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About the developer

paypal
136 Stars 50 Forks BSD 3-Clause "New" or "Revised" License 389 Commits 12 Opened issues

Description

SkipTo is a replacement for your old classic "Skipnav" link. Once installed on a site, the script dynamically determines the most important places on the page and presents them to the user in a drop-down menu.

Services available

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Contributors list

PayPal accessibility logo

[email protected]

by PayPal Accessibility Team & University of Illinois

See the Authors section for more information.

SkipTo is a replacement for your old classic "Skipnav" link, (so please use it as such)! The SkipTo script creates a drop-down menu consisting of the links to important landmarks and headings on a given web page. Once installed and configured, the menu makes it easier for keyboard and screen reader users to quickly jump to the desired location by simply choosing it from the list of options.

Benefits

  • All users can get an outline of the content on the page.
  • Screen reader users can get a higher level navigation menu without having to use the screen reader landmark and header navigation commands which typically include longer lists of lower level headings and less used landmarks.
  • Keyboard only users can more efficiently navigate to content on a page.
  • Speech recognition users can use the menu to more efficiently navigate to content on a page.

Example Screen Shot

Access keys

Access keys work just like regular shortcut keys except that they need a browser-specific modifier key in order to work. For example, to use the "SkipTo" access key, you would press the modifier key + the access key (0 in this particular case). here is a quick list for how this would work in most popular browsers.

  • Mozilla Firefox -- Alt+Shift+0.
  • Google Chrome -- Alt+0 (Windows) and Control+Option+0 (Mac OS).
  • Safari -- Control+Option+0.

Websites using SkipTo

How it works

  1. The SkipTo menu button should be the first tabable element on the page, and if it is configured not to be visible when the page is loaded, the menu button becomes visible when it receives focus.
  2. Once the keyboard focus is on the menu button, pressing the ENTER or the SPACEBAR key will pull down the list of important landmarks and headings on the page.
  3. Use arrow keys to select your choice and press ENTER to move focus to the section of the page.
  4. If you decide to reach the menu again, simply press the built-in access key (0 by default). See the notes on Access keys for More information on how to use them.

Adding to Website

All you need are either SkipTo.js or SkipTo.min.js from the "compiled/js" directory. Please note that SkipTo.min.js is a minified (a lighter version) of the script. If you would like to be able to debug your production-ready script, include the provided SkipTo.min.map file as well.

Local File on Your Web Server

Copy the

skipto.js
or
skipto.min.js
to the file system of your web server and reference it from your web page or templates using a
script
tag, as follows:

CDN Service

The easiest way is to include a reference to

skipto.min.js
on your HTML page or template is through the CDN service, as follows:

NOTE: CDN referenced files may not available to computers behind firewall protected networks.

What About WordPress?

A module is under development for WordPress.

Configure Options

Setting properties is optional, when a property is not defined it's default value is used.

Options for adding the
button
element

The following options are useful for identify where the menu will be in the DOM structure of the page and which elements will be used as the container for the menu button. The options are of type

string
.

| Property | default | Description | | :------------- | :---------- | :---------- | |

displayOption
| 'static' | Values of
static
,
fixed
or
popup
are defined. The value
static
the button is always visible, the value
fixed
the button is always visible at the top of the page even when the page scrolls, and the value
popup
is used the button is initially not visible, but becomes visible when it receives focus. | |
accessKey
| '0' | Accesskey provides a way to open the Skip To menu from anywhere on the page, the default is the number zero. | |
attachElement
| 'header' | A CSS selector for identifying which element to attach the menu button container. | |
containerElement
| 'div' | Element to use as a container for the button and the menu. |
customClass
| none | CSS class added to the container element. Can be used for customize styling of the button and menu with author supplied stylesheet. | |
containerRole
| none | Optional landmark role added to a container element, if the container element is not within a landmark. Ideally the menu button is placed within the
banner
landmark (e.g.
header
element. |

Button Positioning

| Property | Type | Default | Description | | :------------- | :----- | :------ | :---------- | |

positionLeft
| length |
46%
| The position of the "Skip To Content" button from left margin. |

CSS Selectors for identifying Landmarks and Headings

The

landmarks
and 'headings' options are CSS selectors used to identify the important landmarks and headings on the page for the purpose of keyboard navigation. The list of landmarks and headings should be relatively short, the more items the menu contains the more time the user will need to scan and navigate to the section they want to "skip to".

The options are of type

string
.

| Property | Default | Description | | :------------- | :------ | :---------- | |

landmarks
| 'main, [role="main"], [role="search"], nav, [role="navigation"], aside, [role="complementary"]' | A set of CSS selectors used by
querySelectorAll
to get an array of landmark nodes. | |
headings
| 'main h1, [role="main"] h1, main h2, [role="main"] h2' | A set of CSS selectors used by
querySelectorAll
to get an array of headings nodes. |

Color Theme Options

A color theme sets all the color options defined by the theme. There is only one theme at this time.

| Property | Type | Default | Description | | :------------- | :----- | :------ | :---------- | |

colorTheme
| string |
default
| A predefined color scheme for skipTo, currently values 'default', 'illinois' and 'aria'|

Colors used for Button and Menu styling

Color values must use CSS color values, for example

#8AF
,
rgb(40, 50, 90)
,
#a0bf32
,
blue
.

| Property | Type | Default | Description | | :------------- | :----- | :------ | :---------- | |

buttonTextColor
| Color |
#1a1a1a
| Color of text for "Skip To Content" button. | |
buttonBackgroundColor
| Color |
#eeeeee
| Background color of text for "Skip To Content" button. | |
focusBorderColor
| Color |
#1a1a1a
| Border color for items with keyboard focus. | |
menuTextColor
| Color |
#1a1a1a
| Menu text color | |
menuBackgroundColor
| Color |
#dcdcdc
| Menu background color. | |
menuitemFocusTextColor
| Color |
#eeeeee
| Menuitem text color when a menuitem has focus. | |
menuitemFocusBackgroundColor
| Color |
#1a1a1a
| Menuitem text background when a menuitem has focus. |

NOTE: Make sure colors meet the color contrast requirements of WCAG 2.1 for text

Heading Shortcuts and Action Menu Options

The inclusion of heading level shortcut keys and the more landmarks and more headings action buttons are enabled by default, but they can be disabled through configuration. The values are of type boolean.

| Property | Default | Description | | :------------- | :------ |:---------- | |

enableActions
| 'true' | Enable ('true') or disable ('false') the action buttons in the menu. | |
enableHeadingLevelShortcuts
| 'true' | Enable ('true') or disable ('false') the heading levels on the heading menu items. |

Internationalization (I18N)

The text labels and messages can be updated through configuration to local language requirements.

Button Labeling

The labels and messages can be localized for specific languages or updated to reflect custom selectors.

| Property | Default | Description | | :------------- | :------ |:---------- | |

buttonLabel
| 'Skip to Content' | Change the label for the button. | |
buttonTitle
| 'Keyboard Navigation' | Help message when accesskey is not defined. | |
buttonTitleWithAccesskey
| 'Keyboard Navigation\nAccesskey is "$key"' | Help message when an accesskey is defined. | |
accesskeyNotSupported
| ' is not supported on this browser.' | Help message when a browser does not support accesskeys. |

Menu, Group and Menuitem Labeling

The labels and messages can be localized for specific languages or updated to reflect custom selectors.

| Property | Default | Description | | :------------- | :------ |:---------- | |

menuLabel
| 'Landmarks and Headings' | Change the label for the menu. | |
landmarkGroupLabel
| 'Landmarks' | Menu group label for landmarks . | |
headingGroupLabel
| 'Headings' | Menu group label for headings. | |
mofnGroupLabel
| '$m of $n' | Provides information on the number of items that are displayed and the total number of items in the document. The information is added to the landmark and heading group labels. | |
headingLevelLabel
| 'Heading level' | Used for
aria-label
to improve labeling of heading menu items for screen reader users. | |
mainLabel
| 'main' | The label in the menu for
main
landmarks | |
searchLabel
| 'search' | The label in the menu for
search
landmarks | |
navLabel
| 'navigation' | The label in the menu for
navigation
landmarks | |
asideLabel
| 'aside' | The label in the menu for
complementary
landmarks | |
footerLabel
| 'footer' | The label in the menu for
contentinfo
landmarks | |
headerLabel
| 'header' | The label in the menu for
banner
landmarks | |
formLabel
| 'form' | The label in the menu for
form
landmarks | |
msgNoLandmarksFound
| 'No landmarks to skip to'| Message for when no landmarks are found. | |
msgNoHeadingsFound
| 'No main headings to skip to'| Message for when no headings are found. |

Action labeling

The labels and messages can be localized for specific languages or updated to reflect custom selectors.

| Property | Default | Description | | :------------- | :------ |:---------- | |

menuLabel
| 'Landmarks and Headings' | Change the label for the menu. | |
landmarkImportantGroupLabel
| 'Important Landmarks' | Menu group label for |
actionGroupLabel
| 'Actions' | The group label for the action menu items. | |
actionShowHeadingsHelp
| 'Toggles between showing "All" and "Important" headings.' | The value of the title attribute for the show headings action menu item. | |
actionShowImportantHeadingsLabel
| 'Show Important Headings ($num)' | The label for the menu item when the button action is to show "Important" headings. | |
actionShowAllHeadingsLabel
| 'Show All headings ($num)'| The label for the menu item when the button action is to show "All" headings. | |
actionShowLandmarksHelp
| 'Toggles between showing "All" and "Important" landmarks.' | The value of the title attribute for the show landmarks action menu item. | |
actionShowImportantLandmarksLabel
| 'Show Important landmarks ($num)' | The label for the menu item when the button action is to show "Important" landmarks. | |
actionShowAllLandmarksLabel
| 'Show All landmarks ($num)' | The label for the menu item when the button action is to show "All" landmarks. | |
actionShowImportantHeadingsAriaLabel
| 'Show $num Important Headings' | The
aria-label
for the menu item when the button action is to show "Important" headings. | |
actionShowAllHeadingsAriaLabel
| 'Show All $num headings'| The
aria-label
for the menu item when the button action is to show "All" headings. | |
actionShowImportantLandmarksAriaLabel
| 'Show $num Important landmarks' | The
aria-label
for the menu item when the button action is to show "Important" landmarks. | |
actionShowAllLandmarksAriaLabel
| 'Show All $num landmarks' | The
aria-label
for the menu item when the button action is to show "All" landmarks. |

Example Settings

If have different requirements for your web site and include other heading levels as well as ARIA landmarks, you will need to provide a JSON object containing the necessary configuration parameters. The following is a sample configuration:


HTML, Classes and Ids for custom styling

The source code in this section is for developers to understand the HTML, classes and ids used in the SkipTo menu button and menu for use in custom styling.




Notes

  • Parameters are optional.
  • SkipTo can be attached to any element on the page (see the "attachElement" parameter). if no "attachElement" is found, the script will be attached as the first element after body.
  • When the custom class is specified (see the customClass parameter), the user can override the style:
.skipTo.MyCustomClass {
  background:  red;
  left: 50px;
  top: 50px;
}

Compiling CSS and JavaScript

You may feel slightly adventurous and decide to change some colors or even enhance the script with your changes. Once you do this, here is how you compile the skipTo script for production.

git clone https://github.com/paypal/skipto.git
cd skipto
sudo npm install grunt-cli -g
npm install
grunt
  1. You should now have a directory called
    compiled
    with the necessary files in it.
  2. See instructions above on which files you need to get the SkipTo script running on your web site.

Note: On Windows, build-win.bat runs npm install and grunt modules (Step 3). To successfully run, you must launch a Windows command prompt as an Admin (Ctrl+Shift+Enter) and then run build-win.bat from this command prompt.

Cleaning up

If you would like to revert your local code repository to its initial state, simply run

grunt clean

from the root directory of your repository.

Of course, we want feedback

Please do not hesitate to raise issues and comment on Github if something doesn't work or you have ideas on how to improve the script.

Happy skipping!

Authors

Current Contributors

Jon Gunderson https://github.com/jongund

Nicholas Hoyt https://github.com/nhoyt

Prem Nawaz Khan https://github.com/mpnkhan || @mpnkhan

Previous Contributors

Victor Tsaran https://github.com/vick08 || @vick08

Ron Feathers https://github.com/rfeathers || @ronfeathers

Marc Kocher https://github.com/mdkocher || @marckocher

Version History

Version 4.0.3

  • Fixed bug in using role description as a class name for menuitem
  • Fixed bug in setting
    menuTextColor
    property.
  • Updated documentation.

Version 4.0.2

  • Changed landmarks from using the tag name in the class list to custom skip-to prefixed tag name.
  • Fixed bug when no landmarks or headings found.
  • Simplified color configuration options.

Version 3.1.4

  • Fixed Joomla configuration option.
  • Added m of n to landmark and heading group labels.

Version 3.1.3

  • Added "fixed" to the
    displayOptions
    customization.

Version 3.1.2

  • Fixed bug in moving focus for landmarks.

Version 3.1.1

  • Changed "Important" to "Selected" landmarks and headings.

Version 3.1

  • Added
    aria-label
    for action menu items to make the label screen reader friendly
  • For heading menuitems, use
    aria-label
    to make the label more like a screen reader
  • Use element names as landmark labels instead of landmark names
  • Support
    aria-roledescription
    for labeling landmark roles in menu
  • Nested landmarks and header levels are indented
  • Added actions to toggle between "Important" and "All" landmarks and headings.
  • Added additional keyboard shortcuts in the menu based on heading level.
  • Added more information about accesskey in help.
  • Fixed bugs in 3.0

Version 3.0

  • Removed id selector options, if ids are needed they could be added to the landmarks selector
  • Removed need to call initialization function
  • Removed support for Internet Explorer
  • Improved code readability and ARIA support, by removing complexity needed to support Internet Explorer
  • Improved configuration of button and menu labeling
  • Add configuration of button and menu colors, without adding a stylesheet
  • Update the landmarks and headings in the menu by querying the DOM every time the menu is opened
  • Reduced markup conflicts by using a data attribute rather than an IDREF for targets
  • Reduced changes in page markup by only applying tabindex=-1 when focus is moved to a target
  • Updated the function for testing if an element is visible

Version 2.1

  • Ignore hidden landmarks and headings, based on:
    • CSS: display: none
    • CSS: visibility: hidden
    • HTML5 hidden attribute
    • ARIA 1.0 aria-hidden=true attribute
    • ARIA 1.0 role=presentation attribute
    • any element that is less than 4 pixels high or wide

Version 2.0

  • Support for HTML5 section elements
  • Calculate accessible names for landmarks and headings
  • Updated menu to separate headings from landmarks
  • Created default for main content
    • main element
    • [role=Main]
  • Created default for HTML5 sections
    • nav element
  • Updated defaults for landmarks
    • [role=navigation]
    • [role=search]
  • Updated defaults for headings
    • h1 element
    • h2 element

Copyright and license

Copyright 2021, PayPal and University of Illinois under the BSD license.

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