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You-Dont-Need-jQuery

by nefe

Examples of how to do query, style, dom, ajax, event etc like jQuery with plain javascript.

19.2K Stars 1.7K Forks Last release: over 4 years ago (v2.0) MIT License 602 Commits 1 Releases

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You (Might) Don't Need jQuery Build Status

Frontend environments evolve rapidly nowadays and modern browsers have already implemented a great deal of DOM/BOM APIs which are good enough for production use. We don't have to learn jQuery from scratch for DOM manipulation or event handling. In the meantime, thanks to the spread of frontend libraries such as React, Angular and Vue, manipulating the DOM directly becomes anti-pattern, so that jQuery usage has never been less important. This project summarizes most of the alternatives in native Javascript implementation to jQuery methods, with IE 10+ support.

Note: jQuery is still a great library and has many valid use cases. Don’t migrate away if you don’t want to!

Table of Contents

  1. Translations
  2. Query Selector
  3. CSS & Style
  4. DOM Manipulation
  5. Ajax
  6. Events
  7. Utilities
  8. Promises
  9. Animation
  10. Alternatives
  11. Browser Support

Translations

Query Selector

In place of common selectors like class, id or attribute we can use

document.querySelector

or

document.querySelectorAll

for substitution. The differences lie in: *

document.querySelector

returns the first matched element *

document.querySelectorAll

returns all matched elements as NodeList. It can be converted to Array using

Array.prototype.slice.call(document.querySelectorAll(selector));

or any of the methods outlined in makeArray* If there are no elements matched, jQuery and

document.querySelectorAll

will return

[]

, whereas

document.querySelector

will return

null

.

Notice:

document.querySelector

and

document.querySelectorAll

are quite SLOW, thus try to use

document.getElementById

,

document.getElementsByClassName

or

document.getElementsByTagName

if you want to get a performance bonus.

  • 1.0 Query by selector
// jQuery $('selector'); // Native document.querySelectorAll('selector');
  • 1.1 Query by class
// jQuery $('.class'); // Native document.querySelectorAll('.class'); // or document.getElementsByClassName('class');
  • 1.2 Query by id
// jQuery $('#id'); // Native document.querySelector('#id'); // or document.getElementById('id'); // or window['id']
  • 1.3 Query by attribute
// jQuery $('a[target=\_blank]'); // Native document.querySelectorAll('a[target=\_blank]');
  • 1.4 Query in descendants
// jQuery $el.find('li'); // Native el.querySelectorAll('li');
  • 1.5 Sibling/Previous/Next Elements

    • All siblings
// jQuery $el.siblings(); // Native - latest, Edge13+ [...el.parentNode.children].filter((child) =\> child !== el ); // Native (alternative) - latest, Edge13+ Array.from(el.parentNode.children).filter((child) =\> child !== el ); // Native - IE10+ Array.prototype.filter.call(el.parentNode.children, (child) =\> child !== el );
  • Previous sibling
// jQuery $el.prev(); // Native el.previousElementSibling;
  • Next sibling
// jQuery $el.next(); // Native el.nextElementSibling;
  • All previous siblings
// jQuery (optional filter selector) $el.prevAll($filter); // Native (optional filter function) function getPreviousSiblings(elem, filter) { var sibs = []; while (elem = elem.previousSibling) { if (elem.nodeType === 3) continue; // ignore text nodes if (!filter || filter(elem)) sibs.push(elem); } return sibs; }
  • All next siblings

// jQuery (optional selector filter) $el.nextAll($filter); // Native (optional filter function) function getNextSiblings(elem, filter) { var sibs = []; var nextElem = elem.parentNode.firstChild; do { if (nextElem.nodeType === 3) continue; // ignore text nodes if (nextElem === elem) continue; // ignore elem of target if (nextElem === elem.nextElementSibling) { if (!filter || filter(elem)) { sibs.push(nextElem); elem = nextElem; } } } while(nextElem = nextElem.nextSibling) return sibs; }

An example of filter function:

function exampleFilter(elem) { switch (elem.nodeName.toUpperCase()) { case 'DIV': return true; case 'SPAN': return true; default: return false; } }

Return the first matched element by provided selector, traversing from current element up through its ancestors in the DOM tree.

// jQuery $el.closest(selector); // Native - Only latest, NO IE el.closest(selector); // Native - IE10+ function closest(el, selector) { const matchesSelector = el.matches || el.webkitMatchesSelector || el.mozMatchesSelector || el.msMatchesSelector; while (el) { if (matchesSelector.call(el, selector)) { return el; } else { el = el.parentElement; } } return null; }
  • 1.7 Parents Until

Get the ancestors of each element in the current set of matched elements, up to but not including the element matched by the selector, DOM node, or jQuery object.

// jQuery $el.parentsUntil(selector, filter); // Native function parentsUntil(el, selector, filter) { const result = []; const matchesSelector = el.matches || el.webkitMatchesSelector || el.mozMatchesSelector || el.msMatchesSelector; // match start from parent el = el.parentElement; while (el && !matchesSelector.call(el, selector)) { if (!filter) { result.push(el); } else { if (matchesSelector.call(el, filter)) { result.push(el); } } el = el.parentElement; } return result; }
  • 1.8 Form

    • Input/Textarea
// jQuery $('#my-input').val(); // Native document.querySelector('#my-input').value;
  • Get index of e.currentTarget between
    .radio
// jQuery $('.radio').index(e.currentTarget); // Native Array.from(document.querySelectorAll('.radio')).indexOf(e.currentTarget); or Array.prototype.indexOf.call(document.querySelectorAll('.radio'), e.currentTarget);
  • 1.9 Iframe Contents
$('iframe').contents()

returns

contentDocument

for this specific iframe

Iframe contents

// jQuery $iframe.contents(); // Native iframe.contentDocument;
  • Iframe Query

// jQuery $iframe.contents().find('.css'); // Native iframe.contentDocument.querySelectorAll('.css');
// jQuery $('body'); // Native document.body;
  • 1.11 Attribute getter and setter

    • Get an attribute
// jQuery $el.attr('foo'); // Native el.getAttribute('foo');
  • Set an attribute
// jQuery $el.attr('foo', 'bar'); // Native el.setAttribute('foo', 'bar');
  • Get a
    data-
    attribute
// jQuery $el.data('foo'); // Native (use `getAttribute`) el.getAttribute('data-foo'); // Native (use `dataset` if only need to support IE 11+) el.dataset['foo'];
  • 1.12 Selector containing string (case-sensitive)

// jQuery $("selector:contains('text')"); // Native function contains(selector, text) { var elements = document.querySelectorAll(selector); return Array.from(elements).filter(function(element) { return RegExp(text).test(element.textContent); }); }

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CSS & Style

  • 2.1 CSS

    • Get style
// jQuery $el.css('color'); // Native // NOTE: Known bug, will return 'auto' if style value is 'auto' const win = el.ownerDocument.defaultView; // null means not to return pseudo styles win.getComputedStyle(el, null).color;
  • Set style
// jQuery $el.css({ color: '#f01' }); // Native el.style.color = '#f01';
  • Get/Set Styles

Note that if you want to set multiple styles once, you could refer to setStyles method in oui-dom-utils package. + Add class

// jQuery $el.addClass(className); // Native el.classList.add(className);
  • Remove class
// jQuery $el.removeClass(className); // Native el.classList.remove(className);
  • has class
// jQuery $el.hasClass(className); // Native el.classList.contains(className);
  • Toggle class
// jQuery $el.toggleClass(className); // Native el.classList.toggle(className);
  • 2.2 Width & Height

Width and Height are theoretically identical, take Height as example:

  • Window height

// window height $(window).height(); // without scrollbar, behaves like jQuery window.document.documentElement.clientHeight; // with scrollbar window.innerHeight;
  • Document height

// jQuery $(document).height(); // Native const body = document.body; const html = document.documentElement; const height = Math.max( body.offsetHeight, body.scrollHeight, html.clientHeight, html.offsetHeight, html.scrollHeight );
  • Element height

// jQuery $el.height(); // Native function getHeight(el) { const styles = window.getComputedStyle(el); const height = el.offsetHeight; const borderTopWidth = parseFloat(styles.borderTopWidth); const borderBottomWidth = parseFloat(styles.borderBottomWidth); const paddingTop = parseFloat(styles.paddingTop); const paddingBottom = parseFloat(styles.paddingBottom); return height - borderBottomWidth - borderTopWidth - paddingTop - paddingBottom; } // accurate to integer(when `border-box`, it's `height - border`; when `content-box`, it's `height + padding`) el.clientHeight; // accurate to decimal(when `border-box`, it's `height`; when `content-box`, it's `height + padding + border`) el.getBoundingClientRect().height;
  • 2.3 Position & Offset

Position

Get the current coordinates of the element relative to the offset parent.

// jQuery $el.position(); // Native { left: el.offsetLeft, top: el.offsetTop }
  • Offset

Get the current coordinates of the element relative to the document.

// jQuery $el.offset(); // Native function getOffset (el) { const box = el.getBoundingClientRect(); return { top: box.top + window.pageYOffset - document.documentElement.clientTop, left: box.left + window.pageXOffset - document.documentElement.clientLeft }; }
  • 2.4 Scroll Top

Get the current vertical position of the scroll bar for the element.

// jQuery $(window).scrollTop(); // Native (document.documentElement && document.documentElement.scrollTop) || document.body.scrollTop;

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DOM Manipulation

Remove the element from the DOM.

// jQuery $el.remove(); // Native el.parentNode.removeChild(el);
  • 3.2 Text

    • Get text

Get the combined text contents of the element including their descendants,

// jQuery $el.text(); // Native el.textContent;
  • Set text

Set the content of the element to the specified text.

// jQuery $el.text(string); // Native el.textContent = string;
  • 3.3 HTML

    • Get HTML
// jQuery $el.html(); // Native el.innerHTML;
  • Set HTML
// jQuery $el.html(htmlString); // Native el.innerHTML = htmlString;

Append child element after the last child of parent element

// jQuery: unified syntax for DOMString and Node objects $parent.append(newEl | '
Hello World
'); // Native: different syntax parent.insertAdjacentHTML('beforeend', '
Hello World
'); parent.appendChild(newEl); // Native (ES6-way): unified syntax parent.append(newEl | '
Hello World
');
// jQuery: unified syntax for DOMString and Node objects $parent.prepend(newEl | '
Hello World
'); // Native: different syntax parent.insertAdjacentHTML('afterbegin', '
Hello World
'); parent.insertBefore(newEl, parent.firstChild); // Native (ES6-way): unified syntax parent.prepend(newEl | '
Hello World
');
  • 3.6 insertBefore

Insert a new node before the selected elements

// jQuery $newEl.insertBefore(selector); // Native (HTML string) el.insertAdjacentHTML('beforebegin ', '
Hello World
'); // Native (Element) const el = document.querySelector(selector); if (el.parentNode) { el.parentNode.insertBefore(newEl, el); }
  • 3.7 insertAfter

Insert a new node after the selected elements

// jQuery $newEl.insertAfter(selector); // Native (HTML string) el.insertAdjacentHTML('afterend', '
Hello World
'); // Native (Element) const el = document.querySelector(selector); if (el.parentNode) { el.parentNode.insertBefore(newEl, el.nextSibling); }

Return

true

if it matches the query selector

// jQuery - Notice `is` also works with a function, an existing jQuery object or a DOM element, which are not of concern here $el.is(selector); // Native el.matches(selector);

Create a deep copy of an element: it copies the matched element as well as all of its descendant elements and text nodes.

// jQuery. Sets parameter as `true` to indicate that event handlers should be copied along with the element. $el.clone(); // Native el.cloneNode();

Remove all child nodes

// jQuery $el.empty(); // Native el.innerHTML = null;

Wrap an HTML structure around each element

// jQuery $('.inner').wrap('

'); // Native Array.from(document.querySelectorAll('.inner')).forEach((el) =\> { const wrapper = document.createElement('div'); wrapper.className = 'wrapper'; el.parentNode.insertBefore(wrapper, el); wrapper.appendChild(el); });

Remove the parents of the set of matched elements from the DOM

// jQuery $('.inner').unwrap(); // Native Array.from(document.querySelectorAll('.inner')).forEach((el) =\> { let elParentNode = el.parentNode; if(elParentNode !== document.body) { elParentNode.parentNode.insertBefore(el, elParentNode); elParentNode.parentNode.removeChild(elParentNode); } });

Replace each element in the set of matched elements with the provided new content

// jQuery $('.inner').replaceWith('

'); // Native (alternative) - latest, Edge17+ Array.from(document.querySelectorAll('.inner')).forEach((el) =\> { const outer = document.createElement('div'); outer.className = 'outer'; el.replaceWith(outer); }); // Native Array.from(document.querySelectorAll('.inner')).forEach((el) =\> { const outer = document.createElement('div'); outer.className = 'outer'; el.parentNode.replaceChild(outer, el); });

Parse a string into HTML/SVG/XML

// jQuery $(`
1. a
2. b

1. c
2. d
`); // Native range = document.createRange(); parse = range.createContextualFragment.bind(range); parse(`
1. a
2. b

1. c
2. d
`);

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Ajax

Fetch API is the new standard to replace XMLHttpRequest to do ajax. It works on Chrome and Firefox, you can use polyfills to make it work on legacy browsers.

Try github/fetch on IE9+ or fetch-ie8 on IE8+, fetch-jsonp to make JSONP requests.

  • 4.1 Load data from the server and place the returned HTML into the matched element.
// jQuery $(selector).load(url, completeCallback) // Native fetch(url).then(data =\> data.text()).then(data =\> { document.querySelector(selector).innerHTML = data }).then(completeCallback)

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Events

For a complete replacement with namespace and delegation, refer to https://github.com/oneuijs/oui-dom-events

  • 5.0 Document ready by
    DOMContentLoaded
// jQuery $(document).ready(eventHandler); // Native // Check if the DOMContentLoaded has already been completed if (document.readyState !== 'loading') { eventHandler(); } else { document.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded', eventHandler); }
  • 5.1 Bind an event with on
// jQuery $el.on(eventName, eventHandler); // Native el.addEventListener(eventName, eventHandler);
  • 5.2 Unbind an event with off
// jQuery $el.off(eventName, eventHandler); // Native el.removeEventListener(eventName, eventHandler);
// jQuery $(el).trigger('custom-event', {key1: 'data'}); // Native if (window.CustomEvent) { const event = new CustomEvent('custom-event', {detail: {key1: 'data'}}); } else { const event = document.createEvent('CustomEvent'); event.initCustomEvent('custom-event', true, true, {key1: 'data'}); } el.dispatchEvent(event);

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Utilities

Most of jQuery utilities are also found in the native API. Other advanced functions could be chosen from better utilities libraries, focusing on consistency and performance. Lodash is a recommended replacement.

  • 6.1 Basic utilities

    • isArray

Determine whether the argument is an array.

// jQuery $.isArray(array); // Native Array.isArray(array);
  • isWindow

Determine whether the argument is a window.

// jQuery $.isWindow(obj); // Native function isWindow(obj) { return obj !== null && obj !== undefined && obj === obj.window; }
  • inArray

Search for a specified value within an array and return its index (or -1 if not found).

// jQuery $.inArray(item, array); // Native array.indexOf(item) \> -1; // ES6-way array.includes(item);
  • isNumeric

Determine if the argument passed is numerical. Use

typeof

to decide the type or the

type

example for better accuracy.

// jQuery $.isNumeric(item); // Native function isNumeric(n) { return !isNaN(parseFloat(n)) && isFinite(n); }
  • isFunction

Determine if the argument passed is a JavaScript function object.

// jQuery $.isFunction(item); // Native function isFunction(item) { if (typeof item === 'function') { return true; } var type = Object.prototype.toString.call(item); return type === '[object Function]' || type === '[object GeneratorFunction]'; }
  • isEmptyObject

Check to see if an object is empty (contains no enumerable properties).

// jQuery $.isEmptyObject(obj); // Native function isEmptyObject(obj) { return Object.keys(obj).length === 0; }
  • isPlainObject

Check to see if an object is a plain object (created using “{}” or “new Object”).

// jQuery $.isPlainObject(obj); // Native function isPlainObject(obj) { if (typeof (obj) !== 'object' || obj.nodeType || obj !== null && obj !== undefined && obj === obj.window) { return false; } if (obj.constructor && !Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(obj.constructor.prototype, 'isPrototypeOf')) { return false; } return true; }
  • extend

Merge the contents of two or more objects together into a new object, without modifying either argument. object.assign is part of ES6 API, and you could also use a polyfill.

// jQuery $.extend({}, object1, object2); // Native Object.assign({}, object1, object2);
  • trim

Remove the white-space from the beginning and end of a string.

// jQuery $.trim(string); // Native string.trim();
  • map

Translate all items in an array or object to new array of items.

// jQuery $.map(array, (value, index) =\> { }); // Native array.map((value, index) =\> { });
  • each

A generic iterator function, which can be used to seamlessly iterate over both objects and arrays.

// jQuery $.each(array, (index, value) =\> { }); // Native array.forEach((value, index) =\> { });
  • grep

Finds the elements of an array which satisfy a filter function.

// jQuery $.grep(array, (value, index) =\> { }); // Native array.filter((value, index) =\> { });
  • type

Determine the internal JavaScript [Class] of an object.

// jQuery $.type(obj); // Native function type(item) { const reTypeOf = /(?:^\[object\s(.\*?)\]$)/; return Object.prototype.toString.call(item) .replace(reTypeOf, '$1') .toLowerCase(); }
  • merge

Merge the contents of two arrays together into the first array.

// jQuery, doesn't remove duplicate items $.merge(array1, array2); // Native, doesn't remove duplicate items function merge(...args) { return [].concat(...args) } // ES6-way, doesn't remove duplicate items array1 = [...array1, ...array2] // Set version, does remove duplicate items function merge(...args) { return Array.from(new Set([].concat(...args))) }
  • now

Return a number representing the current time.

// jQuery $.now(); // Native Date.now();
  • proxy

Takes a function and returns a new one that will always have a particular context.

// jQuery $.proxy(fn, context); // Native fn.bind(context);
  • makeArray

Convert an array-like object into a true JavaScript array.

// jQuery $.makeArray(arrayLike); // Native Array.prototype.slice.call(arrayLike); // ES6-way: Array.from() method Array.from(arrayLike); // ES6-way: spread operator [...arrayLike];

Check to see if a DOM element is a descendant of another DOM element.

// jQuery $.contains(el, child); // Native el !== child && el.contains(child);
  • 6.3 Globaleval

Execute some JavaScript code globally.

// jQuery $.globaleval(code); // Native function Globaleval(code) { const script = document.createElement('script'); script.text = code; document.head.appendChild(script).parentNode.removeChild(script); } // Use eval, but context of eval is current, context of $.Globaleval is global. eval(code);
  • 6.4 parse

    • parseHTML

Parses a string into an array of DOM nodes.

// jQuery $.parseHTML(htmlString); // Native function parseHTML(string) { const context = document.implementation.createHTMLDocument(); // Set the base href for the created document so any parsed elements with URLs // are based on the document's URL const base = context.createElement('base'); base.href = document.location.href; context.head.appendChild(base); context.body.innerHTML = string; return context.body.children; }
  • 6.5 exists

  • exists

Check if an element exists in the DOM

// jQuery if ($('selector').length) { // exists } // Native var element = document.getElementById('elementId'); if (typeof(element) != 'undefined' && element != null) { // exists }

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Promises

A promise represents the eventual result of an asynchronous operation. jQuery has its own way to handle promises. Native JavaScript implements a thin and minimal API to handle promises according to the Promises/A+ specification.

  • 7.1 done, fail, always
done

is called when promise is resolved,

fail

is called when promise is rejected,

always

is called when promise is either resolved or rejected.

// jQuery $promise.done(doneCallback).fail(failCallback).always(alwaysCallback) // Native promise.then(doneCallback, failCallback).then(alwaysCallback, alwaysCallback)
when

is used to handle multiple promises. It will resolve when all promises are resolved, and reject if either one is rejected.

// jQuery $.when($promise1, $promise2).done((promise1Result, promise2Result) =\> { }); // Native Promise.all([$promise1, $promise2]).then([promise1Result, promise2Result] =\> {});

Deferred is a way to create promises.

// jQuery function asyncFunc() { const defer = new $.Deferred(); setTimeout(() =\> { if(true) { defer.resolve('some\_value\_computed\_asynchronously'); } else { defer.reject('failed'); } }, 1000); return defer.promise(); } // Native function asyncFunc() { return new Promise((resolve, reject) =\> { setTimeout(() =\> { if (true) { resolve('some\_value\_computed\_asynchronously'); } else { reject('failed'); } }, 1000); }); } // Deferred way function defer() { const deferred = {}; const promise = new Promise((resolve, reject) =\> { deferred.resolve = resolve; deferred.reject = reject; }); deferred.promise = () =\> { return promise; }; return deferred; } function asyncFunc() { const defer = defer(); setTimeout(() =\> { if(true) { defer.resolve('some\_value\_computed\_asynchronously'); } else { defer.reject('failed'); } }, 1000); return defer.promise(); }

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Animation

  • 8.1 Show & Hide
// jQuery $el.show(); $el.hide(); // Native // More detail about show method, please refer to https://github.com/oneuijs/oui-dom-utils/blob/master/src/index.js#L363 el.style.display = ''|'inline'|'inline-block'|'inline-table'|'block'; el.style.display = 'none';

Display or hide the element.

// jQuery $el.toggle(); // Native if (el.ownerDocument.defaultView.getComputedStyle(el, null).display === 'none') { el.style.display = ''|'inline'|'inline-block'|'inline-table'|'block'; } else { el.style.display = 'none'; }
  • 8.3 FadeIn & FadeOut
// jQuery $el.fadeIn(3000); $el.fadeOut(3000); // Native fadeOut function fadeOut(el, ms) { if (ms) { el.style.transition = `opacity ${ms} ms`; el.addEventListener( 'transitionend', function(event) { el.style.display = 'none'; }, false ); } el.style.opacity = '0'; } // Native fadeIn function fadeIn(elem, ms) { elem.style.opacity = 0; if (ms) { let opacity = 0; const timer = setInterval(function() { opacity += 50 / ms; if (opacity \>= 1) { clearInterval(timer); opacity = 1; } elem.style.opacity = opacity; }, 50); } else { elem.style.opacity = 1; } }

Adjust the opacity of the element.

// jQuery $el.fadeTo('slow',0.15); // Native el.style.transition = 'opacity 3s'; // assume 'slow' equals 3 seconds el.style.opacity = '0.15';
  • 8.5 FadeToggle

Display or hide the element by animating their opacity.

// jQuery $el.fadeToggle(); // Native el.style.transition = 'opacity 3s'; const { opacity } = el.ownerDocument.defaultView.getComputedStyle(el, null); if (opacity === '1') { el.style.opacity = '0'; } else { el.style.opacity = '1'; }
  • 8.6 SlideUp & SlideDown
// jQuery $el.slideUp(); $el.slideDown(); // Native const originHeight = '100px'; el.style.transition = 'height 3s'; // slideUp el.style.height = '0px'; // slideDown el.style.height = originHeight;
  • 8.7 SlideToggle

Display or hide the element with a sliding motion.

// jQuery $el.slideToggle(); // Native const originHeight = '100px'; el.style.transition = 'height 3s'; const { height } = el.ownerDocument.defaultView.getComputedStyle(el, null); if (parseInt(height, 10) === 0) { el.style.height = originHeight; } else { el.style.height = '0px'; }

Perform a custom animation of a set of CSS properties.

// jQuery $el.animate({ params }, speed); // Native el.style.transition = 'all ' + speed; Object.keys(params).forEach((key) =\> el.style[key] = params[key]; )

Alternatives

Browser Support

Chrome | Firefox | IE | Opera | Safari--- | --- | --- | --- | --- | Latest ✔ | Latest ✔ | 10+ ✔ | Latest ✔ | 6.1+ ✔ |

License

MIT

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