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🥃 Functional Algebraic Data Types

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npm Pratica License PRs Welcome

🥃 Pratica

Functional Programming for Pragmatists

Why is this for pragmatists you say?

Pratica sacrifices some common FP guidelines in order to provide a simpler and more approachable API that can be used to accomplish your goals quickly - while maintaining data integrity and safety, through algrebraic data types.

For V1 docs - check out v1 docs readme

Install

With yarn

sh
yarn add pratica
or if you prefer npm
sh
npm i pratica

Documentation

Table of Contents - Monads + Maybe + .map + .chain + .ap + .alt + .cata + .toResult + .inspect + .isNothing + .isJust + Result + .ap + .map + .mapErr + .chain + .chainErr + .bimap + .swap + .cata + .toMaybe + .inspect + .isErr + .isOk - Utilities + encase + encaseRes + justs + oks + get + head + last + tail + tryFind + parseDate

Changes from V1 to V2

If you are migrating from Pratica V1 to V2. Here is a small list of changes made:

  • Maybe()
    utility was renamed to
    nullable()
  • .default(() => 'value')
    was renamed to
    .alt('value')
    and does not require a function to be passed in, just a value.

That's it. Enjoy.

Monads

Maybe

Use this when dealing with nullable and unreliable data that needs actions performed upon.

Maybe is great for making sure you do not cause runtime errors by accessing data that is not there because of unexpected nulls or undefineds.

Every Maybe can either be of type

Just
or
Nothing
. When the data is available, it is wrapped with
Just
, if the data is missing, it is
Nothing
. The examples below should clarify futher.
Maybe.map

Map is used for running a function on the data inside the Maybe. Map will only run the function if the Maybe type is

Just
. If it's Nothing, the map will short circuit and be skipped. ```js import { nullable } from 'pratica'

const person = { name: 'Jason', age: 4 }

// Example with real data nullable(person) .map(p => p.age) .map(age => age + 5) .cata({ Just: age => console.log(age), // 9 Nothing: () => console.log(

This function won't run
) })

// Example with null data nullable(null) .map(p => p.age) // Maybe type is Nothing, so this function is skipped .map(age => age + 5) // Maybe type is Nothing, so this function is skipped .cata({ Just: age => console.log(age), // Maybe type is Nothing, so this function is not run Nothing: () => console.log('Could not get age from person') // This function runs because Maybe is Nothing }) ```

Maybe.chain

Chain is used when you want to return another Maybe when already inside a Maybe. ```js import { nullable } from 'pratica'

const person = { name: 'Jason', age: 4 }

nullable(person) .chain(p => nullable(p.height)) // p.height does not exist so nullable returns a Nothing type, any .map, .chain, or .ap after a Nothing will be short circuited .map(height => height * 2.2) // this func won't even run because height is Nothing, so

undefined * 2.2
will never execute, preventing problems. .cata({ Just: height => console.log(height), // this function won't run because the height is Nothing Nothing: () => console.log('This person has no height') }) ```
Maybe.alt

Alt is a clean way of making sure you always return a Just with some default data inside. ```js import { nullable } from 'pratica'

// Example with default data nullable(null) .map(p => p.age) // won't run .map(age => age + 5) // won't run .alt(99) // the data is null so 99 is the default .cata({ Just: age => console.log(age), // 99 Nothing: () => console.log(

This function won't run because .alt() always returns a Just
) }) ```
Maybe.ap

Sometime's working with Maybe can be reptitive to always call

.map
whenever needing to a apply a function to the contents of the Maybe. Here is an example using
.ap
to simplify this.

Goal of this example, to perform operations on data inside the Maybe, without unwrapping the data with

.map
or
.chain
```js import { Just, nullable } from 'pratica'

// Need something like this // Just(6) + Just(7) = Just(13) Just(x => y => x + y) .ap(Just(6)) .ap(Just(7)) .cata({ Just: result => console.log(result), // 13 Nothing: () => console.log(

This function won't run
) })

nullable(null) // no function to apply .ap(Just(6)) .ap(Just(7)) .cata({ Just: () => console.log(

This function won't run
), Nothing: () => console.log(
This function runs
) }) ```
Maybe.inspect

Inspect is used for seeing a string respresentation of the Maybe. It is used mostly for Node logging which will automatically call inspect() on objects that have it, but you can use it too for debugging if you like. ```js import { nullable } from 'pratica'

const { log } = console

log(nullable(86).inspect()) //

Just(86)
log(nullable('HELLO').inspect()) //
Just('HELLO')
log(nullable(null).inspect()) //
Nothing
log(nullable(undefined).inspect()) //
Nothing
```
Maybe.cata

Cata is used at the end of your chain of computations. It is used for getting the final data from the Maybe. You must pass an object to

.cata
with 2 properties,
Just
and
Nothing
(capitalization matters), and both those properties must be a function. Those functions will run based on if the the computations above it return a Just or Nothing data type.

Cata stands for catamorphism and in simple terms means that it extracts a value from inside any container.

import { Just, Nothing } from 'pratica'

const isOver6Feet = person => person.height > 6 ? Just(person.height) : Nothing

isOver6Feet({ height: 4.5 }) .map(h => h / 2.2) .cata({ Just: h => console.log(h), // this function doesn't run Nothing: () => console.log(person is not over 6 feet) })

Maybe.toResult

toResult is used for easily converting Maybe's to Result's. Any Maybe that is a Just will be converted to an Ok with the same value inside, and any value that was Nothing will be converted to an Err with no value passed. The cata will have to include

Ok
and
Err
instead of
Just
and
Nothing
.
import { Just, Nothing } from 'pratica'

Just(8) .toResult() .cata({ Ok: n => console.log(n), // 8 Err: () => console.log(No value) // this function doesn't run })

Nothing .toResult() .cata({ Ok: n => console.log(n), // this function doesn't run Err: () => console.log(No value) // this runs })

Maybe.isJust

isJust returns a boolean representing the type of the Maybe. If the Maybe is a Just type then true is returned, if it's a Nothing, returns false.

import { Just, Nothing } from 'pratica'

const isOver6Feet = height => height > 6 ? Just(height) : Nothing

const { log } = console

log(isOver6Feet(7).isJust()) // true log(isOver6Feet(4).isJust()) // false

Maybe.isNothing

isNothing returns a boolean representing the type of the Maybe. If the Maybe is a Just type then false is returned, if it's a Nothing, returns true.

import { Just, Nothing } from 'pratica'

const isOver6Feet = height => height > 6 ? Just(height) : Nothing

const { log } = console

log(isOver6Feet(7).isNothing()) // false log(isOver6Feet(4).isNothing()) // true

Maybe.value

value returns the encapsulated value within the Maybe. If the Maybe is a Just type, then the

arg
is returned, otherwise, if it is a Nothing, then it returns undefined.
import { Just, Nothing } from 'pratica'

const isOver6Feet = height => height > 6 ? Just(height) : Nothing

const { log } = console

log(isOver6Feet(7).value()) // 7 log(isOver6Feet(4).value()) // undefined

Result

Use this when dealing with conditional logic. Often a replacment for if statements - or for simplifying complex logic trees. A Result can either be an

Ok
or an
Err
type.
Result.map
import { Ok, Err } from 'pratica'

const person = { name: 'jason', age: 4 }

Ok(person) .map(p => p.name) .cata({ Ok: name => console.log(name), // 'jason' Err: msg => console.error(msg) // this func does not run })

Result.chain
import { Ok, Err } from 'pratica'

const person = { name: 'Jason', age: 4 }

const isPerson = p => p.name && p.age ? Ok(p) : Err('Not a person')

const isOlderThan2 = p => p.age > 2 ? Ok(p) : Err('Not older than 2')

const isJason = p => p.name === 'jason' ? Ok(p) : Err('Not jason')

Ok(person) .chain(isPerson) .chain(isOlderThan2) .chain(isJason) .cata({ Ok: p => console.log('this person satisfies all the checks'), Err: msg => console.log(msg) // if any checks return an Err, then this function will be called. If isPerson returns Err, then isOlderThan2 and isJason functions won't even execute, and the err msg would be 'Not a person' })

Result.mapErr

You can also modify errors that may return from any result before getting the final result, by using

.mapErr
or
.chainErr
.
import { Err } from 'pratica'

Err('Message:') .mapErr(x => x + ' Syntax Error') .map(x => x + 7) // ignored because it's an error .cata({ Ok: x => console.log(x), // function not ran Err: x => console.log(x) // 'Message: Syntax Error' })

Result.chainErr
import { Err } from 'pratica'

Err('Message:') .chainErr(x => x + Err(' Syntax Error')) .map(x => x + 7) // ignored because it's an error .cata({ Ok: x => console.log(x), // function not ran Err: x => console.log(x) // 'Message: Syntax Error' })

Result.swap

Use

.swap()
to convert an Err to an Ok, or an Ok to an Err. ```js import { Ok } from 'pratica'

Ok('hello') .swap() .cata({ Ok: () => console.log(

doesn't run
), Err: x => expect(x).toBe('hello') // true }) ```
Result.bimap

Use

.bimap()
for easily modifying an Ok or an Err. Shorthand for providing both
.map
and
.mapErr
```js import { Ok } from 'pratica'

Ok('hello') .bimap(x => x + ' world', x => x + ' goodbye') .cata({ Ok: x => expect(x).toBe('hello world'), // true Err: () => {} })

Err('hello') .bimap(x => x + ' world', x => x + ' goodbye') .cata({ Ok: () => {}, Err: x => expect(x).toBe('hello goodbye') // true }) ```

Result.ap
import { Ok } from 'pratica'

// Need something like this // Ok(6) + Ok(7) = Ok(13) Ok(x => y => x + y) .ap(Ok(6)) .ap(Ok(7)) .cata({ Ok: result => console.log(result), // 13 Err: () => console.log(This function won't run) })

Ok(null) // no function to apply .ap(Ok(6)) .ap(Ok(7)) .cata({ Ok: () => console.log(This function won't run), Err: () => console.log(This function runs) })

Result.inspect
import { Ok, Err } from 'pratica'

const { log } = console

log(Ok(86).inspect()) // Ok(86) log(Ok('HELLO').inspect()) // Ok('HELLO') log(Err('Something happened').inspect()) // Err('Something happened') log(Err(404).inspect()) // Err(404)

Result.cata
import { Ok, Err } from 'pratica'

const isOver6Feet = person => person.height > 6 ? Ok(person.height) : Err('person is not over 6 feet')

isOver6Feet({ height: 4.5 }) .map(h => h / 2.2) .cata({ Ok: h => console.log(h), // this function doesn't run Err: msg => console.log(msg) // person is not over 6 feet })

Result.toMaybe

toMaybe is used for easily converting Result's to Maybe's. Any Result that is an Ok will be converted to a Just with the same value inside, and any value that was Err will be converted to a Nothing with no value passed. The cata will have to include

Just
and
Nothing
instead of
Ok
and
Err
.
import { Ok, Err } from 'pratica'

Ok(8) .toMaybe() .cata({ Just: n => console.log(n), // 8 Nothing: () => console.log(No value) // this function doesn't run })

Err(8) .toMaybe() .cata({ Just: n => console.log(n), // this function doesn't run Nothing: () => console.log(No value) // this runs })

Result.isOk
import { Ok, Err } from 'pratica'

const isOver6Feet = height => height > 6 ? Ok(height) : Err('Shorty')

const { log } = console

log(isOver6Feet(7).isOk()) // true log(isOver6Feet(4).isOk()) // false

Result.isErr
import { Ok, Err } from 'pratica'

const isOver6Feet = height => height > 6 ? Ok(height) : Err('Shorty')

const { log } = console

log(isOver6Feet(7).isErr()) // false log(isOver6Feet(4).isErr()) // true

Utilities

parseDate

Safely parse date strings. parseDate returns a Maybe monad. ```js import { parseDate } from 'pratica'

const goodDate = '2019-02-13T21:04:10.984Z' const badDate = '2019-02-13T21:04:1'

parseDate(goodDate).cata({ Just: date => expect(date.toISOString()).toBe(goodDate), Nothing: () => console.log('could not parse date string') // this function doesn't run })

parseDate(badDate).cata({ Just: () => console.log(

this function doesn't run
), Nothing: () => 'this function runs' })

// it's a maybe, so you can use chain/default/ap parseDate(null) .default(() => new Date()) .cata({ Just: date => date.toISOString(), // this runs Nothing: () =>

doesn't run because of the .default()
}) ```

encase

Safely run functions that may throw an error or crash. encase returns a Maybe type (so Just or Nothing). ```js import { encase } from 'pratica'

const throwableFunc = () => JSON.parse('<>')

// this func doesn't throw, so Just is called encase(() => 'hello').cata({ Just: x => console.log(x), // hello Nothing: () => console.log('func threw error') // this func doesn't run })

// this function throws an error so Nothing is called encase(throwableFunc).cata({ Just: json => console.log(

doesn't run
), Nothing: () => console.error('func threw an error') // this runs }) ```

encaseRes

Safely run functions that may throw an error or crash. encaseRes returns a Result type (so Ok or Err). Similar to

encase
but the Err returns the error message. ```js import { encaseRes } from 'pratica'

const throwableFunc = () => JSON.parse('<>')

// this func doesn't throw, so Ok is called encaseRes(() => 'hello').cata({ Ok: x => console.log(x), // hello Err: () => console.log('func threw error') // this func doesn't run })

// this function throws an error so Err is called encaseRes(throwableFunc).cata({ Ok: json => console.log(

doesn't run
), Err: msg => console.error(msg) // SyntaxError: Unexpected token < in JSON at position 0 }) ```

justs

Filter out any non-Just data type from an array

import { justs } from 'pratica'

const data = [1, true, Just('hello'), Nothing, Ok('hey'), Err('No good')]

justs(data) // returns [Just('hello')]

oks

Filter out any non-Ok data type from an array

import { oks } from 'pratica'

const data = [1, true, Just('hello'), Nothing, Ok('hey'), Err('No good')]

oks(data) // returns [Ok('hey')]

get

Safely retrieve a nested property in an object. Returns a Maybe. ```js import { get } from 'pratica'

const data = { name: 'jason', children: [ { name: 'bob' }, { name: 'blanche', children: [ { name: 'lera' } ] } ] }

get(['children', 1, 'children', 0, 'name'])(data).cata({ Just: name => expect(name).toBe('lera'), // true Nothing: () => console.log('no name') // doesn't run }) ```

head

Safely get the first item in an array. Returns a Maybe. ```js import { head } from 'pratica'

const data = [5,1,2]

// example with data head(data) .cata({ Just: x => expect(x).toBe(5), // true, Nothing: () => console.log('No head') // won't run })

// example with empty data head([]) .cata({ Just: x => console.log(x), // doesn't run Nothing: () => console.log('No head') // runs }) ```

last

Safely get the last item in an array. Returns a Maybe. ```js import { last } from 'pratica'

const data = [5,1,2]

// example with data last(data) .cata({ Just: x => expect(x).toBe(2), // true, Nothing: () => console.log('No last') // won't run })

// example with empty data last([]) .cata({ Just: x => console.log(x), // doesn't run Nothing: () => console.log('No last') // runs }) ```

tail

Safely get the tail of an array (Everything except the first element). Returns a Maybe. ```js import { tail } from 'pratica'

const data = [5,1,2]

// example with data tail(data) .cata({ Just: x => expect(x).toEqual([1,2]), // true, Nothing: () => console.log('No tail') // won't run })

// example with empty data last([]) .cata({ Just: x => console.log(x), // doesn't run Nothing: () => console.log('No tail') // runs }) ```

tryFind

Safely try to retrieve an item from an array. Returns a Maybe.

import { tryFind } from 'pratica'

const users = [ {name: 'jason', age: 6, id: '123abc'}, {name: 'bob', age: 68, id: '456def'} ]

tryFind(u => u.id === '123abc')(users) .cata({ Just: user => expect(user).toEqual(users[0]), // true Nothing: () => 'Could not find user with id 123abc' // doesn't run })

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