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nghttp2
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nghttp2 - HTTP/2 C Library and tools

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nghttp2 - HTTP/2 C Library

This is an implementation of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol version 2 in C.

The framing layer of HTTP/2 is implemented as a reusable C library. On top of that, we have implemented an HTTP/2 client, server and proxy. We have also developed load test and benchmarking tools for HTTP/2.

An HPACK encoder and decoder are available as a public API.

An experimental high level C++ library is also available.

We have Python bindings of this library, but we do not have full code coverage yet.

Development Status

We have implemented

RFC 7540 
_ HTTP/2 and
RFC 7541 
_ HPACK - Header Compression for HTTP/2

The nghttp2 code base was forked from the spdylay (https://github.com/tatsuhiro-t/spdylay) project.

Public Test Server

The following endpoints are available to try out our nghttp2 implementation.

  • https://nghttp2.org/ (TLS + ALPN/NPN)

This endpoint supports

h2
,
h2-16
,
h2-14
, and
http/1.1
via ALPN/NPN and requires TLSv1.2 for HTTP/2 connection.
  • http://nghttp2.org/ (HTTP Upgrade and HTTP/2 Direct)

h2c
and
http/1.1
.

Requirements

The following package is required to build the libnghttp2 library:

  • pkg-config >= 0.20

To build and run the unit test programs, the following package is required:

  • cunit >= 2.1

To build the documentation, you need to install:

  • sphinx (http://sphinx-doc.org/)

If you need libnghttp2 (C library) only, then the above packages are all you need. Use

--enable-lib-only
to ensure that only libnghttp2 is built. This avoids potential build error related to building bundled applications.

To build and run the application programs (

nghttp
,
nghttpd
,
nghttpx
and
h2load
) in the
src
directory, the following packages are required:
  • OpenSSL >= 1.0.1
  • libev >= 4.11
  • zlib >= 1.2.3
  • libc-ares >= 1.7.5

ALPN support requires OpenSSL >= 1.0.2 (released 22 January 2015). LibreSSL >= 2.2.0 can be used instead of OpenSSL, but OpenSSL has more features than LibreSSL at the time of this writing.

To enable

-a
option (getting linked assets from the downloaded resource) in
nghttp
, the following package is required:
  • libxml2 >= 2.6.26

To enable systemd support in nghttpx, the following package is required:

  • libsystemd-dev >= 209

The HPACK tools require the following package:

  • jansson >= 2.5

To build sources under the examples directory, libevent is required:

  • libevent-openssl >= 2.0.8

To mitigate heap fragmentation in long running server programs (

nghttpd
and
nghttpx
), jemalloc is recommended:
  • jemalloc

.. note::

 Alpine Linux currently does not support malloc replacement
 due to musl limitations. See details in issue `#762 `_.

libnghttp2_asio C++ library requires the following packages:

  • libboost-dev >= 1.54.0
  • libboost-thread-dev >= 1.54.0

The Python bindings require the following packages:

  • cython >= 0.19
  • python >= 3.8
  • python-setuptools

If you are using Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus) or Debian 8 (jessie) and above, run the following to install the required packages:

.. code-block:: text

sudo apt-get install g++ make binutils autoconf automake autotools-dev libtool pkg-config \
  zlib1g-dev libcunit1-dev libssl-dev libxml2-dev libev-dev libevent-dev libjansson-dev \
  libc-ares-dev libjemalloc-dev libsystemd-dev \
  cython python3-dev python-setuptools

To enable mruby support for nghttpx,

mruby
_ is required. We need to build mruby with C++ ABI explicitly turned on, and probably need other mrgems, mruby is manged by git submodule under third-party/mruby directory. Currently, mruby support for nghttpx is disabled by default. To enable mruby support, use
--with-mruby
configure option. Note that at the time of this writing, libmruby-dev and mruby packages in Debian/Ubuntu are not usable for nghttp2, since they do not enable C++ ABI. To build mruby, the following packages are required:
  • ruby
  • bison

nghttpx supports

neverbleed 
_, privilege separation engine for OpenSSL / LibreSSL. In short, it minimizes the risk of private key leakage when serious bug like Heartbleed is exploited. The neverbleed is disabled by default. To enable it, use
--with-neverbleed
configure option.

Compiling libnghttp2 C source code requires a C99 compiler. gcc 4.8 is known to be adequate. In order to compile the C++ source code, gcc

= 6.0 or clang >= 6.0 is required. C++ source code requires C++14 language features.

.. note::

To enable mruby support in nghttpx, and use

--with-mruby
configure option.

.. note::

Mac OS X users may need the

--disable-threads
configure option to disable multi-threading in nghttpd, nghttpx and h2load to prevent them from crashing. A patch is welcome to make multi threading work on Mac OS X platform.

.. note::

To compile the associated applications (nghttp, nghttpd, nghttpx and h2load), you must use the

--enable-app
configure option and ensure that the specified requirements above are met. Normally, configure script checks required dependencies to build these applications, and enable
--enable-app
automatically, so you don't have to use it explicitly. But if you found that applications were not built, then using
--enable-app
may find that cause, such as the missing dependency.

.. note::

In order to detect third party libraries, pkg-config is used (however we don't use pkg-config for some libraries (e.g., libev)). By default, pkg-config searches

*.pc
file in the standard locations (e.g., /usr/lib/pkgconfig). If it is necessary to use
*.pc
file in the custom location, specify paths to
PKG_CONFIG_PATH
environment variable, and pass it to configure script, like so:

.. code-block:: text

   $ ./configure PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/path/to/pkgconfig

For pkg-config managed libraries,

*_CFLAG
and
*_LIBS
environment variables are defined (e.g.,
OPENSSL_CFLAGS
,
OPENSSL_LIBS
). Specifying non-empty string to these variables completely overrides pkg-config. In other words, if they are specified, pkg-config is not used for detection, and user is responsible to specify the correct values to these variables. For complete list of these variables, run
./configure -h
.

Building nghttp2 from release tar archive

The nghttp2 project regularly releases tar archives which includes nghttp2 source code, and generated build files. They can be downloaded from

Releases
_ page.

Building nghttp2 from git requires autotools development packages. Building from tar archives does not require them, and thus it is much easier. The usual build step is as follows:

.. code-block:: text

$ tar xf nghttp2-X.Y.Z.tar.bz2
$ cd nghttp2-X.Y.Z
$ ./configure
$ make

Building from git

Building from git is easy, but please be sure that at least autoconf 2.68 is used:

.. code-block:: text

$ git submodule update --init
$ autoreconf -i
$ automake
$ autoconf
$ ./configure
$ make

Notes for building on Windows (MSVC)

The easiest way to build native Windows nghttp2 dll is use

cmake
. The free version of
Visual C++ Build Tools
works fine.
  1. Install cmake for windows
  2. Open "Visual C++ ... Native Build Tool Command Prompt", and inside nghttp2 directly, run
    cmake
    .
  3. Then run
    cmake --build
    to build library.
  4. nghttp2.dll, nghttp2.lib, nghttp2.exp are placed under lib directory.

Note that the above steps most likely produce nghttp2 library only. No bundled applications are compiled.

Notes for building on Windows (Mingw/Cygwin)

Under Mingw environment, you can only compile the library, it's

libnghttp2-X.dll
and
libnghttp2.a
.

If you want to compile the applications(

h2load
,
nghttp
,
nghttpx
,
nghttpd
), you need to use the Cygwin environment.

Under Cygwin environment, to compile the applications you need to compile and install the libev first.

Secondly, you need to undefine the macro

__STRICT_ANSI__
, if you not, the functions
fdopen
,
fileno
and
strptime
will not available.

the sample command like this:

.. code-block:: text

$ export CFLAGS="-U__STRICT_ANSI__ -I$libev_PREFIX/include -L$libev_PREFIX/lib"
$ export CXXFLAGS=$CFLAGS
$ ./configure
$ make

If you want to compile the applications under

examples/
, you need to remove or rename the
event.h
from libev's installation, because it conflicts with libevent's installation.

Notes for installation on Linux systems

After installing nghttp2 tool suite with

make install
one might experience a similar error:

.. code-block:: text

nghttpx: error while loading shared libraries: libnghttp2.so.14: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

This means that the tool is unable to locate the

libnghttp2.so
shared library.

To update the shared library cache run

sudo ldconfig
.

Building the documentation

.. note::

Documentation is still incomplete.

To build the documentation, run:

.. code-block:: text

$ make html

The documents will be generated under

doc/manual/html/
.

The generated documents will not be installed with

make install
.

The online documentation is available at https://nghttp2.org/documentation/

Unit tests

Unit tests are done by simply running

make check
.

Integration tests

We have the integration tests for the nghttpx proxy server. The tests are written in the

Go programming language 
_ and uses its testing framework. We depend on the following libraries:
  • golang.org/x/net/http2
  • golang.org/x/net/websocket
  • https://github.com/tatsuhiro-t/go-nghttp2

Go modules will download these dependencies automatically.

To run the tests, run the following command under

integration-tests
directory:

.. code-block:: text

$ make it

Inside the tests, we use port 3009 to run the test subject server.

Migration from v0.7.15 or earlier

nghttp2 v1.0.0 introduced several backward incompatible changes. In this section, we describe these changes and how to migrate to v1.0.0.

ALPN protocol ID is now

h2
and
h2c
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Previously we announced

h2-14
and
h2c-14
. v1.0.0 implements final protocol version, and we changed ALPN ID to
h2
and
h2c
. The macros
NGHTTP2_PROTO_VERSION_ID
,
NGHTTP2_PROTO_VERSION_ID_LEN
,
NGHTTP2_CLEARTEXT_PROTO_VERSION_ID
, and
NGHTTP2_CLEARTEXT_PROTO_VERSION_ID_LEN
have been updated to reflect this change.

Basically, existing applications do not have to do anything, just recompiling is enough for this change.

Use word "client magic" where we use "client connection preface" ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

We use "client connection preface" to mean first 24 bytes of client connection preface. This is technically not correct, since client connection preface is composed of 24 bytes client magic byte string followed by SETTINGS frame. For clarification, we call "client magic" for this 24 bytes byte string and updated API.

  • NGHTTP2_CLIENT_CONNECTION_PREFACE
    was replaced with
    NGHTTP2_CLIENT_MAGIC
    .
  • NGHTTP2_CLIENT_CONNECTION_PREFACE_LEN
    was replaced with
    NGHTTP2_CLIENT_MAGIC_LEN
    .
  • NGHTTP2_BAD_PREFACE
    was renamed as
    NGHTTP2_BAD_CLIENT_MAGIC

The already deprecated

NGHTTP2_CLIENT_CONNECTION_HEADER
and
NGHTTP2_CLIENT_CONNECTION_HEADER_LEN
were removed.

If application uses these macros, just replace old ones with new ones. Since v1.0.0, client magic is sent by library (see next subsection), so client application may just remove these macro use.

Client magic is sent by library +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Previously nghttp2 library did not send client magic, which is first 24 bytes byte string of client connection preface, and client applications have to send it by themselves. Since v1.0.0, client magic is sent by library via first call of

nghttp2_session_send()
or
nghttp2_session_mem_send()
.

The client applications which send client magic must remove the relevant code.

Remove HTTP Alternative Services (Alt-Svc) related code +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Alt-Svc specification is not finalized yet. To make our API stable, we have decided to remove all Alt-Svc related API from nghttp2.

  • NGHTTP2_EXT_ALTSVC
    was removed.
  • nghttp2_ext_altsvc
    was removed.

We have already removed the functionality of Alt-Svc in v0.7 series and they have been essentially noop. The application using these macro and struct, remove those lines.

Use nghttp2error in nghttp2oninvalidframerecvcallback +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Previously

nghttp2_on_invalid_frame_recv_cb_called
took the
error_code
, defined in
nghttp2_error_code
, as parameter. But they are not detailed enough to debug. Therefore, we decided to use more detailed
nghttp2_error
values instead.

The application using this callback should update the callback signature. If it treats

error_code
as HTTP/2 error code, update the code so that it is treated as
nghttp2_error
.

Receive client magic by default +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Previously nghttp2 did not process client magic (24 bytes byte string). To make it deal with it, we had to use

nghttp2_option_set_recv_client_preface()
. Since v1.0.0, nghttp2 processes client magic by default and
nghttp2_option_set_recv_client_preface()
was removed.

Some application may want to disable this behaviour, so we added

nghttp2_option_set_no_recv_client_magic()
to achieve this.

The application using

nghttp2_option_set_recv_client_preface()
with nonzero value, just remove it.

The application using

nghttp2_option_set_recv_client_preface()
with zero value or not using it must use
nghttp2_option_set_no_recv_client_magic()
with nonzero value.

Client, Server and Proxy programs

The

src
directory contains the HTTP/2 client, server and proxy programs.

nghttp - client +++++++++++++++

nghttp
is a HTTP/2 client. It can connect to the HTTP/2 server with prior knowledge, HTTP Upgrade and NPN/ALPN TLS extension.

It has verbose output mode for framing information. Here is sample output from

nghttp
client:

.. code-block:: text

$ nghttp -nv https://nghttp2.org
[  0.190] Connected
The negotiated protocol: h2
[  0.212] recv SETTINGS frame 
      (niv=2)
      [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
      [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[  0.212] send SETTINGS frame 
      (niv=2)
      [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
      [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[  0.212] send SETTINGS frame 
      ; ACK
      (niv=0)
[  0.212] send PRIORITY frame 
      (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0)
[  0.212] send PRIORITY frame 
      (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0)
[  0.212] send PRIORITY frame 
      (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.212] send PRIORITY frame 
      (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.212] send PRIORITY frame 
      (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[  0.212] send HEADERS frame 
      ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY
      (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0)
      ; Open new stream
      :method: GET
      :path: /
      :scheme: https
      :authority: nghttp2.org
      accept: */*
      accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
      user-agent: nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV
[  0.221] recv SETTINGS frame 
      ; ACK
      (niv=0)
[  0.221] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[  0.221] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https
[  0.221] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /stylesheets/screen.css
[  0.221] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: nghttp2.org
[  0.221] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV
[  0.222] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame 
      ; END_HEADERS
      (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2)
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) :status: 200
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) date: Thu, 21 May 2015 16:38:14 GMT
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) content-type: text/html
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) last-modified: Fri, 15 May 2015 15:38:06 GMT
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) etag: W/"555612de-19f6"
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) link: ; rel=preload; as=stylesheet
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) content-encoding: gzip
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) server: nghttpx nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) via: 1.1 nghttpx
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=13) strict-transport-security: max-age=31536000
[  0.222] recv HEADERS frame 
      ; END_HEADERS
      (padlen=0)
      ; First response header
[  0.222] recv DATA frame 
      ; END_STREAM
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=2) date: Thu, 21 May 2015 16:38:14 GMT
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=2) content-type: text/css
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=2) last-modified: Fri, 15 May 2015 15:38:06 GMT
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=2) etag: W/"555612de-9845"
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=2) content-encoding: gzip
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=2) server: nghttpx nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=2) via: 1.1 nghttpx
[  0.222] recv (stream_id=2) strict-transport-security: max-age=31536000
[  0.222] recv HEADERS frame 
      ; END_HEADERS
      (padlen=0)
      ; First push response header
[  0.228] recv DATA frame 
      ; END_STREAM
[  0.228] send GOAWAY frame 
      (last_stream_id=2, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])

The HTTP Upgrade is performed like so:

.. code-block:: text

$ nghttp -nvu http://nghttp2.org
[  0.011] Connected
[  0.011] HTTP Upgrade request
GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: nghttp2.org
Connection: Upgrade, HTTP2-Settings
Upgrade: h2c
HTTP2-Settings: AAMAAABkAAQAAP__
Accept: */*
User-Agent: nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV


[ 0.018] HTTP Upgrade response HTTP/1.1 101 Switching Protocols Connection: Upgrade Upgrade: h2c

[ 0.018] HTTP Upgrade success [ 0.018] recv SETTINGS frame (niv=2) [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100] [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535] [ 0.018] send SETTINGS frame (niv=2) [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100] [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535] [ 0.018] send SETTINGS frame ; ACK (niv=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame (dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0) [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) :method: GET [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) :scheme: http [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) :path: /stylesheets/screen.css [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) host: nghttp2.org [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) user-agent: nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.019] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame ; END_HEADERS (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2) [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) :status: 200 [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) date: Thu, 21 May 2015 16:39:16 GMT [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) content-type: text/html [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) content-length: 6646 [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) last-modified: Fri, 15 May 2015 15:38:06 GMT [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) etag: "555612de-19f6" [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) link: ; rel=preload; as=stylesheet [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) accept-ranges: bytes [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) server: nghttpx nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) via: 1.1 nghttpx [ 0.019] recv HEADERS frame ; END_HEADERS (padlen=0) ; First response header [ 0.019] recv DATA frame ; END_STREAM [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200 [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) date: Thu, 21 May 2015 16:39:16 GMT [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) content-type: text/css [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) content-length: 38981 [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) last-modified: Fri, 15 May 2015 15:38:06 GMT [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) etag: "555612de-9845" [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) accept-ranges: bytes [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) server: nghttpx nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) via: 1.1 nghttpx [ 0.019] recv HEADERS frame ; END_HEADERS (padlen=0) ; First push response header [ 0.026] recv DATA frame [ 0.027] recv DATA frame [ 0.027] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame (window_size_increment=33343) [ 0.032] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame (window_size_increment=33707) [ 0.032] recv DATA frame ; END_STREAM [ 0.032] recv SETTINGS frame ; ACK (niv=0) [ 0.032] send GOAWAY frame (last_stream_id=2, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])

Using the

-s
option,
nghttp
prints out some timing information for requests, sorted by completion time:

.. code-block:: text

$ nghttp -nas https://nghttp2.org/
***** Statistics *****

Request timing: responseEnd: the time when last byte of response was received relative to connectEnd requestStart: the time just before first byte of request was sent relative to connectEnd. If '*' is shown, this was pushed by server. process: responseEnd - requestStart code: HTTP status code size: number of bytes received as response body without inflation. URI: request URI

see http://www.w3.org/TR/resource-timing/#processing-model

sorted by 'complete'

id responseEnd requestStart process code size request path 13 +37.19ms +280us 36.91ms 200 2K / 2 +72.65ms * +36.38ms 36.26ms 200 8K /stylesheets/screen.css 17 +77.43ms +38.67ms 38.75ms 200 3K /javascripts/octopress.js 15 +78.12ms +38.66ms 39.46ms 200 3K /javascripts/modernizr-2.0.js

Using the

-r
option,
nghttp
writes more detailed timing data to the given file in HAR format.

nghttpd - server ++++++++++++++++

nghttpd
is a multi-threaded static web server.

By default, it uses SSL/TLS connection. Use

--no-tls
option to disable it.

nghttpd
only accepts HTTP/2 connections via NPN/ALPN or direct HTTP/2 connections. No HTTP Upgrade is supported.

The

-p
option allows users to configure server push.

Just like

nghttp
, it has a verbose output mode for framing information. Here is sample output from
nghttpd
:

.. code-block:: text

$ nghttpd --no-tls -v 8080
IPv4: listen 0.0.0.0:8080
IPv6: listen :::8080
[id=1] [  1.521] send SETTINGS frame 
          (niv=1)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
[id=1] [  1.521] recv SETTINGS frame 
          (niv=2)
          [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100]
          [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535]
[id=1] [  1.521] recv SETTINGS frame 
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[id=1] [  1.521] recv PRIORITY frame 
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0)
[id=1] [  1.521] recv PRIORITY frame 
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0)
[id=1] [  1.521] recv PRIORITY frame 
          (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[id=1] [  1.521] recv PRIORITY frame 
          (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[id=1] [  1.521] recv PRIORITY frame 
          (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0)
[id=1] [  1.521] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET
[id=1] [  1.521] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /
[id=1] [  1.521] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: http
[id=1] [  1.521] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: localhost:8080
[id=1] [  1.521] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */*
[id=1] [  1.521] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
[id=1] [  1.521] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.0.0-DEV
[id=1] [  1.521] recv HEADERS frame 
          ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY
          (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0)
          ; Open new stream
[id=1] [  1.521] send SETTINGS frame 
          ; ACK
          (niv=0)
[id=1] [  1.521] send HEADERS frame 
          ; END_HEADERS
          (padlen=0)
          ; First response header
          :status: 200
          server: nghttpd nghttp2/1.0.0-DEV
          content-length: 10
          cache-control: max-age=3600
          date: Fri, 15 May 2015 14:49:04 GMT
          last-modified: Tue, 30 Sep 2014 12:40:52 GMT
[id=1] [  1.522] send DATA frame 
          ; END_STREAM
[id=1] [  1.522] stream_id=13 closed
[id=1] [  1.522] recv GOAWAY frame 
          (last_stream_id=0, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[])
[id=1] [  1.522] closed

nghttpx - proxy +++++++++++++++

nghttpx
is a multi-threaded reverse proxy for HTTP/2, and HTTP/1.1, and powers http://nghttp2.org and supports HTTP/2 server push.

We reworked

nghttpx
command-line interface, and as a result, there are several incompatibles from 1.8.0 or earlier. This is necessary to extend its capability, and secure the further feature enhancements in the future release. Please read
Migration from nghttpx v1.8.0 or
earlier
_ to know how to migrate from earlier releases.

nghttpx
implements
important performance-oriented features
_ in TLS, such as session IDs, session tickets (with automatic key rotation), OCSP stapling, dynamic record sizing, ALPN/NPN, forward secrecy and HTTP/2.
nghttpx
also offers the functionality to share session cache and ticket keys among multiple
nghttpx
instances via memcached.

nghttpx
has 2 operation modes:

================== ================ ================ ============= Mode option Frontend Backend Note ================== ================ ================ ============= default mode HTTP/2, HTTP/1.1 HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2 Reverse proxy

--http2-proxy
HTTP/2, HTTP/1.1 HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2 Forward proxy ================== ================ ================ =============

The interesting mode at the moment is the default mode. It works like a reverse proxy and listens for HTTP/2, and HTTP/1.1 and can be deployed as a SSL/TLS terminator for existing web server.

In all modes, the frontend connections are encrypted by SSL/TLS by default. To disable encryption, use the

no-tls
keyword in
--frontend
option. If encryption is disabled, incoming HTTP/1.1 connections can be upgraded to HTTP/2 through HTTP Upgrade. On the other hard, backend connections are not encrypted by default. To encrypt backend connections, use
tls
keyword in
--backend
option.

nghttpx
supports a configuration file. See the
--conf
option and sample configuration file
nghttpx.conf.sample
.

In the default mode,

nghttpx
works as reverse proxy to the backend server:

.. code-block:: text

Client  nghttpx  Web Server
                                [reverse proxy]

With the

--http2-proxy
option, it works as forward proxy, and it is so called secure HTTP/2 proxy:

.. code-block:: text

Client  nghttpx  Proxy
                                 [secure proxy]          (e.g., Squid, ATS)

The

Client
in the above example needs to be configured to use
nghttpx
as secure proxy.

At the time of this writing, both Chrome and Firefox support secure HTTP/2 proxy. One way to configure Chrome to use a secure proxy is to create a proxy.pac script like this:

.. code-block:: javascript

function FindProxyForURL(url, host) {
    return "HTTPS SERVERADDR:PORT";
}

SERVERADDR
and
PORT
is the hostname/address and port of the machine nghttpx is running on. Please note that Chrome requires a valid certificate for secure proxy.

Then run Chrome with the following arguments:

.. code-block:: text

$ google-chrome --proxy-pac-url=file:///path/to/proxy.pac --use-npn

The backend HTTP/2 connections can be tunneled through an HTTP proxy. The proxy is specified using

--backend-http-proxy-uri
. The following figure illustrates how nghttpx talks to the outside HTTP/2 proxy through an HTTP proxy:

.. code-block:: text

Client  nghttpx  HTTP/2 Proxy
          (HTTP proxy tunnel)     (e.g., nghttpx -s)

Benchmarking tool

The

h2load
program is a benchmarking tool for HTTP/2. The UI of
h2load
is heavily inspired by
weighttp
(https://github.com/lighttpd/weighttp). The typical usage is as follows:

.. code-block:: text

$ h2load -n100000 -c100 -m100 https://localhost:8443/
starting benchmark...
spawning thread #0: 100 concurrent clients, 100000 total requests
Protocol: TLSv1.2
Cipher: ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
Server Temp Key: ECDH P-256 256 bits
progress: 10% done
progress: 20% done
progress: 30% done
progress: 40% done
progress: 50% done
progress: 60% done
progress: 70% done
progress: 80% done
progress: 90% done
progress: 100% done

finished in 771.26ms, 129658 req/s, 4.71MB/s requests: 100000 total, 100000 started, 100000 done, 100000 succeeded, 0 failed, 0 errored status codes: 100000 2xx, 0 3xx, 0 4xx, 0 5xx traffic: 3812300 bytes total, 1009900 bytes headers, 1000000 bytes data min max mean sd +/- sd time for request: 25.12ms 124.55ms 51.07ms 15.36ms 84.87% time for connect: 208.94ms 254.67ms 241.38ms 7.95ms 63.00% time to 1st byte: 209.11ms 254.80ms 241.51ms 7.94ms 63.00%

The above example issued total 100,000 requests, using 100 concurrent clients (in other words, 100 HTTP/2 sessions), and a maximum of 100 streams per client. With the

-t
option,
h2load
will use multiple native threads to avoid saturating a single core on client side.

.. warning::

Don't use this tool against publicly available servers. That is considered a DOS attack. Please only use it against your private servers.

HPACK tools

The

src
directory contains the HPACK tools. The
deflatehd
program is a command-line header compression tool. The
inflatehd
program is a command-line header decompression tool. Both tools read input from stdin and write output to stdout. Errors are written to stderr. They take JSON as input and output. We (mostly) use the same JSON data format described at https://github.com/http2jp/hpack-test-case.

deflatehd - header compressor +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

The

deflatehd
program reads JSON data or HTTP/1-style header fields from stdin and outputs compressed header block in JSON.

For the JSON input, the root JSON object must include a

cases
key. Its value has to include the sequence of input header set. They share the same compression context and are processed in the order they appear. Each item in the sequence is a JSON object and it must include a
headers
key. Its value is an array of JSON objects, which includes exactly one name/value pair.

Example:

.. code-block:: json

{
  "cases":
  [
    {
      "headers": [
        { ":method": "GET" },
        { ":path": "/" }
      ]
    },
    {
      "headers": [
        { ":method": "POST" },
        { ":path": "/" }
      ]
    }
  ]
}

With the

-t
option, the program can accept more familiar HTTP/1 style header field blocks. Each header set is delimited by an empty line:

Example:

.. code-block:: text

:method: GET
:scheme: https
:path: /

:method: POST user-agent: nghttp2

The output is in JSON object. It should include a

cases
key and its value is an array of JSON objects, which has at least the following keys:

seq The index of header set in the input.

input_length The sum of the length of the name/value pairs in the input.

output_length The length of the compressed header block.

percentageoforiginalsize ``outputlength

/
input_length`` * 100

wire The compressed header block as a hex string.

headers The input header set.

headertablesize The header table size adjusted before deflating the header set.

Examples:

.. code-block:: json

{
  "cases":
  [
    {
      "seq": 0,
      "input_length": 66,
      "output_length": 20,
      "percentage_of_original_size": 30.303030303030305,
      "wire": "01881f3468e5891afcbf83868a3d856659c62e3f",
      "headers": [
        {
          ":authority": "example.org"
        },
        {
          ":method": "GET"
        },
        {
          ":path": "/"
        },
        {
          ":scheme": "https"
        },
        {
          "user-agent": "nghttp2"
        }
      ],
      "header_table_size": 4096
    }
    ,
    {
      "seq": 1,
      "input_length": 74,
      "output_length": 10,
      "percentage_of_original_size": 13.513513513513514,
      "wire": "88448504252dd5918485",
      "headers": [
        {
          ":authority": "example.org"
        },
        {
          ":method": "POST"
        },
        {
          ":path": "/account"
        },
        {
          ":scheme": "https"
        },
        {
          "user-agent": "nghttp2"
        }
      ],
      "header_table_size": 4096
    }
  ]
}

The output can be used as the input for

inflatehd
and
deflatehd
.

With the

-d
option, the extra
header_table
key is added and its associated value includes the state of dynamic header table after the corresponding header set was processed. The value includes at least the following keys:

entries The entry in the header table. If

referenced
is
true
, it is in the reference set. The
size
includes the overhead (32 bytes). The
index
corresponds to the index of header table. The
name
is the header field name and the
value
is the header field value.

size The sum of the spaces entries occupied, this includes the entry overhead.

max_size The maximum header table size.

deflatesize The sum of the spaces entries occupied within ``maxdeflate_size``.

maxdeflatesize The maximum header table size the encoder uses. This can be smaller than

max_size
. In this case, the encoder only uses up to first
max_deflate_size
buffer. Since the header table size is still
max_size
, the encoder has to keep track of entries outside the
max_deflate_size
but inside the
max_size
and make sure that they are no longer referenced.

Example:

.. code-block:: json

{
  "cases":
  [
    {
      "seq": 0,
      "input_length": 66,
      "output_length": 20,
      "percentage_of_original_size": 30.303030303030305,
      "wire": "01881f3468e5891afcbf83868a3d856659c62e3f",
      "headers": [
        {
          ":authority": "example.org"
        },
        {
          ":method": "GET"
        },
        {
          ":path": "/"
        },
        {
          ":scheme": "https"
        },
        {
          "user-agent": "nghttp2"
        }
      ],
      "header_table_size": 4096,
      "header_table": {
        "entries": [
          {
            "index": 1,
            "name": "user-agent",
            "value": "nghttp2",
            "referenced": true,
            "size": 49
          },
          {
            "index": 2,
            "name": ":scheme",
            "value": "https",
            "referenced": true,
            "size": 44
          },
          {
            "index": 3,
            "name": ":path",
            "value": "/",
            "referenced": true,
            "size": 38
          },
          {
            "index": 4,
            "name": ":method",
            "value": "GET",
            "referenced": true,
            "size": 42
          },
          {
            "index": 5,
            "name": ":authority",
            "value": "example.org",
            "referenced": true,
            "size": 53
          }
        ],
        "size": 226,
        "max_size": 4096,
        "deflate_size": 226,
        "max_deflate_size": 4096
      }
    }
    ,
    {
      "seq": 1,
      "input_length": 74,
      "output_length": 10,
      "percentage_of_original_size": 13.513513513513514,
      "wire": "88448504252dd5918485",
      "headers": [
        {
          ":authority": "example.org"
        },
        {
          ":method": "POST"
        },
        {
          ":path": "/account"
        },
        {
          ":scheme": "https"
        },
        {
          "user-agent": "nghttp2"
        }
      ],
      "header_table_size": 4096,
      "header_table": {
        "entries": [
          {
            "index": 1,
            "name": ":method",
            "value": "POST",
            "referenced": true,
            "size": 43
          },
          {
            "index": 2,
            "name": "user-agent",
            "value": "nghttp2",
            "referenced": true,
            "size": 49
          },
          {
            "index": 3,
            "name": ":scheme",
            "value": "https",
            "referenced": true,
            "size": 44
          },
          {
            "index": 4,
            "name": ":path",
            "value": "/",
            "referenced": false,
            "size": 38
          },
          {
            "index": 5,
            "name": ":method",
            "value": "GET",
            "referenced": false,
            "size": 42
          },
          {
            "index": 6,
            "name": ":authority",
            "value": "example.org",
            "referenced": true,
            "size": 53
          }
        ],
        "size": 269,
        "max_size": 4096,
        "deflate_size": 269,
        "max_deflate_size": 4096
      }
    }
  ]
}

inflatehd - header decompressor +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

The

inflatehd
program reads JSON data from stdin and outputs decompressed name/value pairs in JSON.

The root JSON object must include the

cases
key. Its value has to include the sequence of compressed header blocks. They share the same compression context and are processed in the order they appear. Each item in the sequence is a JSON object and it must have at least a
wire
key. Its value is a compressed header block as a hex string.

Example:

.. code-block:: json

{
  "cases":
  [
    { "wire": "8285" },
    { "wire": "8583" }
  ]
}

The output is a JSON object. It should include a

cases
key and its value is an array of JSON objects, which has at least following keys:

seq The index of the header set in the input.

headers A JSON array that includes decompressed name/value pairs.

wire The compressed header block as a hex string.

headertablesize The header table size adjusted before inflating compressed header block.

Example:

.. code-block:: json

{
  "cases":
  [
    {
      "seq": 0,
      "wire": "01881f3468e5891afcbf83868a3d856659c62e3f",
      "headers": [
        {
          ":authority": "example.org"
        },
        {
          ":method": "GET"
        },
        {
          ":path": "/"
        },
        {
          ":scheme": "https"
        },
        {
          "user-agent": "nghttp2"
        }
      ],
      "header_table_size": 4096
    }
    ,
    {
      "seq": 1,
      "wire": "88448504252dd5918485",
      "headers": [
        {
          ":method": "POST"
        },
        {
          ":path": "/account"
        },
        {
          "user-agent": "nghttp2"
        },
        {
          ":scheme": "https"
        },
        {
          ":authority": "example.org"
        }
      ],
      "header_table_size": 4096
    }
  ]
}

The output can be used as the input for

deflatehd
and
inflatehd
.

With the

-d
option, the extra
header_table
key is added and its associated value includes the state of the dynamic header table after the corresponding header set was processed. The format is the same as
deflatehd
.

libnghttp2_asio: High level HTTP/2 C++ library

libnghttp2asio is C++ library built on top of libnghttp2 and provides high level abstraction API to build HTTP/2 applications. It depends on the Boost::ASIO library and OpenSSL. Currently libnghttp2asio provides both client and server APIs.

libnghttp2asio is not built by default. Use the

--enable-asio-lib
configure flag to build libnghttp2asio. The required Boost libraries are:

  • Boost::Asio
  • Boost::System
  • Boost::Thread

The server API is designed to build an HTTP/2 server very easily to utilize C++14 anonymous functions and closures. The bare minimum example of an HTTP/2 server looks like this:

.. code-block:: cpp

#include 

#include

using namespace nghttp2::asio_http2; using namespace nghttp2::asio_http2::server;

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { boost::system::error_code ec; http2 server;

server.handle("/", [](const request &req, const response &res) { res.write_head(200); res.end("hello, world\n"); });

if (server.listen_and_serve(ec, "localhost", "3000")) { std::cerr << "error: " << ec.message() << std::endl; } }

Here is sample code to use the client API:

.. code-block:: cpp

#include 

#include

using boost::asio::ip::tcp;

using namespace nghttp2::asio_http2; using namespace nghttp2::asio_http2::client;

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { boost::system::error_code ec; boost::asio::io_service io_service;

// connect to localhost:3000 session sess(io_service, "localhost", "3000");

sess.on_connect([&sess](tcp::resolver::iterator endpoint_it) { boost::system::error_code ec;

auto req = sess.submit(ec, "GET", "http://localhost:3000/");

req-&gt;on_response([](const response &amp;res) {
  // print status code and response header fields.
  std::cerr &lt;&lt; "HTTP/2 " &lt;&lt; res.status_code() &lt;&lt; std::endl;
  for (auto &amp;kv : res.header()) {
    std::cerr &lt;&lt; kv.first &lt;&lt; ": " &lt;&lt; kv.second.value &lt;&lt; "\n";
  }
  std::cerr &lt;&lt; std::endl;

  res.on_data([](const uint8_t *data, std::size_t len) {
    std::cerr.write(reinterpret_cast<const char>(data), len);
    std::cerr &lt;&lt; std::endl;
  });
});

req-&gt;on_close([&amp;sess](uint32_t error_code) {
  // shutdown session after first request was done.
  sess.shutdown();
});

});

sess.on_error([](const boost::system::error_code &ec) { std::cerr << "error: " << ec.message() << std::endl; });

io_service.run(); }

For more details, see the documentation of libnghttp2_asio.

Python bindings

The

python
directory contains nghttp2 Python bindings. The bindings currently provide HPACK compressor and decompressor classes and an HTTP/2 server.

The extension module is called

nghttp2
.

make
will build the bindings and target Python version is determined by the
configure
script. If the detected Python version is not what you expect, specify a path to Python executable in a
PYTHON
variable as an argument to configure script (e.g.,
./configure
PYTHON=/usr/bin/python3.8
).

The following example code illustrates basic usage of the HPACK compressor and decompressor in Python:

.. code-block:: python

import binascii
import nghttp2

deflater = nghttp2.HDDeflater() inflater = nghttp2.HDInflater()

data = deflater.deflate([(b'foo', b'bar'), (b'baz', b'buz')]) print(binascii.b2a_hex(data))

hdrs = inflater.inflate(data) print(hdrs)

The

nghttp2.HTTP2Server
class builds on top of the asyncio event loop. On construction, RequestHandlerClass must be given, which must be a subclass of
nghttp2.BaseRequestHandler
class.

The

BaseRequestHandler
class is used to handle the HTTP/2 stream. By default, it does nothing. It must be subclassed to handle each event callback method.

The first callback method invoked is

on_headers()
. It is called when HEADERS frame, which includes the request header fields, has arrived.

If the request has a request body,

on_data(data)
is invoked for each chunk of received data.

Once the entire request is received,

on_request_done()
is invoked.

When the stream is closed,

on_close(error_code)
is called.

The application can send a response using

send_response()
method. It can be used in
on_headers()
,
on_data()
or
on_request_done()
.

The application can push resources using the

push()
method. It must be used before the
send_response()
call.

The following instance variables are available:

client_address Contains a tuple of the form (host, port) referring to the client's address.

stream_id Stream ID of this stream.

scheme Scheme of the request URI. This is a value of :scheme header field.

method Method of this stream. This is a value of :method header field.

host This is a value of :authority or host header field.

path This is a value of :path header field.

The following example illustrates the HTTP2Server and BaseRequestHandler usage:

.. code-block:: python

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import io, ssl import nghttp2

class Handler(nghttp2.BaseRequestHandler):

def on_headers(self):
    self.push(path='/css/bootstrap.css',
              request_headers = [('content-length', '3')],
              status=200,
              body='foo')

    self.push(path='/js/bootstrap.js',
              method='GET',
              request_headers = [('content-length', '10')],
              status=200,
              body='foobarbuzz')

    self.send_response(status=200,
                       headers = [('content-type', 'text/plain')],
                       body=io.BytesIO(b'nghttp2-python FTW'))

ctx = ssl.SSLContext(ssl.PROTOCOL_SSLv23) ctx.options = ssl.OP_ALL | ssl.OP_NO_SSLv2 ctx.load_cert_chain('server.crt', 'server.key')

give None to ssl to make the server non-SSL/TLS

server = nghttp2.HTTP2Server(('127.0.0.1', 8443), Handler, ssl=ctx) server.serve_forever()

Contribution

[This text was composed based on 1.2. License section of curl/libcurl project.]

When contributing with code, you agree to put your changes and new code under the same license nghttp2 is already using unless stated and agreed otherwise.

When changing existing source code, do not alter the copyright of the original file(s). The copyright will still be owned by the original creator(s) or those who have been assigned copyright by the original author(s).

By submitting a patch to the nghttp2 project, you (or your employer, as the case may be) agree to assign the copyright of your submission to us. .. the above really needs to be reworded to pass legal muster. We will credit you for your changes as far as possible, to give credit but also to keep a trace back to who made what changes. Please always provide us with your full real name when contributing!

See

Contribution Guidelines
_ for more details.

Reporting vulnerability

If you find a vulnerability in our software, please send the email to "tatsuhiro.t at gmail dot com" about its details instead of submitting issues on github issue page. It is a standard practice not to disclose vulnerability information publicly until a fixed version is released, or mitigation is worked out.

In the future, we may setup a dedicated mail address for this purpose.

Release schedule

In general, we follow

Semantic Versioning 
_. We release MINOR version update every month, and usually we ship it around 25th day of every month.

We may release PATCH releases between the regular releases, mainly for severe security bug fixes.

We have no plan to break API compatibility changes involving soname bump, so MAJOR version will stay 1 for the foreseeable future.

License

The MIT License

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