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DAIN, Depth-Aware Video Frame Interpolation implemented with ncnn library

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DAIN ncnn Vulkan

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ncnn implementation of DAIN, Depth-Aware Video Frame Interpolation.

dain-ncnn-vulkan uses ncnn project as the universal neural network inference framework.


Download Windows/Linux/MacOS Executable for Intel/AMD/Nvidia GPU

This package includes all the binaries and models required. It is portable, so no CUDA or Caffe runtime environment is needed :)

About DAIN

DAIN (Depth-Aware Video Frame Interpolation) (CVPR 2019)

Wenbo Bao, Wei-Sheng Lai, Chao Ma, Xiaoyun Zhang, Zhiyong Gao, and Ming-Hsuan Yang

This work is developed based on our TPAMI work MEMC-Net, where we propose the adaptive warping layer. Please also consider referring to it.


Input two frame images, output one interpolated frame image.

Example Command

./dain-ncnn-vulkan -0 0.jpg -1 1.jpg -o 01.jpg
./dain-ncnn-vulkan -i input_frames/ -o output_frames/

Video Interpolation with FFmpeg

mkdir input_frames
mkdir output_frames

find the source fps and format with ffprobe, for example 24fps, AAC

ffprobe input.mp4

extract audio

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -vn -acodec copy audio.m4a

decode all frames

ffmpeg -i input.mp4 input_frames/frame_%06d.png

interpolate 2x frame count

./dain-ncnn-vulkan -i input_frames -o output_frames

encode interpolated frames in 48fps with audio

ffmpeg -framerate 48 -i output_frames/%06d.png -i audio.m4a -c:a copy -crf 20 -c:v libx264 -pix_fmt yuv420p output.mp4

Full Usages

Usage: dain-ncnn-vulkan -0 infile -1 infile1 -o outfile [options]...
       dain-ncnn-vulkan -i indir -o outdir [options]...

-h show this help -v verbose output -0 input0-path input image0 path (jpg/png/webp) -1 input1-path input image1 path (jpg/png/webp) -i input-path input image directory (jpg/png/webp) -o output-path output image path (jpg/png/webp) or directory -n num-frame target frame count (default=N*2) -s time-step time step (0~1, default=0.5) -t tile-size tile size (>=128, default=256) can be 256,256,128 for multi-gpu -m model-path dain model path (default=best) -g gpu-id gpu device to use (default=auto) can be 0,1,2 for multi-gpu -j load:proc:save thread count for load/proc/save (default=1:2:2) can be 1:2,2,2:2 for multi-gpu -f pattern-format output image filename pattern format (%08d.jpg/png/webp, default=ext/%08d.png)

  • input0-path
    accept file path
  • input-path
    accept file directory
  • num-frame
    = target frame count
  • time-step
    = interpolation time
  • tile-size
    = tile size, use smaller value to reduce GPU memory usage, must be multiple of 32, default 256
  • load:proc:save
    = thread count for the three stages (image decoding + dain interpolation + image encoding), using larger values may increase GPU usage and consume more GPU memory. You can tune this configuration with "4:4:4" for many small-size images, and "2:2:2" for large-size images. The default setting usually works fine for most situations. If you find that your GPU is hungry, try increasing thread count to achieve faster processing.
  • pattern-format
    = the filename pattern and format of the image to be output, png is better supported, however webp generally yields smaller file sizes, both are losslessly encoded

If you encounter a crash or error, try upgrading your GPU driver:

  • Intel:
  • AMD:

Build from Source

  1. Download and setup the Vulkan SDK from

    • For Linux distributions, you can either get the essential build requirements from package manager
      dnf install vulkan-headers vulkan-loader-devel
      apt-get install libvulkan-dev
      pacman -S vulkan-headers vulkan-icd-loader
  2. Clone this project with all submodules

git clone
cd dain-ncnn-vulkan
git submodule update --init --recursive
  1. Build with CMake
    • You can pass -DUSESTATICMOLTENVK=ON option to avoid linking the vulkan loader library on MacOS
mkdir build
cd build
cmake ../src
cmake --build . -j 4


  • test-time sptial augmentation aka TTA-s
  • test-time temporal augmentation aka TTA-t

Sample Images

Original Image

origin0 origin1

Interpolate with dain

dain-ncnn-vulkan.exe -0 0.png -1 1.png -o out.png


Original DAIN Project


Other Open-Source Code Used

  • for fast neural network inference on ALL PLATFORMS
  • for encoding and decoding Webp images on ALL PLATFORMS
  • for decoding and encoding image on Linux / MacOS
  • for listing files in directory on Windows

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