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nginx-proxy

Description

Automated nginx proxy for Docker containers using docker-gen

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latest 0.8.0 nginx 1.19.3 License MIT Build Status

nginx-proxy sets up a container running nginx and docker-gen. docker-gen generates reverse proxy configs for nginx and reloads nginx when containers are started and stopped.

See Automated Nginx Reverse Proxy for Docker for why you might want to use this.

Usage

To run it:

$ docker run -d -p 80:80 -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro jwilder/nginx-proxy

Then start any containers you want proxied with an env var

VIRTUAL_HOST=subdomain.youdomain.com
$ docker run -e VIRTUAL_HOST=foo.bar.com  ...

The containers being proxied must expose the port to be proxied, either by using the

EXPOSE
directive in their
Dockerfile
or by using the
--expose
flag to
docker run
or
docker create
and be in the same network. By default, if you don't pass the --net flag when your nginx-proxy container is created, it will only be attached to the default bridge network. This means that it will not be able to connect to containers on networks other than bridge.

Provided your DNS is setup to forward foo.bar.com to the host running nginx-proxy, the request will be routed to a container with the VIRTUAL_HOST env var set.

Image variants

The nginx-proxy images are available in two flavors.

jwilder/nginx-proxy:latest

This image uses the debian:jessie based nginx image.

$ docker pull jwilder/nginx-proxy:latest

jwilder/nginx-proxy:alpine

This image is based on the nginx:alpine image. Use this image to fully support HTTP/2 (including ALPN required by recent Chrome versions). A valid certificate is required as well (see eg. below "SSL Support using letsencrypt" for more info).

$ docker pull jwilder/nginx-proxy:alpine

Docker Compose

version: '2'

services: nginx-proxy: image: jwilder/nginx-proxy ports: - "80:80" volumes: - /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro

whoami: image: jwilder/whoami environment: - VIRTUAL_HOST=whoami.local

$ docker-compose up
$ curl -H "Host: whoami.local" localhost
I'm 5b129ab83266

IPv6 support

You can activate the IPv6 support for the nginx-proxy container by passing the value

true
to the
ENABLE_IPV6
environment variable:
$ docker run -d -p 80:80 -e ENABLE_IPV6=true -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro jwilder/nginx-proxy

Multiple Ports

If your container exposes multiple ports, nginx-proxy will default to the service running on port 80. If you need to specify a different port, you can set a VIRTUALPORT env var to select a different one. If your container only exposes one port and it has a VIRTUALHOST env var set, that port will be selected.

Multiple Hosts

If you need to support multiple virtual hosts for a container, you can separate each entry with commas. For example,

foo.bar.com,baz.bar.com,bar.com
and each host will be setup the same.

Wildcard Hosts

You can also use wildcards at the beginning and the end of host name, like

*.bar.com
or
foo.bar.*
. Or even a regular expression, which can be very useful in conjunction with a wildcard DNS service like xip.io, using
~^foo\.bar\..*\.xip\.io
will match
foo.bar.127.0.0.1.xip.io
,
foo.bar.10.0.2.2.xip.io
and all other given IPs. More information about this topic can be found in the nginx documentation about
server_names
.

Multiple Networks

With the addition of overlay networking in Docker 1.9, your

nginx-proxy
container may need to connect to backend containers on multiple networks. By default, if you don't pass the
--net
flag when your
nginx-proxy
container is created, it will only be attached to the default
bridge
network. This means that it will not be able to connect to containers on networks other than
bridge
.

If you want your

nginx-proxy
container to be attached to a different network, you must pass the
--net=my-network
option in your
docker create
or
docker run
command. At the time of this writing, only a single network can be specified at container creation time. To attach to other networks, you can use the
docker network connect
command after your container is created:
$ docker run -d -p 80:80 -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro \
    --name my-nginx-proxy --net my-network jwilder/nginx-proxy
$ docker network connect my-other-network my-nginx-proxy

In this example, the

my-nginx-proxy
container will be connected to
my-network
and
my-other-network
and will be able to proxy to other containers attached to those networks.

Internet vs. Local Network Access

If you allow traffic from the public internet to access your

nginx-proxy
container, you may want to restrict some containers to the internal network only, so they cannot be accessed from the public internet. On containers that should be restricted to the internal network, you should set the environment variable
NETWORK_ACCESS=internal
. By default, the internal network is defined as
127.0.0.0/8, 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, 192.168.0.0/16
. To change the list of networks considered internal, mount a file on the
nginx-proxy
at
/etc/nginx/network_internal.conf
with these contents, edited to suit your needs:
# These networks are considered "internal"
allow 127.0.0.0/8;
allow 10.0.0.0/8;
allow 192.168.0.0/16;
allow 172.16.0.0/12;

Traffic from all other networks will be rejected

deny all;

When internal-only access is enabled, external clients with be denied with an

HTTP 403 Forbidden

If there is a load-balancer / reverse proxy in front of

nginx-proxy
that hides the client IP (example: AWS Application/Elastic Load Balancer), you will need to use the nginx
realip
module (already installed) to extract the client's IP from the HTTP request headers. Please see the nginx realip module configuration for more details. This configuration can be added to a new config file and mounted in
/etc/nginx/conf.d/
.

SSL Backends

If you would like the reverse proxy to connect to your backend using HTTPS instead of HTTP, set

VIRTUAL_PROTO=https
on the backend container.

Note: If you use

VIRTUAL_PROTO=https
and your backend container exposes port 80 and 443,
nginx-proxy
will use HTTPS on port 80. This is almost certainly not what you want, so you should also include
VIRTUAL_PORT=443
.

uWSGI Backends

If you would like to connect to uWSGI backend, set

VIRTUAL_PROTO=uwsgi
on the backend container. Your backend container should then listen on a port rather than a socket and expose that port.

FastCGI Backends

If you would like to connect to FastCGI backend, set

VIRTUAL_PROTO=fastcgi
on the backend container. Your backend container should then listen on a port rather than a socket and expose that port.

FastCGI File Root Directory

If you use fastcgi,you can set

VIRTUAL_ROOT=xxx
for your root directory

Default Host

To set the default host for nginx use the env var

DEFAULT_HOST=foo.bar.com
for example
$ docker run -d -p 80:80 -e DEFAULT_HOST=foo.bar.com -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro jwilder/nginx-proxy

Separate Containers

nginx-proxy can also be run as two separate containers using the jwilder/docker-gen image and the official nginx image.

You may want to do this to prevent having the docker socket bound to a publicly exposed container service.

You can demo this pattern with docker-compose:

$ docker-compose --file docker-compose-separate-containers.yml up
$ curl -H "Host: whoami.local" localhost
I'm 5b129ab83266

To run nginx proxy as a separate container you'll need to have nginx.tmpl on your host system.

First start nginx with a volume:

$ docker run -d -p 80:80 --name nginx -v /tmp/nginx:/etc/nginx/conf.d -t nginx

Then start the docker-gen container with the shared volume and template:

$ docker run --volumes-from nginx \
    -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro \
    -v $(pwd):/etc/docker-gen/templates \
    -t jwilder/docker-gen -notify-sighup nginx -watch /etc/docker-gen/templates/nginx.tmpl /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf

Finally, start your containers with

VIRTUAL_HOST
environment variables.
$ docker run -e VIRTUAL_HOST=foo.bar.com  ...

SSL Support using letsencrypt

letsencrypt-nginx-proxy-companion is a lightweight companion container for the nginx-proxy. It allows the creation/renewal of Let's Encrypt certificates automatically.

Set

DHPARAM_GENERATION
environment variable to
false
to disabled Diffie-Hellman parameters completely. This will also ignore auto-generation made by
nginx-proxy
. The default value is
true
 $ docker run -e DHPARAM_GENERATION=false ....

SSL Support

SSL is supported using single host, wildcard and SNI certificates using naming conventions for certificates or optionally specifying a cert name (for SNI) as an environment variable.

To enable SSL:

$ docker run -d -p 80:80 -p 443:443 -v /path/to/certs:/etc/nginx/certs -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro jwilder/nginx-proxy

The contents of

/path/to/certs
should contain the certificates and private keys for any virtual hosts in use. The certificate and keys should be named after the virtual host with a
.crt
and
.key
extension. For example, a container with
VIRTUAL_HOST=foo.bar.com
should have a
foo.bar.com.crt
and
foo.bar.com.key
file in the certs directory.

If you are running the container in a virtualized environment (Hyper-V, VirtualBox, etc...), /path/to/certs must exist in that environment or be made accessible to that environment. By default, Docker is not able to mount directories on the host machine to containers running in a virtual machine.

Diffie-Hellman Groups

Diffie-Hellman groups are enabled by default, with a pregenerated key in

/etc/nginx/dhparam/dhparam.pem
. You can mount a different
dhparam.pem
file at that location to override the default cert. To use custom
dhparam.pem
files per-virtual-host, the files should be named after the virtual host with a
dhparam
suffix and
.pem
extension. For example, a container with
VIRTUAL_HOST=foo.bar.com
should have a
foo.bar.com.dhparam.pem
file in the
/etc/nginx/certs
directory.

NOTE: If you don't mount a

dhparam.pem
file at
/etc/nginx/dhparam/dhparam.pem
, one will be generated at startup. Since it can take minutes to generate a new
dhparam.pem
, it is done at low priority in the background. Once generation is complete, the
dhparam.pem
is saved on a persistent volume and nginx is reloaded. This generation process only occurs the first time you start
nginx-proxy
.

COMPATIBILITY WARNING: The default generated

dhparam.pem
key is 2048 bits for A+ security. Some older clients (like Java 6 and 7) do not support DH keys with over 1024 bits. In order to support these clients, you must either provide your own
dhparam.pem
, or tell
nginx-proxy
to generate a 1024-bit key on startup by passing
-e DHPARAM_BITS=1024
.

In the separate container setup, no pregenerated key will be available and neither the jwilder/docker-gen image nor the offical nginx image will generate one. If you still want A+ security in a separate container setup, you'll have to generate a 2048 bits DH key file manually and mount it on the nginx container, at

/etc/nginx/dhparam/dhparam.pem
.

Wildcard Certificates

Wildcard certificates and keys should be named after the domain name with a

.crt
and
.key
extension. For example
VIRTUAL_HOST=foo.bar.com
would use cert name
bar.com.crt
and
bar.com.key
.

SNI

If your certificate(s) supports multiple domain names, you can start a container with

CERT_NAME=
to identify the certificate to be used. For example, a certificate for
*.foo.com
and
*.bar.com
could be named
shared.crt
and
shared.key
. A container running with
VIRTUAL_HOST=foo.bar.com
and
CERT_NAME=shared
will then use this shared cert.

OCSP Stapling

To enable OCSP Stapling for a domain,

nginx-proxy
looks for a PEM certificate containing the trusted CA certificate chain at
/etc/nginx/certs/.chain.pem
, where
 is the domain name in
the 
VIRTUAL_HOST
directive. The format of this file is a concatenation of the public PEM CA certificates starting with the intermediate CA most near the SSL certificate, down to the root CA. This is often referred to as the "SSL Certificate Chain". If found, this filename is passed to the NGINX
ssl_trusted_certificate
directive
and OCSP Stapling is enabled.

How SSL Support Works

The default SSL cipher configuration is based on the Mozilla intermediate profile version 5.0 which should provide compatibility with clients back to Firefox 27, Android 4.4.2, Chrome 31, Edge, IE 11 on Windows 7, Java 8u31, OpenSSL 1.0.1, Opera 20, and Safari 9. Note that the DES-based TLS ciphers were removed for security. The configuration also enables HSTS, PFS, OCSP stapling and SSL session caches. Currently TLS 1.2 and 1.3 are supported.

If you don't require backward compatibility, you can use the Mozilla modern profile profile instead by including the environment variable

SSL_POLICY=Mozilla-Modern
to the nginx-proxy container or to your container. This profile is compatible with clients back to Firefox 63, Android 10.0, Chrome 70, Edge 75, Java 11, OpenSSL 1.1.1, Opera 57, and Safari 12.1. Note that this profile is not compatible with any version of Internet Explorer.

Other policies available through the

SSL_POLICY
environment variable are
Mozilla-Old
and the AWS ELB Security Policies
AWS-TLS-1-2-2017-01
,
AWS-TLS-1-1-2017-01
,
AWS-2016-08
,
AWS-2015-05
,
AWS-2015-03
and
AWS-2015-02
.

Note that the

Mozilla-Old
policy should use a 1024 bits DH key for compatibility but this container generates a 2048 bits key. The Diffie-Hellman Groups section details different methods of bypassing this, either globally or per virtual-host.

The default behavior for the proxy when port 80 and 443 are exposed is as follows:

  • If a container has a usable cert, port 80 will redirect to 443 for that container so that HTTPS is always preferred when available.
  • If the container does not have a usable cert, a 503 will be returned.

Note that in the latter case, a browser may get an connection error as no certificate is available to establish a connection. A self-signed or generic cert named

default.crt
and
default.key
will allow a client browser to make a SSL connection (likely w/ a warning) and subsequently receive a 500.

To serve traffic in both SSL and non-SSL modes without redirecting to SSL, you can include the environment variable

HTTPS_METHOD=noredirect
(the default is
HTTPS_METHOD=redirect
). You can also disable the non-SSL site entirely with
HTTPS_METHOD=nohttp
, or disable the HTTPS site with
HTTPS_METHOD=nohttps
.
HTTPS_METHOD
can be specified on each container for which you want to override the default behavior or on the proxy container to set it globally. If
HTTPS_METHOD=noredirect
is used, Strict Transport Security (HSTS) is disabled to prevent HTTPS users from being redirected by the client. If you cannot get to the HTTP site after changing this setting, your browser has probably cached the HSTS policy and is automatically redirecting you back to HTTPS. You will need to clear your browser's HSTS cache or use an incognito window / different browser.

By default, HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) is enabled with

max-age=31536000
for HTTPS sites. You can disable HSTS with the environment variable
HSTS=off
or use a custom HSTS configuration like
HSTS=max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload
.
WARNING: HSTS will force your users to visit the HTTPS version of your site for the
max-age
time - even if they type in
http://
manually. The only way to get to an HTTP site after receiving an HSTS response is to clear your browser's HSTS cache.

Basic Authentication Support

In order to be able to secure your virtual host, you have to create a file named as its equivalent VIRTUALHOST variable on directory /etc/nginx/htpasswd/$VIRTUALHOST

$ docker run -d -p 80:80 -p 443:443 \
    -v /path/to/htpasswd:/etc/nginx/htpasswd \
    -v /path/to/certs:/etc/nginx/certs \
    -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro \
    jwilder/nginx-proxy

You'll need apache2-utils on the machine where you plan to create the htpasswd file. Follow these instructions

Custom Nginx Configuration

If you need to configure Nginx beyond what is possible using environment variables, you can provide custom configuration files on either a proxy-wide or per-

VIRTUAL_HOST
basis.

Replacing default proxy settings

If you want to replace the default proxy settings for the nginx container, add a configuration file at

/etc/nginx/proxy.conf
. A file with the default settings would look like this:
# HTTP 1.1 support
proxy_http_version 1.1;
proxy_buffering off;
proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
proxy_set_header Connection $proxy_connection;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $proxy_x_forwarded_proto;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Ssl $proxy_x_forwarded_ssl;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port $proxy_x_forwarded_port;

Mitigate httpoxy attack (see README for details)

proxy_set_header Proxy "";

NOTE: If you provide this file it will replace the defaults; you may want to check the .tmpl file to make sure you have all of the needed options.

NOTE: The default configuration blocks the

Proxy
HTTP request header from being sent to downstream servers. This prevents attackers from using the so-called httpoxy attack. There is no legitimate reason for a client to send this header, and there are many vulnerable languages / platforms (
CVE-2016-5385
,
CVE-2016-5386
,
CVE-2016-5387
,
CVE-2016-5388
,
CVE-2016-1000109
,
CVE-2016-1000110
,
CERT-VU#797896
).

Proxy-wide

To add settings on a proxy-wide basis, add your configuration file under

/etc/nginx/conf.d
using a name ending in
.conf
.

This can be done in a derived image by creating the file in a

RUN
command or by
COPY
ing the file into
conf.d
:
FROM jwilder/nginx-proxy
RUN { \
      echo 'server_tokens off;'; \
      echo 'client_max_body_size 100m;'; \
    } > /etc/nginx/conf.d/my_proxy.conf

Or it can be done by mounting in your custom configuration in your

docker run
command:
$ docker run -d -p 80:80 -p 443:443 -v /path/to/my_proxy.conf:/etc/nginx/conf.d/my_proxy.conf:ro -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro jwilder/nginx-proxy

Per-VIRTUAL_HOST

To add settings on a per-

VIRTUAL_HOST
basis, add your configuration file under
/etc/nginx/vhost.d
. Unlike in the proxy-wide case, which allows multiple config files with any name ending in
.conf
, the per-
VIRTUAL_HOST
file must be named exactly after the
VIRTUAL_HOST
.

In order to allow virtual hosts to be dynamically configured as backends are added and removed, it makes the most sense to mount an external directory as

/etc/nginx/vhost.d
as opposed to using derived images or mounting individual configuration files.

For example, if you have a virtual host named

app.example.com
, you could provide a custom configuration for that host as follows:
$ docker run -d -p 80:80 -p 443:443 -v /path/to/vhost.d:/etc/nginx/vhost.d:ro -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro jwilder/nginx-proxy
$ { echo 'server_tokens off;'; echo 'client_max_body_size 100m;'; } > /path/to/vhost.d/app.example.com

If you are using multiple hostnames for a single container (e.g.

VIRTUAL_HOST=example.com,www.example.com
), the virtual host configuration file must exist for each hostname. If you would like to use the same configuration for multiple virtual host names, you can use a symlink:
$ { echo 'server_tokens off;'; echo 'client_max_body_size 100m;'; } > /path/to/vhost.d/www.example.com
$ ln -s /path/to/vhost.d/www.example.com /path/to/vhost.d/example.com

Per-VIRTUAL_HOST default configuration

If you want most of your virtual hosts to use a default single configuration and then override on a few specific ones, add those settings to the

/etc/nginx/vhost.d/default
file. This file will be used on any virtual host which does not have a
/etc/nginx/vhost.d/{VIRTUAL_HOST}
file associated with it.

Per-VIRTUAL_HOST location configuration

To add settings to the "location" block on a per-

VIRTUAL_HOST
basis, add your configuration file under
/etc/nginx/vhost.d
just like the previous section except with the suffix
_location
.

For example, if you have a virtual host named

app.example.com
and you have configured a proxy_cache
my-cache
in another custom file, you could tell it to use a proxy cache as follows:
$ docker run -d -p 80:80 -p 443:443 -v /path/to/vhost.d:/etc/nginx/vhost.d:ro -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro jwilder/nginx-proxy
$ { echo 'proxy_cache my-cache;'; echo 'proxy_cache_valid  200 302  60m;'; echo 'proxy_cache_valid  404 1m;' } > /path/to/vhost.d/app.example.com_location

If you are using multiple hostnames for a single container (e.g.

VIRTUAL_HOST=example.com,www.example.com
), the virtual host configuration file must exist for each hostname. If you would like to use the same configuration for multiple virtual host names, you can use a symlink:
$ { echo 'proxy_cache my-cache;'; echo 'proxy_cache_valid  200 302  60m;'; echo 'proxy_cache_valid  404 1m;' } > /path/to/vhost.d/app.example.com_location
$ ln -s /path/to/vhost.d/www.example.com /path/to/vhost.d/example.com

Per-VIRTUAL_HOST location default configuration

If you want most of your virtual hosts to use a default single

location
block configuration and then override on a few specific ones, add those settings to the
/etc/nginx/vhost.d/default_location
file. This file will be used on any virtual host which does not have a
/etc/nginx/vhost.d/{VIRTUAL_HOST}_location
file associated with it.

Contributing

Before submitting pull requests or issues, please check github to make sure an existing issue or pull request is not already open.

Running Tests Locally

To run tests, you need to prepare the docker image to test which must be tagged

jwilder/nginx-proxy:test
:
docker build -t jwilder/nginx-proxy:test .  # build the Debian variant image

and call the test/pytest.sh script.

Then build the Alpine variant of the image:

docker build -f Dockerfile.alpine -t jwilder/nginx-proxy:test .  # build the Alpline variant image

and call the test/pytest.sh script again.

If your system has the

make
command, you can automate those tasks by calling:
make test

You can learn more about how the test suite works and how to write new tests in the test/README.md file.

Need help?

If you have questions on how to use the image, please ask them on the Q&A Group

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