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Pipenv: Python Development Workflow for Humans

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[ ~ Dependency Scanning by PyUp.io ~ ]

Pipenv is a tool that aims to bring the best of all packaging worlds (bundler, composer, npm, cargo, yarn, etc.) to the Python world. Windows is a first-class citizen, in our world.

It automatically creates and manages a virtualenv for your projects, as well as adds/removes packages from your

Pipfile
as you install/uninstall packages. It also generates the ever-important
Pipfile.lock
, which is used to produce deterministic builds.

GIF demonstrating Pipenv's usage

The problems that Pipenv seeks to solve are multi-faceted:

  • You no longer need to use
    pip
    and
    virtualenv
    separately. They work together.
  • Managing a
    requirements.txt
    file can be problematic, so Pipenv uses the upcoming
    Pipfile
    and
    Pipfile.lock
    instead, which is superior for basic use cases.
  • Hashes are used everywhere, always. Security. Automatically expose security vulnerabilities.
  • Give you insight into your dependency graph (e.g.
    $ pipenv graph
    ).
  • Streamline development workflow by loading
    .env
    files.

You can quickly play with Pipenv right in your browser:

Try in browser

Installation

If you\'re using Debian Buster+:

$ sudo apt install pipenv

Or, if you\'re using Fedora:

$ sudo dnf install pipenv

Or, if you\'re using FreeBSD:

# pkg install py36-pipenv

When none of the above is an option, it is recommended to use Pipx:

$ pipx install pipenv

Otherwise, refer to the documentation for instructions.

✨🍰✨

☤ User Testimonials

David Gang---

: This package manager is really awesome. For the first time I know exactly what my dependencies are which I installed and what the transitive dependencies are. Combined with the fact that installs are deterministic, makes this package manager first class, like cargo.

Justin Myles Holmes---

: Pipenv is finally an abstraction meant to engage the mind instead of merely the filesystem.

☤ Features

  • Enables truly deterministic builds, while easily specifying only what you want.
  • Generates and checks file hashes for locked dependencies.
  • Automatically install required Pythons, if
    pyenv
    is available.
  • Automatically finds your project home, recursively, by looking for a
    Pipfile
    .
  • Automatically generates a
    Pipfile
    , if one doesn\'t exist.
  • Automatically creates a virtualenv in a standard location.
  • Automatically adds/removes packages to a
    Pipfile
    when they are un/installed.
  • Automatically loads
    .env
    files, if they exist.

The main commands are

install
,
uninstall
, and
lock
, which generates a
Pipfile.lock
. These are intended to replace
$ pip install
usage, as well as manual virtualenv management (to activate a virtualenv, run
$ pipenv shell
).

Basic Concepts

  • A virtualenv will automatically be created, when one doesn\'t exist.
  • When no parameters are passed to
    install
    , all packages
    [packages]
    specified will be installed.
  • To initialize a Python 3 virtual environment, run
    $ pipenv --three
    .
  • To initialize a Python 2 virtual environment, run
    $ pipenv --two
    .
  • Otherwise, whatever virtualenv defaults to will be the default.

Other Commands

  • shell
    will spawn a shell with the virtualenv activated.
  • run
    will run a given command from the virtualenv, with any arguments forwarded (e.g.
    $ pipenv run python
    ).
  • check
    asserts that PEP 508 requirements are being met by the current environment.
  • graph
    will print a pretty graph of all your installed dependencies.

Shell Completion

For example, with fish, put this in your

~/.config/fish/completions/pipenv.fish
:
eval (pipenv --completion)

Alternatively, with bash, put this in your

.bashrc
or
.bash_profile
:
eval "$(pipenv --completion)"

Magic shell completions are now enabled! There is also a fish plugin, which will automatically activate your subshells for you!

Fish is the best shell. You should use it.

☤ Usage

$ pipenv
Usage: pipenv [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]...

Options: --where Output project home information. --venv Output virtualenv information. --py Output Python interpreter information. --envs Output Environment Variable options. --rm Remove the virtualenv. --bare Minimal output. --completion Output completion (to be eval'd). --man Display manpage. --three / --two Use Python 3/2 when creating virtualenv. --python TEXT Specify which version of Python virtualenv should use. --site-packages Enable site-packages for the virtualenv. --version Show the version and exit. -h, --help Show this message and exit.

Usage Examples: Create a new project using Python 3.7, specifically: $ pipenv --python 3.7

Remove project virtualenv (inferred from current directory): $ pipenv --rm

Install all dependencies for a project (including dev): $ pipenv install --dev

Create a lockfile containing pre-releases: $ pipenv lock --pre

Show a graph of your installed dependencies: $ pipenv graph

Check your installed dependencies for security vulnerabilities: $ pipenv check

Install a local setup.py into your virtual environment/Pipfile: $ pipenv install -e .

Use a lower-level pip command: $ pipenv run pip freeze

Commands: check Checks for security vulnerabilities and against PEP 508 markers provided in Pipfile. clean Uninstalls all packages not specified in Pipfile.lock. graph Displays currently–installed dependency graph information. install Installs provided packages and adds them to Pipfile, or (if no packages are given), installs all packages from Pipfile. lock Generates Pipfile.lock. open View a given module in your editor. run Spawns a command installed into the virtualenv. scripts Displays the shortcuts in the (optional) [scripts] section of Pipfile. shell Spawns a shell within the virtualenv. sync Installs all packages specified in Pipfile.lock. uninstall Un-installs a provided package and removes it from Pipfile.

Locate the project:

$ pipenv --where
/Users/kennethreitz/Library/Mobile Documents/com~apple~CloudDocs/repos/kr/pipenv/test

Locate the virtualenv:

$ pipenv --venv
/Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-Skyy4vre

Locate the Python interpreter:

$ pipenv --py
/Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-Skyy4vre/bin/python

Install packages:

$ pipenv install
Creating a virtualenv for this project...
...
No package provided, installing all dependencies.
Virtualenv location: /Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-EJkjoYts
Installing dependencies from Pipfile.lock...
...

To activate this project's virtualenv, run the following: $ pipenv shell

Installing from git:

You can install packages with pipenv from git and other version control systems using URLs formatted according to the following rule:

+:////@#

The only optional section is the

@
section. When using git over SSH, you may use the shorthand vcs and scheme alias
[email protected]:/@#
. Note that this is translated to
git+ssh://[email protected]
when parsed.

Valid values for

 include 
git
,
bzr
,
svn
, and
hg
. Valid values for
 include 
http,
,
https
,
ssh
, and
file
. In specific cases you also have access to other schemes:
svn
may be combined with
svn
as a scheme, and
bzr
can be combined with
sftp
and
lp
.

Note that it is strongly recommended that you install any version-controlled dependencies in editable mode, using

pipenv install -e
, in order to ensure that dependency resolution can be performed with an up to date copy of the repository each time it is performed, and that it includes all known dependencies.

Below is an example usage which installs the git repository located at

https://github.com/requests/requests.git
from tag
v2.19.1
as package name
requests
:
$ pipenv install -e git+https://github.com/requests/[email protected]#egg=requests
Creating a Pipfile for this project...
Installing -e git+https://github.com/requests/[email protected]#egg=requests...
[...snipped...]
Adding -e git+https://github.com/requests/[email protected]#egg=requests to Pipfile's [packages]...
[...]

You can read more about pip's implementation of vcs support here.

Install a dev dependency:

$ pipenv install pytest --dev
Installing pytest...
...
Adding pytest to Pipfile's [dev-packages]...

Show a dependency graph:

$ pipenv graph
requests==2.18.4
  - certifi [required: >=2017.4.17, installed: 2017.7.27.1]
  - chardet [required: >=3.0.2,<3.1.0, installed: 3.0.4]
  - idna [required: >=2.5,<2.7, installed: 2.6]
  - urllib3 [required: <1.23,>=1.21.1, installed: 1.22]

Generate a lockfile:

$ pipenv lock
Assuring all dependencies from Pipfile are installed...
Locking [dev-packages] dependencies...
Locking [packages] dependencies...
Note: your project now has only default [packages] installed.
To install [dev-packages], run: $ pipenv install --dev

Install all dev dependencies:

$ pipenv install --dev
Pipfile found at /Users/kennethreitz/repos/kr/pip2/test/Pipfile. Considering this to be the project home.
Pipfile.lock out of date, updating...
Assuring all dependencies from Pipfile are installed...
Locking [dev-packages] dependencies...
Locking [packages] dependencies...

Uninstall everything:

$ pipenv uninstall --all
No package provided, un-installing all dependencies.
Found 25 installed package(s), purging...
...
Environment now purged and fresh!

Use the shell:

$ pipenv shell
Loading .env environment variables...
Launching subshell in virtual environment. Type 'exit' or 'Ctrl+D' to return.
$ ▯

☤ Documentation

Documentation resides over at pipenv.pypa.io.

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