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✂A collection of useful .htaccess snippets.

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.htaccess Snippets Awesome

A collection of useful .htaccess snippets, all in one place.

NOTE:

.htaccess

files are for people that do not have rights to edit the main server configuration file. They are intrinsically slower and more complicated than using the main config. Please see the howto in the httpd documentation for further details.

Disclaimer: While dropping the snippet into an

.htaccess

file is most of the time sufficient, there are cases when certain modifications might be required. Use at your own risk.

IMPORTANT: Apache 2.4 introduces a few breaking changes, most notably in access control configuration. For more information, check the upgrading document as well as this issue.

Credits

What we are doing here is mostly collecting useful snippets from all over the interwebs (for example, a good chunk is from Apache Server Configs) into one place. While we’ve been trying to credit where due, things might be missing. If you believe anything here is your work and credits should be given, let us know, or just send a PR.

Table of Contents

Rewrite and Redirection

Note: It is assumed that you have

mod\_rewrite

installed and enabled.

Force www

RewriteEngine on RewriteCond %{HTTP\_HOST} ^example\.com [NC] RewriteRule ^(.\*)$ http://www.example.com/$1 [L,R=301,NC]

Force www in a Generic Way

RewriteCond %{HTTP\_HOST} !^$ RewriteCond %{HTTP\_HOST} !^www\. [NC] RewriteCond %{HTTPS}s ^on(s)| RewriteRule ^ http%1://www.%{HTTP\_HOST}%{REQUEST\_URI} [R=301,L]

This works for any domain. Source

Force non-www

It’s still open for debate whether www or non-www is the way to go, so if you happen to be a fan of bare domains, here you go:

apacheconf RewriteEngine on RewriteCond %{HTTP\_HOST} ^www\.example\.com [NC] RewriteRule ^(.\*)$ http://example.com/$1 [L,R=301]

Force non-www in a Generic Way

RewriteEngine on RewriteCond %{HTTP\_HOST} ^www\. RewriteCond %{HTTPS}s ^on(s)|off RewriteCond http%1://%{HTTP\_HOST} ^(https?://)(www\.)?(.+)$ RewriteRule ^ %1%3%{REQUEST\_URI} [R=301,L]

Force HTTPS

RewriteEngine on RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !on RewriteRule (.\*) https://%{HTTP\_HOST}%{REQUEST\_URI} # Note: It’s also recommended to enable HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) # on your HTTPS website to help prevent man-in-the-middle attacks. # See https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/Security/HTTP\_strict\_transport\_security<ifmodule mod_headers.c>
    # Remove "includeSubDomains" if you don't want to enforce HSTS on all subdomains
    Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000;includeSubDomains"
</ifmodule>

Force HTTPS Behind a Proxy

Useful if you have a proxy in front of your server performing TLS termination.

apacheconf RewriteCond %{HTTP:X-Forwarded-Proto} !https RewriteRule (.\*) https://%{HTTP\_HOST}%{REQUEST\_URI}

Force Trailing Slash

RewriteCond %{REQUEST\_URI} /+[^\.]+$ RewriteRule ^(.+[^/])$ %{REQUEST\_URI}/ [R=301,L]

Remove Trailing Slash

This snippet will redirect paths ending in slashes to their non-slash-terminated counterparts (except for actual directories), e.g.

http://www.example.com/blog/

to

http://www.example.com/blog

. This is important for SEO, since it’s recommended to have a canonical URL for every page.

apacheconf RewriteCond %{REQUEST\_FILENAME} !-d RewriteCond %{REQUEST\_URI} (.+)/$ RewriteRule ^ %1 [R=301,L]

Source

Redirect a Single Page

Redirect 301 /oldpage.html http://www.example.com/newpage.html Redirect 301 /oldpage2.html http://www.example.com/folder/

Source

Redirect Using RedirectMatch

RedirectMatch 301 /subdirectory(.\*) http://www.newsite.com/newfolder/$1 RedirectMatch 301 ^/(.\*).htm$ /$1.html RedirectMatch 301 ^/200([0-9])/([^01])(.\*)$ /$2$3 RedirectMatch 301 ^/category/(.\*)$ /$1 RedirectMatch 301 ^/(.\*)/htaccesselite-ultimate-htaccess-article.html(.\*) /htaccess/htaccess.html RedirectMatch 301 ^/(.\*).html/1/(.\*) /$1.html$2 RedirectMatch 301 ^/manual/(.\*)$ http://www.php.net/manual/$1 RedirectMatch 301 ^/dreamweaver/(.\*)$ /tools/$1 RedirectMatch 301 ^/z/(.\*)$ http://static.askapache.com/$1

Source

Alias a Single Directory

RewriteEngine On RewriteRule ^source-directory/(.\*) /target-directory/$1 [R=301,L]

Alias Paths to Script

FallbackResource /index.fcgi

This example has an

index.fcgi

file in some directory, and any requests within that directory that fail to resolve a filename/directory will be sent to the

index.fcgi

script. It’s good if you want

baz.foo/some/cool/path

to be handled by

baz.foo/index.fcgi

(which also supports requests to

baz.foo

) while maintaining

baz.foo/css/style.css

and the like. Get access to the original path from the PATH_INFO environment variable, as exposed to your scripting environment.

RewriteEngine On RewriteRule ^$ index.fcgi/ [QSA,L] RewriteCond %{REQUEST\_FILENAME} !-f RewriteCond %{REQUEST\_FILENAME} !-d RewriteRule ^(.\*)$ index.fcgi/$1 [QSA,L]

This is a less efficient version of the FallbackResource directive (because using

mod\_rewrite

is more complex than just handling the

FallbackResource

directive), but it’s also more flexible.

Redirect an Entire Site

Redirect 301 / http://newsite.com/

This way does it with links intact. That is

www.oldsite.com/some/crazy/link.html

will become

www.newsite.com/some/crazy/link.html

. This is extremely helpful when you are just “moving” a site to a new domain. Source

Alias “Clean” URLs

This snippet lets you use “clean” URLs -- those without a PHP extension, e.g.

example.com/users

instead of

example.com/users.php

.

apacheconf RewriteEngine On RewriteCond %{SCRIPT\_FILENAME} !-d RewriteRule ^([^.]+)$ $1.php [NC,L]

Source

Exclude URL from Redirection

This snippet allows you to exclude a URL from redirection. For example, if you have redirection rules setup but want to exclude robots.txt so search engines can access that URL as expected.

apacheconf RewriteEngine On RewriteRule ^robots.txt - [L]

Security

Deny All Access

## Apache 2.2 Deny from all ## Apache 2.4 # Require all denied

But wait, this will lock you out from your content as well! Thus introducing...

Deny All Access Except Yours

## Apache 2.2 Order deny,allow Deny from all Allow from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx ## Apache 2.4 # Require all denied # Require ip xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

is your IP. If you replace the last three digits with

0/12

for example, this will specify a range of IPs within the same network, thus saving you the trouble to list all allowed IPs separately. Source

Now of course there's a reversed version:

Allow All Access Except Spammers'

## Apache 2.2 Order deny,allow Deny from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx Deny from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxy ## Apache 2.4 # Require all granted # Require not ip xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx # Require not ip xxx.xxx.xxx.xxy

Deny Access to Hidden Files and Directories

Hidden files and directories (those whose names start with a dot

.

) should most, if not all, of the time be secured. For example:

.htaccess

,

.htpasswd

,

.git

,

.hg

...

apacheconf RewriteCond %{SCRIPT\_FILENAME} -d [OR] RewriteCond %{SCRIPT\_FILENAME} -f RewriteRule "(^|/)\." - [F]

Alternatively, you can just raise a “Not Found” error, giving the attacker no clue:

apacheconf RedirectMatch 404 /\..\*$

Deny Access to Backup and Source Files

These files may be left by some text/HTML editors (like Vi/Vim) and pose a great security danger if exposed to public. ``` apacheconf ## Apache 2.2 Order allow,deny Deny from all Satisfy All

## Apache 2.4 # Require all denied

### Disable Directory Browsing

Options All -Indexes


### Disable Image Hotlinking

RewriteEngine on # Remove the following line if you want to block blank referrer too RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$ RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^https?://(.+.)?example.com [NC] RewriteRule .(jpe?g|png|gif|bmp)$ - [NC,F,L] # If you want to display a “blocked” banner in place of the hotlinked image, # replace the above rule with: # RewriteRule .(jpe?g|png|gif|bmp) http://example.com/blocked.png [R,L]


### Disable Image Hotlinking for Specific Domains

Sometimes you want to disable image hotlinking from some bad guys only. ``` apacheconf RewriteEngine on RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} ^https?://(.+.)?badsite.com [NC,OR] RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} ^https?://(.+.)?badsite2.com [NC,OR] RewriteRule .(jpe?g|png|gif|bmp)$ - [NC,F,L]

# If you want to display a “blocked” banner in place of the hotlinked image,

# replace the above rule with:

# RewriteRule .(jpe?g|png|gif|bmp) http://example.com/blocked.png [R,L]

Password Protect a Directory First you need to create a .htpasswd file somewhere in the system: ``` bash htpasswd -c /home/fellowship/.htpasswd boromir


Then you can use it for authentication:

apacheconf AuthType Basic AuthName "One does not simply" AuthUserFile /home/fellowship/.htpasswd Require valid-user


### Password Protect a File or Several Files

AuthName "One still does not simply" AuthType Basic AuthUserFile /home/fellowship/.htpasswd Require valid-user Require valid-user


### Block Visitors by Referrer

This denies access for all users who are coming from (referred by) a specific domain.[Source](http://www.htaccess-guide.com/deny-visitors-by-referrer/)``` apacheconf RewriteEngine on

# Options +FollowSymlinks

RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} somedomain.com [NC,OR] RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} anotherdomain.com RewriteRule .\* - [F] ```

### Prevent Framing the Site

This prevents the website to be framed (i.e. put into an

iframe

 tag), when still allows framing for a specific URI.

apacheconf SetEnvIf Request_URI "/starry-night" allow_framing=true Header set X-Frame-Options SAMEORIGIN env=!allow_framing


## Performance

### Compress Text Files
# Force compression for mangled headers.
# https://developer.yahoo.com/blogs/ydn/pushing-beyond-gzipping-25601.html
<ifmodule mod_setenvif.c>
    <ifmodule mod_headers.c>
        SetEnvIfNoCase ^(Accept-EncodXng|X-cept-Encoding|X{15}|~{15}|-{15})$ ^((gzip|deflate)\s*,?\s*)+|[X~-]{4,13}$ HAVE_Accept-Encoding
        RequestHeader append Accept-Encoding "gzip,deflate" env=HAVE_Accept-Encoding
    </ifmodule>
</ifmodule>

# Compress all output labeled with one of the following MIME-types
# (for Apache versions below 2.3.7, you don't need to enable `mod_filter`
# and can remove the `<ifmodule mod_filter.c>` and `</ifmodule>` lines
# as `AddOutputFilterByType` is still in the core directives).
<ifmodule mod_filter.c>
    AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/atom+xml \
                                  application/javascript \
                                  application/json \
                                  application/rss+xml \
                                  application/vnd.ms-fontobject \
                                  application/x-font-ttf \
                                  application/x-web-app-manifest+json \
                                  application/xhtml+xml \
                                  application/xml \
                                  font/opentype \
                                  image/svg+xml \
                                  image/x-icon \
                                  text/css \
                                  text/html \
                                  text/plain \
                                  text/x-component \
                                  text/xml
</ifmodule>
```

Source

Set Expires Headers

Expires headers tell the browser whether they should request a specific file from the server or just grab it from the cache. It is advisable to set static content's expires headers to something far in the future.

If you don’t control versioning with filename-based cache busting, consider lowering the cache time for resources like CSS and JS to something like 1 week. Source``` apacheconf ExpiresActive on ExpiresDefault "access plus 1 month"

CSS ExpiresByType text/css "access plus 1 year"

Data interchange ExpiresByType application/json "access plus 0 seconds" ExpiresByType application/xml "access plus 0 seconds" ExpiresByType text/xml "access plus 0 seconds"

Favicon (cannot be renamed!) ExpiresByType image/x-icon "access plus 1 week"

HTML components (HTCs) ExpiresByType text/x-component "access plus 1 month"

HTML ExpiresByType text/html "access plus 0 seconds"

JavaScript ExpiresByType application/javascript "access plus 1 year"

Manifest files ExpiresByType application/x-web-app-manifest+json "access plus 0 seconds" ExpiresByType text/cache-manifest "access plus 0 seconds"

Media ExpiresByType audio/ogg "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType image/gif "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType image/jpeg "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType image/png "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType video/mp4 "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType video/ogg "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType video/webm "access plus 1 month"

Web feeds ExpiresByType application/atom+xml "access plus 1 hour" ExpiresByType application/rss+xml "access plus 1 hour"

Web fonts ExpiresByType application/font-woff2 "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType application/font-woff "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType application/vnd.ms-fontobject "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType application/x-font-ttf "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType font/opentype "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType image/svg+xml "access plus 1 month" ```

Turn eTags Off

By removing the

ETag

header, you disable caches and browsers from being able to validate files, so they are forced to rely on your

Cache-Control

and

Expires

header. Source

apacheconf<ifmodule mod_headers.c>
    Header unset ETag
</ifmodule>FileETag None

Miscellaneous

Set PHP Variables

php\_value <key> <val>

# For example:
php_value upload_max_filesize 50M
php_value max_execution_time 240
</val></key>

Custom Error Pages

ErrorDocument 500 "Houston, we have a problem." ErrorDocument 401 http://error.example.com/mordor.html ErrorDocument 404 /errors/halflife3.html

Force Downloading

Sometimes you want to force the browser to download some content instead of displaying it.

apacheconf<files>
    ForceType application/octet-stream
    Header set Content-Disposition attachment
</files>

Now there is a yang to this yin:

Prevent Downloading

Sometimes you want to force the browser to display some content instead of downloading it.

apacheconf<filesmatch>
    Header set Content-Type text/plain
</filesmatch>

Allow Cross-Domain Fonts

CDN-served webfonts might not work in Firefox or IE due to CORS. This snippet solves the problem.

apacheconf<ifmodule mod_headers.c>
    <filesmatch>
        Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
    </filesmatch>
</ifmodule>

Source

Auto UTF-8 Encode

Your text content should always be UTF-8 encoded, no? ``` apacheconf

Use UTF-8 encoding for anything served text/plain or text/html

AddDefaultCharset utf-8

Force UTF-8 for a number of file formats

AddCharset utf-8 .atom .css .js .json .rss .vtt .xml ```Source

Switch to Another PHP Version

If you’re on a shared host, chances are there are more than one version of PHP installed, and sometimes you want a specific version for your website. The following snippet should switch the PHP version for you.

AddHandler application/x-httpd-php56 .php # Alternatively, you can use AddType AddType application/x-httpd-php56 .php

Disable Internet Explorer Compatibility View

Compatibility View in IE may affect how some websites are displayed. The following snippet should force IE to use the Edge Rendering Engine and disable the Compatibility View.

<ifmodule mod_headers.c>
    BrowserMatch MSIE is-msie
    Header set X-UA-Compatible IE=edge env=is-msie
</ifmodule>

Serve WebP Images

If WebP images are supported and an image with a .webp extension and the same name is found at the same place as the jpg/png image that is going to be served, then the WebP image is served instead.

RewriteEngine On RewriteCond %{HTTP\_ACCEPT} image/webp RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT\_ROOT}/$1.webp -f RewriteRule (.+)\.(jpe?g|png)$ $1.webp [T=image/webp,E=accept:1]

Source

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