ b: inout T)

Not Preferred:

swift struct Stack<t> { ... }
func write<target: outputstream>(to target: inout target)
func swap<thing>(_ a: inout Thing, _ b: inout Thing)


Use US English spelling to match Apple's API.


swift let color = "red"

Not Preferred:

swift let colour = "red"

Code Organization

Use extensions to organize your code into logical blocks of functionality. Each extension should be set off with a

// MARK: -

comment to keep things well-organized.

Protocol Conformance

In particular, when adding protocol conformance to a model, prefer adding a separate extension for the protocol methods. This keeps the related methods grouped together with the protocol and can simplify instructions to add a protocol to a class with its associated methods.

Preferred: ```swift class MyViewController: UIViewController { // class stuff here }

// MARK: - UITableViewDataSource extension MyViewController: UITableViewDataSource { // table view data source methods }

// MARK: - UIScrollViewDelegate extension MyViewController: UIScrollViewDelegate { // scroll view delegate methods } ```

Not Preferred:

swift class MyViewController: UIViewController, UITableViewDataSource, UIScrollViewDelegate { // all methods }

Since the compiler does not allow you to re-declare protocol conformance in a derived class, it is not always required to replicate the extension groups of the base class. This is especially true if the derived class is a terminal class and a small number of methods are being overridden. When to preserve the extension groups is left to the discretion of the author.

For UIKit view controllers, consider grouping lifecycle, custom accessors, and IBAction in separate class extensions.

Unused Code

Unused (dead) code, including Xcode template code and placeholder comments should be removed. An exception is when your tutorial or book instructs the user to use the commented code.

Aspirational methods not directly associated with the tutorial whose implementation simply calls the superclass should also be removed. This includes any empty/unused UIApplicationDelegate methods.


swift override func tableView(\_ tableView: UITableView, numberOfRowsInSection section: Int) -\> Int { return Database.contacts.count }

Not Preferred: ```swift override func didReceiveMemoryWarning() { super.didReceiveMemoryWarning() // Dispose of any resources that can be recreated. }

override func numberOfSections(in tableView: UITableView) -> Int { // #warning Incomplete implementation, return the number of sections return 1 }

override func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, numberOfRowsInSection section: Int) -> Int { // #warning Incomplete implementation, return the number of rows return Database.contacts.count }

### Minimal Imports Import only the modules a source file requires. For example, don't import `UIKit` when importing `Foundation` will suffice. Likewise, don't import `Foundation` if you must import `UIKit`. \*\*Preferred\*\*:

import UIKit var view: UIView var deviceModels: [String] ```


import Foundation var deviceModels: [String]

Not Preferred:

import UIKit import Foundation var view: UIView var deviceModels: [String]

Not Preferred:

import UIKit var deviceModels: [String]


  • Indent using 2 spaces rather than tabs to conserve space and help prevent line wrapping. Be sure to set this preference in Xcode and in the Project settings as shown below:

Xcode indent settings

  • Method braces and other braces (
    etc.) always open on the same line as the statement but close on a new line.
  • Tip: You can re-indent by selecting some code (or Command-A to select all) and then Control-I (or Editor ▸ Structure ▸ Re-Indent in the menu). Some of the Xcode template code will have 4-space tabs hard coded, so this is a good way to fix that.


swift if user.isHappy { // Do something } else { // Do something else }

Not Preferred:

swift if user.isHappy { // Do something } else { // Do something else }
  • There should be one blank line between methods and up to one blank line between type declarations to aid in visual clarity and organization. Whitespace within methods should separate functionality, but having too many sections in a method often means you should refactor into several methods.

  • There should be no blank lines after an opening brace or before a closing brace.

Colons always have no space on the left and one space on the right. Exceptions are the ternary operator

? :

, empty dictionary








swift class TestDatabase: Database { var data: [String: CGFloat] = ["A": 1.2, "B": 3.2] }

Not Preferred:

swift class TestDatabase : Database { var data :[String:CGFloat] = ["A" : 1.2, "B":3.2] }
  • Long lines should be wrapped at around 70 characters. A hard limit is intentionally not specified.

  • Avoid trailing whitespaces at the ends of lines.

  • Add a single newline character at the end of each file.


When they are needed, use comments to explain why a particular piece of code does something. Comments must be kept up-to-date or deleted.

Avoid block comments inline with code, as the code should be as self-documenting as possible. Exception: This does not apply to those comments used to generate documentation.

Avoid the use of C-style comments (

/\* ... \*/

). Prefer the use of double- or triple-slash.

Classes and Structures

Which one to use?

Remember, structs have value semantics. Use structs for things that do not have an identity. An array that contains [a, b, c] is really the same as another array that contains [a, b, c] and they are completely interchangeable. It doesn't matter whether you use the first array or the second, because they represent the exact same thing. That's why arrays are structs.

Classes have reference semantics. Use classes for things that do have an identity or a specific life cycle. You would model a person as a class because two person objects are two different things. Just because two people have the same name and birthdate, doesn't mean they are the same person. But the person's birthdate would be a struct because a date of 3 March 1950 is the same as any other date object for 3 March 1950. The date itself doesn't have an identity.

Sometimes, things should be structs but need to conform to


or are historically modeled as classes already (




). Try to follow these guidelines as closely as possible.

Example definition

Here's an example of a well-styled class definition:

class Circle: Shape { var x: Int, y: Int var radius: Double var diameter: Double { get { return radius \* 2 } set { radius = newValue / 2 } } init(x: Int, y: Int, radius: Double) { self.x = x self.y = y self.radius = radius } convenience init(x: Int, y: Int, diameter: Double) { self.init(x: x, y: y, radius: diameter / 2) } override func area() -\> Double { return Double.pi \* radius \* radius } } extension Circle: CustomStringConvertible { var description: String { return "center = \(centerString) area = \(area())" } private var centerString: String { return "(\(x),\(y))" } }

The example above demonstrates the following style guidelines:

  • Specify types for properties, variables, constants, argument declarations and other statements with a space after the colon but not before, e.g.
    x: Int
    , and
    Circle: Shape
  • Define multiple variables and structures on a single line if they share a common purpose / context.
  • Indent getter and setter definitions and property observers.
  • Don't add modifiers such as
    when they're already the default. Similarly, don't repeat the access modifier when overriding a method.
  • Organize extra functionality (e.g. printing) in extensions.
  • Hide non-shared, implementation details such as
    inside the extension using
    access control.

Use of Self

For conciseness, avoid using


since Swift does not require it to access an object's properties or invoke its methods.

Use self only when required by the compiler (in


closures, or in initializers to disambiguate properties from arguments). In other words, if it compiles without


then omit it.

Computed Properties

For conciseness, if a computed property is read-only, omit the get clause. The get clause is required only when a set clause is provided.


swift var diameter: Double { return radius \* 2 }

Not Preferred:

swift var diameter: Double { get { return radius \* 2 } }


Marking classes or members as


in tutorials can distract from the main topic and is not required. Nevertheless, use of


can sometimes clarify your intent and is worth the cost. In the below example,


has a particular purpose and customization in a derived class is not intended. Marking it


makes that clear.

// Turn any generic type into a reference type using this Box class. final class Box<t> {
  let value: T
  init(_ value: T) {
    self.value = value

Function Declarations

Keep short function declarations on one line including the opening brace:

func reticulateSplines(spline: [Double]) -\> Bool { // reticulate code goes here }

For functions with long signatures, put each parameter on a new line and add an extra indent on subsequent lines:

func reticulateSplines( spline: [Double], adjustmentFactor: Double, translateConstant: Int, comment: String ) -\> Bool { // reticulate code goes here }

Don't use


to represent the lack of an input; simply use


. Use


instead of


for closure and function outputs.


func updateConstraints() -\> Void { // magic happens here } typealias CompletionHandler = (result) -\> Void

Not Preferred:

func updateConstraints() -\> () { // magic happens here } typealias CompletionHandler = (result) -\> ()

Function Calls

Mirror the style of function declarations at call sites. Calls that fit on a single line should be written as such:

let success = reticulateSplines(splines)

If the call site must be wrapped, put each parameter on a new line, indented one additional level:

let success = reticulateSplines( spline: splines, adjustmentFactor: 1.3, translateConstant: 2, comment: "normalize the display")

Closure Expressions

Use trailing closure syntax only if there's a single closure expression parameter at the end of the argument list. Give the closure parameters descriptive names.

Preferred: ```swift UIView.animate(withDuration: 1.0) { self.myView.alpha = 0 }

UIView.animate(withDuration: 1.0, animations: { self.myView.alpha = 0 }, completion: { finished in self.myView.removeFromSuperview() }) ```

Not Preferred: ```swift UIView.animate(withDuration: 1.0, animations: { self.myView.alpha = 0 })

UIView.animate(withDuration: 1.0, animations: { self.myView.alpha = 0 }) { f in self.myView.removeFromSuperview() } ```

For single-expression closures where the context is clear, use implicit returns:

attendeeList.sort { a, b in a \> b }

Chained methods using trailing closures should be clear and easy to read in context. Decisions on spacing, line breaks, and when to use named versus anonymous arguments is left to the discretion of the author. Examples:

let value = { $0 \* 2 }.filter { $0 % 3 == 0 }.index(of: 90) let value = numbers .map {$0 \* 2} .filter {$0 \> 50} .map {$0 + 10}


Always use Swift's native types and expressions when available. Swift offers bridging to Objective-C so you can still use the full set of methods as needed.


swift let width = 120.0 // Double let widthString = "\(width)" // String

Less Preferred:

swift let width = 120.0 // Double let widthString = (width as NSNumber).stringValue // String

Not Preferred:

swift let width: NSNumber = 120.0 // NSNumber let widthString: NSString = width.stringValue // NSString

In drawing code, use


if it makes the code more succinct by avoiding too many conversions.


Constants are defined using the


keyword and variables with the


keyword. Always use


instead of


if the value of the variable will not change.

Tip: A good technique is to define everything using


and only change it to


if the compiler complains!

You can define constants on a type rather than on an instance of that type using type properties. To declare a type property as a constant simply use

static let

. Type properties declared in this way are generally preferred over global constants because they are easier to distinguish from instance properties. Example:

Preferred: ```swift enum Math { static let e = 2.718281828459045235360287 static let root2 = 1.41421356237309504880168872 }

let hypotenuse = side * Math.root2

\*\*Note:\*\* The advantage of using a case-less enumeration is that it can't accidentally be instantiated and works as a pure namespace. \*\*Not Preferred\*\*: ```swift let e = 2.718281828459045235360287 // pollutes global namespace let root2 = 1.41421356237309504880168872 let hypotenuse = side \* root2 // what is root2?

Static Methods and Variable Type Properties

Static methods and type properties work similarly to global functions and global variables and should be used sparingly. They are useful when functionality is scoped to a particular type or when Objective-C interoperability is required.


Declare variables and function return types as optional with


where a


value is acceptable.

Use implicitly unwrapped types declared with


only for instance variables that you know will be initialized later before use, such as subviews that will be set up in


. Prefer optional binding to implicitly unwrapped optionals in most other cases.

When accessing an optional value, use optional chaining if the value is only accessed once or if there are many optionals in the chain:


Use optional binding when it's more convenient to unwrap once and perform multiple operations:

if let textContainer = textContainer { // do many things with textContainer }

When naming optional variables and properties, avoid naming them like




since their optional-ness is already in the type declaration.

For optional binding, shadow the original name whenever possible rather than using names like





Preferred: ```swift var subview: UIView? var volume: Double?

// later on... if let subview = subview, let volume = volume { // do something with unwrapped subview and volume }

// another example resource.request().onComplete { [weak self] response in guard let self = self else { return } let model = self.updateModel(response) self.updateUI(model) } ```

Not Preferred: ```swift var optionalSubview: UIView? var volume: Double?

if let unwrappedSubview = optionalSubview { if let realVolume = volume { // do something with unwrappedSubview and realVolume } }

// another example UIView.animate(withDuration: 2.0) { [weak self] in guard let strongSelf = self else { return } strongSelf.alpha = 1.0 } ```

Lazy Initialization

Consider using lazy initialization for finer grained control over object lifetime. This is especially true for


that loads views lazily. You can either use a closure that is immediately called

{ }()

or call a private factory method. Example:

lazy var locationManager = makeLocationManager() private func makeLocationManager() -\> CLLocationManager { let manager = CLLocationManager() manager.desiredAccuracy = kCLLocationAccuracyBest manager.delegate = self manager.requestAlwaysAuthorization() return manager }

Notes: -

[unowned self]

is not required here. A retain cycle is not created. - Location manager has a side-effect for popping up UI to ask the user for permission so fine grain control makes sense here.

Type Inference

Prefer compact code and let the compiler infer the type for constants or variables of single instances. Type inference is also appropriate for small, non-empty arrays and dictionaries. When required, specify the specific type such as






swift let message = "Click the button" let currentBounds = computeViewBounds() var names = ["Mic", "Sam", "Christine"] let maximumWidth: CGFloat = 106.5

Not Preferred:

swift let message: String = "Click the button" let currentBounds: CGRect = computeViewBounds() var names = [String]()

Type Annotation for Empty Arrays and Dictionaries

For empty arrays and dictionaries, use type annotation. (For an array or dictionary assigned to a large, multi-line literal, use type annotation.)


swift var names: [String] = [] var lookup: [String: Int] = [:]

Not Preferred:

swift var names = [String]() var lookup = [String: Int]()

NOTE: Following this guideline means picking descriptive names is even more important than before.

Syntactic Sugar

Prefer the shortcut versions of type declarations over the full generics syntax.


swift var deviceModels: [String] var employees: [Int: String] var faxNumber: Int?

Not Preferred:

swift var deviceModels: Array<string>
var employees: Dictionary<int string>
var faxNumber: Optional<int>

Functions vs Methods

Free functions, which aren't attached to a class or type, should be used sparingly. When possible, prefer to use a method instead of a free function. This aids in readability and discoverability.

Free functions are most appropriate when they aren't associated with any particular type or instance.


swift let sorted = items.mergeSorted() // easily discoverable rocket.launch() // acts on the model

Not Preferred

swift let sorted = mergeSort(items) // hard to discover launch(&rocket)

Free Function Exceptions

swift let tuples = zip(a, b) // feels natural as a free function (symmetry) let value = max(x, y, z) // another free function that feels natural

Memory Management

Code (even non-production, tutorial demo code) should not create reference cycles. Analyze your object graph and prevent strong cycles with




references. Alternatively, use value types (




) to prevent cycles altogether.

Extending object lifetime

Extend object lifetime using the

[weak self]


guard let self = self else { return }


[weak self]

is preferred to

[unowned self]

where it is not immediately obvious that


outlives the closure. Explicitly extending lifetime is preferred to optional chaining.


swift resource.request().onComplete { [weak self] response in guard let self = self else { return } let model = self.updateModel(response) self.updateUI(model) }

Not Preferred

swift // might crash if self is released before response returns resource.request().onComplete { [unowned self] response in let model = self.updateModel(response) self.updateUI(model) }

Not Preferred

swift // deallocate could happen between updating the model and updating UI resource.request().onComplete { [weak self] response in let model = self?.updateModel(response) self?.updateUI(model) }

Access Control

Full access control annotation in tutorials can distract from the main topic and is not required. Using




appropriately, however, adds clarity and promotes encapsulation. Prefer




; use


only when the compiler insists.

Only explicitly use




, and


when you require a full access control specification.

Use access control as the leading property specifier. The only things that should come before access control are the


specifier or attributes such as







Preferred: ```swift private let message = "Great Scott!"

class TimeMachine {
private dynamic lazy var fluxCapacitor = FluxCapacitor() } ```

Not Preferred: ```swift fileprivate let message = "Great Scott!"

class TimeMachine {
lazy dynamic private var fluxCapacitor = FluxCapacitor() } ```

Control Flow

Prefer the


style of


loop over the



Preferred: ```swift for _ in 0..<3 { print("Hello three times") }

for (index, person) in attendeeList.enumerated() { print("(person) is at position #(index)") }

for index in stride(from: 0, to: items.count, by: 2) { print(index) }

for index in (0...3).reversed() { print(index) } ```

Not Preferred: ```swift var i = 0 while i < 3 { print("Hello three times") i += 1 }

var i = 0 while i < attendeeList.count { let person = attendeeList[i] print("(person) is at position #(i)") i += 1 } ```

Ternary Operator

The Ternary operator,


, should only be used when it increases clarity or code neatness. A single condition is usually all that should be evaluated. Evaluating multiple conditions is usually more understandable as an


statement or refactored into instance variables. In general, the best use of the ternary operator is during assignment of a variable and deciding which value to use.


let value = 5 result = value != 0 ? x : y let isHorizontal = true result = isHorizontal ? x : y

Not Preferred:

result = a \> b ? x = c \> d ? c : d : y

Golden Path

When coding with conditionals, the left-hand margin of the code should be the "golden" or "happy" path. That is, don't nest


statements. Multiple return statements are OK. The


statement is built for this.

Preferred: ```swift func computeFFT(context: Context?, inputData: InputData?) throws -> Frequencies { guard let context = context else { throw FFTError.noContext } guard let inputData = inputData else { throw FFTError.noInputData }

// use context and input to compute the frequencies return frequencies } ```

Not Preferred: ```swift func computeFFT(context: Context?, inputData: InputData?) throws -> Frequencies { if let context = context { if let inputData = inputData { // use context and input to compute the frequencies

return frequencies } else { throw FFTError.noInputData }

} else { throw FFTError.noContext } } ```

When multiple optionals are unwrapped either with



if let

, minimize nesting by using the compound version when possible. In the compound version, place the


on its own line, then indent each condition on its own line. The


clause is indented to match the conditions and the code is indented one additional level, as shown below. Example:


swift guard let number1 = number1, let number2 = number2, let number3 = number3 else { fatalError("impossible") } // do something with numbers

Not Preferred:

swift if let number1 = number1 { if let number2 = number2 { if let number3 = number3 { // do something with numbers } else { fatalError("impossible") } } else { fatalError("impossible") } } else { fatalError("impossible") }

Failing Guards

Guard statements are required to exit in some way. Generally, this should be simple one line statement such as








, and


. Large code blocks should be avoided. If cleanup code is required for multiple exit points, consider using a


block to avoid cleanup code duplication.


Swift does not require a semicolon after each statement in your code. They are only required if you wish to combine multiple statements on a single line.

Do not write multiple statements on a single line separated with semicolons.


swift let swift = "not a scripting language"

Not Preferred:

swift let swift = "not a scripting language";

NOTE: Swift is very different from JavaScript, where omitting semicolons is generally considered unsafe


Parentheses around conditionals are not required and should be omitted.


swift if name == "Hello" { print("World") }

Not Preferred:

swift if (name == "Hello") { print("World") }

In larger expressions, optional parentheses can sometimes make code read more clearly.


swift let playerMark = (player == current ? "X" : "O")

Multi-line String Literals

When building a long string literal, you're encouraged to use the multi-line string literal syntax. Open the literal on the same line as the assignment but do not include text on that line. Indent the text block one additional level.


let message = """ You cannot charge the flux \ capacitor with a 9V battery. You must use a super-charger \ which costs 10 credits. You currently \ have \(credits) credits available. """

Not Preferred:

let message = """You cannot charge the flux \ capacitor with a 9V battery. You must use a super-charger \ which costs 10 credits. You currently \ have \(credits) credits available. """

Not Preferred:

let message = "You cannot charge the flux " + "capacitor with a 9V battery.\n" + "You must use a super-charger " + "which costs 10 credits. You currently " + "have \(credits) credits available."

No Emoji

Do not use emoji in your projects. For those readers who actually type in their code, it's an unnecessary source of friction. While it may be cute, it doesn't add to the learning and it interrupts the coding flow for these readers.

No #imageLiteral or #colorLiteral

Likewise, do not use Xcode's ability to drag a color or an image into a source statement. These turn into #colorLiteral and #imageLiteral, respectively, and present unpleasant challenges for a reader trying to enter them based on tutorial text. Instead, use





Organization and Bundle Identifier

Where an Xcode project is involved, the organization should be set to

Ray Wenderlich

and the Bundle Identifier set to




is the name of the tutorial project.

Xcode Project settings

Copyright Statement

The following copyright statement should be included at the top of every source file:

/// Copyright (c) 2020 Razeware LLC /// /// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy /// of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal /// in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights /// to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell /// copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is /// furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: /// /// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in /// all copies or substantial portions of the Software. /// /// Notwithstanding the foregoing, you may not use, copy, modify, merge, publish, /// distribute, sublicense, create a derivative work, and/or sell copies of the /// Software in any work that is designed, intended, or marketed for pedagogical or /// instructional purposes related to programming, coding, application development, /// or information technology. Permission for such use, copying, modification, /// merger, publication, distribution, sublicensing, creation of derivative works, /// or sale is expressly withheld. /// /// This project and source code may use libraries or frameworks that are /// released under various Open-Source licenses. Use of those libraries and /// frameworks are governed by their own individual licenses. /// /// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR /// IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, /// FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE /// AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER /// LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, /// OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN /// THE SOFTWARE.

Smiley Face

Smiley faces are a very prominent style feature of the site! It is very important to have the correct smile signifying the immense amount of happiness and excitement for the coding topic. The closing square bracket


is used because it represents the largest smile able to be captured using ASCII art. A closing parenthesis


creates a half-hearted smile, and thus is not preferred.



Not Preferred:



We use cookies. If you continue to browse the site, you agree to the use of cookies. For more information on our use of cookies please see our Privacy Policy.