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JavaScript parser / mangler / compressor / beautifier toolkit

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UglifyJS 3

UglifyJS is a JavaScript parser, minifier, compressor and beautifier toolkit.

Note:

  • [email protected]
    has a simplified API and CLI that is not backwards compatible with
    [email protected]
    .
  • Documentation for UglifyJS
    2.x
    releases can be found here
    .
  • uglify-js
    only supports JavaScript (ECMAScript 5).
  • To minify ECMAScript 2015 or above, transpile using tools like Babel.

Install

First make sure you have installed the latest version of node.js (You may need to restart your computer after this step).

From NPM for use as a command line app:

npm install uglify-js -g

From NPM for programmatic use:

npm install uglify-js

Command line usage

uglifyjs [input files] [options]

UglifyJS can take multiple input files. It's recommended that you pass the input files first, then pass the options. UglifyJS will parse input files in sequence and apply any compression options. The files are parsed in the same global scope, that is, a reference from a file to some variable/function declared in another file will be matched properly.

If no input file is specified, UglifyJS will read from STDIN.

If you wish to pass your options before the input files, separate the two with a double dash to prevent input files being used as option arguments:

uglifyjs --compress --mangle -- input.js

Command line options

    -h, --help                  Print usage information.
                                `--help options` for details on available options.
    -V, --version               Print version number.
    -p, --parse        Specify parser options:
                                `acorn`  Use Acorn for parsing.
                                `bare_returns`  Allow return outside of functions.
                                                Useful when minifying CommonJS
                                                modules and Userscripts that may
                                                be anonymous function wrapped (IIFE)
                                                by the .user.js engine `caller`.
                                `expression`  Parse a single expression, rather than
                                              a program (for parsing JSON).
                                `spidermonkey`  Assume input files are SpiderMonkey
                                                AST format (as JSON).
    -c, --compress [options]    Enable compressor/specify compressor options:
                                `pure_funcs`  List of functions that can be safely
                                              removed when their return values are
                                              not used.
    -m, --mangle [options]      Mangle names/specify mangler options:
                                `reserved`  List of names that should not be mangled.
    --mangle-props [options]    Mangle properties/specify mangler options:
                                `builtins`  Mangle property names that overlaps
                                            with standard JavaScript globals.
                                `debug`  Add debug prefix and suffix.
                                `domprops`  Mangle property names that overlaps
                                            with DOM properties.
                                `keep_quoted`  Only mangle unquoted properties.
                                `regex`  Only mangle matched property names.
                                `reserved`  List of names that should not be mangled.
    -b, --beautify [options]    Beautify output/specify output options:
                                `beautify`  Enabled with `--beautify` by default.
                                `preamble`  Preamble to prepend to the output. You
                                            can use this to insert a comment, for
                                            example for licensing information.
                                            This will not be parsed, but the source
                                            map will adjust for its presence.
                                `quote_style`  Quote style:
                                               0 - auto
                                               1 - single
                                               2 - double
                                               3 - original
                                `wrap_iife`  Wrap IIFEs in parenthesis. Note: you may
                                             want to disable `negate_iife` under
                                             compressor options.
    -O, --output-opts [options] Specify output options (`beautify` disabled by default).
    -o, --output          Output file path (default STDOUT). Specify `ast` or
                                `spidermonkey` to write UglifyJS or SpiderMonkey AST
                                as JSON to STDOUT respectively.
    --comments [filter]         Preserve copyright comments in the output. By
                                default this works like Google Closure, keeping
                                JSDoc-style comments that contain "@license" or
                                "@preserve". You can optionally pass one of the
                                following arguments to this flag:
                                - "all" to keep all comments
                                - a valid JS RegExp like `/foo/` or `/^!/` to
                                keep only matching comments.
                                Note that currently not *all* comments can be
                                kept when compression is on, because of dead
                                code removal or cascading statements into
                                sequences.
    --config-file         Read `minify()` options from JSON file.
    -d, --define [=value] Global definitions.
    -e, --enclose [arg[:value]] Embed everything in a big function, with configurable
                                argument(s) & value(s).
    --ie8                       Support non-standard Internet Explorer 8.
                                Equivalent to setting `ie8: true` in `minify()`
                                for `compress`, `mangle` and `output` options.
                                By default UglifyJS will not try to be IE-proof.
    --keep-fnames               Do not mangle/drop function names.  Useful for
                                code relying on Function.prototype.name.
    --name-cache          File to hold mangled name mappings.
    --self                      Build UglifyJS as a library (implies --wrap UglifyJS)
    --source-map [options]      Enable source map/specify source map options:
                                `base`  Path to compute relative paths from input files.
                                `content`  Input source map, useful if you're compressing
                                           JS that was generated from some other original
                                           code. Specify "inline" if the source map is
                                           included within the sources.
                                `filename`  Filename and/or location of the output source
                                            (sets `file` attribute in source map).
                                `includeSources`  Pass this flag if you want to include
                                                  the content of source files in the
                                                  source map as sourcesContent property.
                                `names` Include symbol names in the source map.
                                `root`  Path to the original source to be included in
                                        the source map.
                                `url`  If specified, path to the source map to append in
                                       `//# sourceMappingURL`.
    --timings                   Display operations run time on STDERR.
    --toplevel                  Compress and/or mangle variables in top level scope.
    --verbose                   Print diagnostic messages.
    --warn                      Print warning messages.
    --webkit                    Support non-standard Safari/Webkit.
                                Equivalent to setting `webkit: true` in `minify()`
                                for `mangle` and `output` options.
                                By default UglifyJS will not try to be Safari-proof.
    --wrap                Embed everything in a big function, making the
                                “exports” and “global” variables available. You
                                need to pass an argument to this option to
                                specify the name that your module will take
                                when included in, say, a browser.

Specify

--output
(
-o
) to declare the output file. Otherwise the output goes to STDOUT.

CLI source map options

UglifyJS can generate a source map file, which is highly useful for debugging your compressed JavaScript. To get a source map, pass

--source-map --output output.js
(source map will be written out to
output.js.map
).

Additional options:

  • --source-map "filename=''"
    to specify the name of the source map. The value of
    filename
    is only used to set
    file
    attribute (see the spec) in source map file.
  • --source-map "root=''"
    to pass the URL where the original files can be found.
  • --source-map "names=false"
    to omit symbol names if you want to reduce size of the source map file.
  • --source-map "url=''"
    to specify the URL where the source map can be found. Otherwise UglifyJS assumes HTTP
    X-SourceMap
    is being used and will omit the
    //# sourceMappingURL=
    directive.

For example:

uglifyjs js/file1.js js/file2.js \
         -o foo.min.js -c -m \
         --source-map "root='http://foo.com/src',url='foo.min.js.map'"

The above will compress and mangle

file1.js
and
file2.js
, will drop the output in
foo.min.js
and the source map in
foo.min.js.map
. The source mapping will refer to
http://foo.com/src/js/file1.js
and
http://foo.com/src/js/file2.js
(in fact it will list
http://foo.com/src
as the source map root, and the original files as
js/file1.js
and
js/file2.js
).

Composed source map

When you're compressing JS code that was output by a compiler such as CoffeeScript, mapping to the JS code won't be too helpful. Instead, you'd like to map back to the original code (i.e. CoffeeScript). UglifyJS has an option to take an input source map. Assuming you have a mapping from CoffeeScript → compiled JS, UglifyJS can generate a map from CoffeeScript → compressed JS by mapping every token in the compiled JS to its original location.

To use this feature pass

--source-map "content='/path/to/input/source.map'"
or
--source-map "content=inline"
if the source map is included inline with the sources.

CLI compress options

You need to pass

--compress
(
-c
) to enable the compressor. Optionally you can pass a comma-separated list of compress options.

Options are in the form

foo=bar
, or just
foo
(the latter implies a boolean option that you want to set
true
; it's effectively a shortcut for
foo=true
).

Example:

uglifyjs file.js -c toplevel,sequences=false

CLI mangle options

To enable the mangler you need to pass

--mangle
(
-m
). The following (comma-separated) options are supported:
  • eval
    (default
    false
    ) -- mangle names visible in scopes where
    eval
    or
    with
    are used.
  • reserved
    (default:
    []
    ) -- when mangling is enabled but you want to prevent certain names from being mangled, you can declare those names with
    --mangle reserved
    — pass a comma-separated list of names. For example:

    uglifyjs ... -m reserved=['$','require','exports']

to prevent the

require
,
exports
and
$
names from being changed.

CLI mangling property names (
--mangle-props
)

Note: THIS WILL PROBABLY BREAK YOUR CODE. Mangling property names is a separate step, different from variable name mangling. Pass

--mangle-props
to enable it. It will mangle all properties in the input code with the exception of built in DOM properties and properties in core JavaScript classes. For example:
// example.js
var x = {
    baz_: 0,
    foo_: 1,
    calc: function() {
        return this.foo_ + this.baz_;
    }
};
x.bar_ = 2;
x["baz_"] = 3;
console.log(x.calc());

Mangle all properties (except for JavaScript

builtins
):
bash
$ uglifyjs example.js -c -m --mangle-props
javascript
var x={o:0,_:1,l:function(){return this._+this.o}};x.t=2,x.o=3,console.log(x.l());
Mangle all properties except for
reserved
properties:
bash
$ uglifyjs example.js -c -m --mangle-props reserved=[foo_,bar_]
javascript
var x={o:0,foo_:1,_:function(){return this.foo_+this.o}};x.bar_=2,x.o=3,console.log(x._());
Mangle all properties matching a
regex
:
bash
$ uglifyjs example.js -c -m --mangle-props regex=/_$/
javascript
var x={o:0,_:1,calc:function(){return this._+this.o}};x.l=2,x.o=3,console.log(x.calc());

Combining mangle properties options:

bash
$ uglifyjs example.js -c -m --mangle-props regex=/_$/,reserved=[bar_]
javascript
var x={o:0,_:1,calc:function(){return this._+this.o}};x.bar_=2,x.o=3,console.log(x.calc());

In order for this to be of any use, we avoid mangling standard JS names by default (

--mangle-props builtins
to override).

A default exclusion file is provided in

tools/domprops.json
which should cover most standard JS and DOM properties defined in various browsers. Pass
--mangle-props domprops
to disable this feature.

A regular expression can be used to define which property names should be mangled. For example,

--mangle-props regex=/^_/
will only mangle property names that start with an underscore.

When you compress multiple files using this option, in order for them to work together in the end we need to ensure somehow that one property gets mangled to the same name in all of them. For this, pass

--name-cache filename.json
and UglifyJS will maintain these mappings in a file which can then be reused. It should be initially empty. Example:
$ rm -f /tmp/cache.json  # start fresh
$ uglifyjs file1.js file2.js --mangle-props --name-cache /tmp/cache.json -o part1.js
$ uglifyjs file3.js file4.js --mangle-props --name-cache /tmp/cache.json -o part2.js

Now,

part1.js
and
part2.js
will be consistent with each other in terms of mangled property names.

Using the name cache is not necessary if you compress all your files in a single call to UglifyJS.

Mangling unquoted names (
--mangle-props keep_quoted
)

Using quoted property name (

o["foo"]
) reserves the property name (
foo
) so that it is not mangled throughout the entire script even when used in an unquoted style (
o.foo
). Example:
// stuff.js
var o = {
    "foo": 1,
    bar: 3
};
o.foo += o.bar;
console.log(o.foo);
$ uglifyjs stuff.js --mangle-props keep_quoted -c -m
var o={foo:1,o:3};o.foo+=o.o,console.log(o.foo);

Debugging property name mangling

You can also pass

--mangle-props debug
in order to mangle property names without completely obscuring them. For example the property
o.foo
would mangle to
o._$foo$_
with this option. This allows property mangling of a large codebase while still being able to debug the code and identify where mangling is breaking things.
$ uglifyjs stuff.js --mangle-props debug -c -m
var o={_$foo$_:1,_$bar$_:3};o._$foo$_+=o._$bar$_,console.log(o._$foo$_);

You can also pass a custom suffix using

--mangle-props debug=XYZ
. This would then mangle
o.foo
to
o._$foo$XYZ_
. You can change this each time you compile a script to identify how a property got mangled. One technique is to pass a random number on every compile to simulate mangling changing with different inputs (e.g. as you update the input script with new properties), and to help identify mistakes like writing mangled keys to storage.

API Reference

Assuming installation via NPM, you can load UglifyJS in your application like this:

javascript
var UglifyJS = require("uglify-js");

There is a single high level function,

minify(code, options)
, which will perform all minification phases in a configurable manner. By default

minify()
will enable the options
compress
and
mangle
. Example:
javascript
var code = "function add(first, second) { return first + second; }";
var result = UglifyJS.minify(code);
console.log(result.error); // runtime error, or `undefined` if no error
console.log(result.code);  // minified output: function add(n,d){return n+d}

You can

minify
more than one JavaScript file at a time by using an object for the first argument where the keys are file names and the values are source code:
javascript
var code = {
    "file1.js": "function add(first, second) { return first + second; }",
    "file2.js": "console.log(add(1 + 2, 3 + 4));"
};
var result = UglifyJS.minify(code);
console.log(result.code);
// function add(d,n){return d+n}console.log(add(3,7));

The

toplevel
option:
javascript
var code = {
    "file1.js": "function add(first, second) { return first + second; }",
    "file2.js": "console.log(add(1 + 2, 3 + 4));"
};
var options = { toplevel: true };
var result = UglifyJS.minify(code, options);
console.log(result.code);
// console.log(3+7);

The

nameCache
option:
javascript
var options = {
    mangle: {
        toplevel: true,
    },
    nameCache: {}
};
var result1 = UglifyJS.minify({
    "file1.js": "function add(first, second) { return first + second; }"
}, options);
var result2 = UglifyJS.minify({
    "file2.js": "console.log(add(1 + 2, 3 + 4));"
}, options);
console.log(result1.code);
// function n(n,r){return n+r}
console.log(result2.code);
// console.log(n(3,7));

You may persist the name cache to the file system in the following way:

javascript
var cacheFileName = "/tmp/cache.json";
var options = {
    mangle: {
        properties: true,
    },
    nameCache: JSON.parse(fs.readFileSync(cacheFileName, "utf8"))
};
fs.writeFileSync("part1.js", UglifyJS.minify({
    "file1.js": fs.readFileSync("file1.js", "utf8"),
    "file2.js": fs.readFileSync("file2.js", "utf8")
}, options).code, "utf8");
fs.writeFileSync("part2.js", UglifyJS.minify({
    "file3.js": fs.readFileSync("file3.js", "utf8"),
    "file4.js": fs.readFileSync("file4.js", "utf8")
}, options).code, "utf8");
fs.writeFileSync(cacheFileName, JSON.stringify(options.nameCache), "utf8");

An example of a combination of

minify()
options:
javascript
var code = {
    "file1.js": "function add(first, second) { return first + second; }",
    "file2.js": "console.log(add(1 + 2, 3 + 4));"
};
var options = {
    toplevel: true,
    compress: {
        global_defs: {
            "@console.log": "alert"
        },
        passes: 2
    },
    output: {
        beautify: false,
        preamble: "/* uglified */"
    }
};
var result = UglifyJS.minify(code, options);
console.log(result.code);
// /* uglified */
// alert(10);"

To produce warnings:

javascript
var code = "function f(){ var u; return 2 + 3; }";
var options = { warnings: true };
var result = UglifyJS.minify(code, options);
console.log(result.error);    // runtime error, `undefined` in this case
console.log(result.warnings); // [ 'Dropping unused variable u [0:1,18]' ]
console.log(result.code);     // function f(){return 5}

An error example:

javascript
var result = UglifyJS.minify({"foo.js" : "if (0) else console.log(1);"});
console.log(JSON.stringify(result.error));
// {"message":"Unexpected token: keyword (else)","filename":"foo.js","line":1,"col":7,"pos":7}
Note: unlike
[email protected]
, the
3.x
API does not throw errors. To achieve a similar effect one could do the following:
javascript
var result = UglifyJS.minify(code, options);
if (result.error) throw result.error;

Minify options

  • compress
    (default
    {}
    ) — pass
    false
    to skip compressing entirely. Pass an object to specify custom compress options.
  • ie8
    (default
    false
    ) -- set to
    true
    to support IE8.
  • keep_fnames
    (default:
    false
    ) -- pass
    true
    to prevent discarding or mangling of function names. Useful for code relying on
    Function.prototype.name
    .
  • mangle
    (default
    true
    ) — pass
    false
    to skip mangling names, or pass an object to specify mangle options (see below).
    • mangle.properties
      (default
      false
      ) — a subcategory of the mangle option. Pass an object to specify custom mangle property options.
  • nameCache
    (default
    null
    ) -- pass an empty object
    {}
    or a previously used
    nameCache
    object if you wish to cache mangled variable and property names across multiple invocations of
    minify()
    . Note: this is a read/write property.
    minify()
    will read the name cache state of this object and update it during minification so that it may be reused or externally persisted by the user.
  • output
    (default
    null
    ) — pass an object if you wish to specify additional output options. The defaults are optimized for best compression.
  • parse
    (default
    {}
    ) — pass an object if you wish to specify some additional parse options.
  • sourceMap
    (default
    false
    ) -- pass an object if you wish to specify source map options.
  • toplevel
    (default
    false
    ) -- set to
    true
    if you wish to enable top level variable and function name mangling and to drop unused variables and functions.
  • warnings
    (default
    false
    ) — pass
    true
    to return compressor warnings in
    result.warnings
    . Use the value
    "verbose"
    for more detailed warnings.
  • webkit
    (default
    false
    ) -- enable workarounds for Safari/WebKit bugs. PhantomJS users should set this option to
    true
    .

Minify options structure

{
    parse: {
        // parse options
    },
    compress: {
        // compress options
    },
    mangle: {
        // mangle options

    properties: {
        // mangle property options
    }
},
output: {
    // output options
},
sourceMap: {
    // source map options
},
nameCache: null, // or specify a name cache object
toplevel: false,
ie8: false,
warnings: false,

}

Source map options

To generate a source map:

javascript
var result = UglifyJS.minify({"file1.js": "var a = function() {};"}, {
    sourceMap: {
        filename: "out.js",
        url: "out.js.map"
    }
});
console.log(result.code); // minified output
console.log(result.map);  // source map

Note that the source map is not saved in a file, it's just returned in

result.map
. The value passed for
sourceMap.url
is only used to set
//# sourceMappingURL=out.js.map
in
result.code
. The value of
filename
is only used to set
file
attribute (see the spec) in source map file.

You can set option

sourceMap.url
to be
"inline"
and source map will be appended to code.

You can also specify sourceRoot property to be included in source map:

javascript
var result = UglifyJS.minify({"file1.js": "var a = function() {};"}, {
    sourceMap: {
        root: "http://example.com/src",
        url: "out.js.map"
    }
});

If you're compressing compiled JavaScript and have a source map for it, you can use

sourceMap.content
:
javascript
var result = UglifyJS.minify({"compiled.js": "compiled code"}, {
    sourceMap: {
        content: "content from compiled.js.map",
        url: "minified.js.map"
    }
});
// same as before, it returns `code` and `map`

If you're using the

X-SourceMap
header instead, you can just omit
sourceMap.url
.

If you wish to reduce file size of the source map, set option

sourceMap.names
to be
false
and all symbol names will be omitted.

Parse options

  • bare_returns
    (default
    false
    ) -- support top level
    return
    statements
  • html5_comments
    (default
    true
    )
  • shebang
    (default
    true
    ) -- support
    #!command
    as the first line

Compress options

  • arguments
    (default:
    true
    ) -- replace
    arguments[index]
    with function parameter name whenever possible.
  • assignments
    (default:
    true
    ) -- apply optimizations to assignment expressions.
  • booleans
    (default:
    true
    ) -- various optimizations for boolean context, for example
    !!a ? b : c → a ? b : c
  • collapse_vars
    (default:
    true
    ) -- Collapse single-use non-constant variables, side effects permitting.
  • comparisons
    (default:
    true
    ) -- apply certain optimizations to binary nodes, e.g.
    !(a <= b) → a > b
    , attempts to negate binary nodes, e.g.
    a = !b && !c && !d && !e → a=!(b||c||d||e)
    etc.
  • conditionals
    (default:
    true
    ) -- apply optimizations for
    if
    -s and conditional expressions
  • dead_code
    (default:
    true
    ) -- remove unreachable code
  • directives
    (default:
    true
    ) -- remove redundant or non-standard directives
  • drop_console
    (default:
    false
    ) -- Pass
    true
    to discard calls to
    console.*
    functions. If you wish to drop a specific function call such as
    console.info
    and/or retain side effects from function arguments after dropping the function call then use
    pure_funcs
    instead.
  • drop_debugger
    (default:
    true
    ) -- remove
    debugger;
    statements
  • evaluate
    (default:
    true
    ) -- Evaluate expression for shorter constant representation. Pass
    "eager"
    to always replace function calls whenever possible, or a positive integer to specify an upper bound for each individual evaluation in number of characters.
  • expression
    (default:
    false
    ) -- Pass
    true
    to preserve completion values from terminal statements without
    return
    , e.g. in bookmarklets.
  • functions
    (default:
    true
    ) -- convert declarations from
    var
    to
    function
    whenever possible.
  • global_defs
    (default:
    {}
    ) -- see conditional compilation
  • hoist_funs
    (default:
    false
    ) -- hoist function declarations
  • hoist_props
    (default:
    true
    ) -- hoist properties from constant object and array literals into regular variables subject to a set of constraints. For example:
    var o={p:1, q:2}; f(o.p, o.q);
    is converted to
    f(1, 2);
    . Note:
    hoist_props
    works best with
    toplevel
    and
    mangle
    enabled, alongside with
    compress
    option
    passes
    set to
    2
    or higher.
  • hoist_vars
    (default:
    false
    ) -- hoist
    var
    declarations (this is
    false
    by default because it seems to increase the size of the output in general)
  • if_return
    (default:
    true
    ) -- optimizations for if/return and if/continue
  • inline
    (default:
    true
    ) -- inline calls to function with simple/
    return
    statement:
    • false
      -- same as
      0
    • 0
      -- disabled inlining
    • 1
      -- inline simple functions
    • 2
      -- inline functions with arguments
    • 3
      -- inline functions with arguments and variables
    • true
      -- same as
      3
  • join_vars
    (default:
    true
    ) -- join consecutive
    var
    statements
  • keep_fargs
    (default:
    strict
    ) -- Discard unused function arguments. Code which relies on
    Function.length
    will break if this is done indiscriminately, i.e. when passing
    true
    . Pass
    false
    to always retain function arguments.
  • keep_fnames
    (default:
    false
    ) -- Pass
    true
    to prevent the compressor from discarding function names. Useful for code relying on
    Function.prototype.name
    . See also: the
    keep_fnames
    mangle option.
  • keep_infinity
    (default:
    false
    ) -- Pass
    true
    to prevent
    Infinity
    from being compressed into
    1/0
    , which may cause performance issues on Chrome.
  • loops
    (default:
    true
    ) -- optimizations for
    do
    ,
    while
    and
    for
    loops when we can statically determine the condition.
  • merge_vars
    (default:
    true
    ) -- combine and reuse variables.
  • negate_iife
    (default:
    true
    ) -- negate "Immediately-Called Function Expressions" where the return value is discarded, to avoid the parens that the code generator would insert.
  • objects
    (default:
    true
    ) -- compact duplicate keys in object literals.
  • passes
    (default:
    1
    ) -- The maximum number of times to run compress. In some cases more than one pass leads to further compressed code. Keep in mind more passes will take more time.
  • properties
    (default:
    true
    ) -- rewrite property access using the dot notation, for example
    foo["bar"] → foo.bar
  • pure_funcs
    (default:
    null
    ) -- You can pass an array of names and UglifyJS will assume that those functions do not produce side effects. DANGER: will not check if the name is redefined in scope. An example case here, for instance
    var q = Math.floor(a/b)
    . If variable
    q
    is not used elsewhere, UglifyJS will drop it, but will still keep the
    Math.floor(a/b)
    , not knowing what it does. You can pass
    pure_funcs: [ 'Math.floor' ]
    to let it know that this function won't produce any side effect, in which case the whole statement would get discarded. The current implementation adds some overhead (compression will be slower). Make sure symbols under
    pure_funcs
    are also under
    mangle.reserved
    to avoid mangling.
  • pure_getters
    (default:
    "strict"
    ) -- If you pass
    true
    for this, UglifyJS will assume that object property access (e.g.
    foo.bar
    or
    foo["bar"]
    ) doesn't have any side effects. Specify
    "strict"
    to treat
    foo.bar
    as side-effect-free only when
    foo
    is certain to not throw, i.e. not
    null
    or
    undefined
    .
  • reduce_funcs
    (default:
    true
    ) -- Allows single-use functions to be inlined as function expressions when permissible allowing further optimization. Enabled by default. Option depends on
    reduce_vars
    being enabled. Some code runs faster in the Chrome V8 engine if this option is disabled. Does not negatively impact other major browsers.
  • reduce_vars
    (default:
    true
    ) -- Improve optimization on variables assigned with and used as constant values.
  • sequences
    (default:
    true
    ) -- join consecutive simple statements using the comma operator. May be set to a positive integer to specify the maximum number of consecutive comma sequences that will be generated. If this option is set to
    true
    then the default
    sequences
    limit is
    200
    . Set option to
    false
    or
    0
    to disable. The smallest
    sequences
    length is
    2
    . A
    sequences
    value of
    1
    is grandfathered to be equivalent to
    true
    and as such means
    200
    . On rare occasions the default sequences limit leads to very slow compress times in which case a value of
    20
    or less is recommended.
  • side_effects
    (default:
    true
    ) -- Pass
    false
    to disable potentially dropping functions marked as "pure". A function call is marked as "pure" if a comment annotation
    /*@__PURE__*/
    or
    /*#__PURE__*/
    immediately precedes the call. For example:
    /*@__PURE__*/foo();
  • strings
    (default:
    true
    ) -- compact string concatenations.
  • switches
    (default:
    true
    ) -- de-duplicate and remove unreachable
    switch
    branches
  • toplevel
    (default:
    false
    ) -- drop unreferenced functions (
    "funcs"
    ) and/or variables (
    "vars"
    ) in the top level scope (
    false
    by default,
    true
    to drop both unreferenced functions and variables)
  • top_retain
    (default:
    null
    ) -- prevent specific toplevel functions and variables from
    unused
    removal (can be array, comma-separated, RegExp or function. Implies
    toplevel
    )
  • typeofs
    (default:
    true
    ) -- Transforms
    typeof foo == "undefined"
    into
    foo === void 0
    . Note: recommend to set this value to
    false
    for IE10 and earlier versions due to known issues.
  • unsafe
    (default:
    false
    ) -- apply "unsafe" transformations (discussion below)
  • unsafe_comps
    (default:
    false
    ) -- compress expressions like
    a <= b
    assuming none of the operands can be (coerced to)
    NaN
    .
  • unsafe_Function
    (default:
    false
    ) -- compress and mangle
    Function(args, code)
    when both
    args
    and
    code
    are string literals.
  • unsafe_math
    (default:
    false
    ) -- optimize numerical expressions like
    2 * x * 3
    into
    6 * x
    , which may give imprecise floating point results.
  • unsafe_proto
    (default:
    false
    ) -- optimize expressions like
    Array.prototype.slice.call(a)
    into
    [].slice.call(a)
  • unsafe_regexp
    (default:
    false
    ) -- enable substitutions of variables with
    RegExp
    values the same way as if they are constants.
  • unsafe_undefined
    (default:
    false
    ) -- substitute
    void 0
    if there is a variable named
    undefined
    in scope (variable name will be mangled, typically reduced to a single character)
  • unused
    (default:
    true
    ) -- drop unreferenced functions and variables (simple direct variable assignments do not count as references unless set to
    "keep_assign"
    )
  • varify
    (default:
    true
    ) -- convert block-scoped declaractions into
    var
    whenever safe to do so

Mangle options

  • eval
    (default
    false
    ) -- Pass
    true
    to mangle names visible in scopes where
    eval
    or
    with
    are used.
  • keep_fnames
    (default
    false
    ) -- Pass
    true
    to not mangle function names. Useful for code relying on
    Function.prototype.name
    . See also: the
    keep_fnames
    compress option.
  • reserved
    (default
    []
    ) -- Pass an array of identifiers that should be excluded from mangling. Example:
    ["foo", "bar"]
    .
  • toplevel
    (default
    false
    ) -- Pass
    true
    to mangle names declared in the top level scope.

Examples:

// test.js
var globalVar;
function funcName(firstLongName, anotherLongName) {
    var myVariable = firstLongName +  anotherLongName;
}
var code = fs.readFileSync("test.js", "utf8");

UglifyJS.minify(code).code; // 'function funcName(a,n){}var globalVar;'

UglifyJS.minify(code, { mangle: { reserved: ['firstLongName'] } }).code; // 'function funcName(firstLongName,a){}var globalVar;'

UglifyJS.minify(code, { mangle: { toplevel: true } }).code; // 'function n(n,a){}var a;'

Mangle properties options

  • builtins
    (default:
    false
    ) -- Use
    true
    to allow the mangling of builtin DOM properties. Not recommended to override this setting.
  • debug
    (default:
    false
    ) -— Mangle names with the original name still present. Pass an empty string
    ""
    to enable, or a non-empty string to set the debug suffix.
  • keep_quoted
    (default:
    false
    ) -— Only mangle unquoted property names.
  • regex
    (default:
    null
    ) -— Pass a RegExp literal to only mangle property names matching the regular expression.
  • reserved
    (default:
    []
    ) -- Do not mangle property names listed in the
    reserved
    array.

Output options

The code generator tries to output shortest code possible by default. In case you want beautified output, pass

--beautify
(
-b
). Optionally you can pass additional arguments that control the code output:
  • ascii_only
    (default
    false
    ) -- escape Unicode characters in strings and regexps (affects directives with non-ascii characters becoming invalid)
  • beautify
    (default
    true
    ) -- whether to actually beautify the output. Passing
    -b
    will set this to true, but you might need to pass
    -b
    even when you want to generate minified code, in order to specify additional arguments, so you can use
    -b beautify=false
    to override it.
  • braces
    (default
    false
    ) -- always insert braces in
    if
    ,
    for
    ,
    do
    ,
    while
    or
    with
    statements, even if their body is a single statement.
  • comments
    (default
    false
    ) -- pass
    true
    or
    "all"
    to preserve all comments,
    "some"
    to preserve multi-line comments that contain
    @cc_on
    ,
    @license
    , or
    @preserve
    (case-insensitive), a regular expression string (e.g.
    /^!/
    ), or a function which returns
    boolean
    , e.g.
    js
    function(node, comment) {
      return comment.value.indexOf("@type " + node.TYPE) >= 0;
    }
    
  • galio
    (default
    false
    ) -- enable workarounds for ANT Galio bugs
  • indent_level
    (default
    4
    )
  • indent_start
    (default
    0
    ) -- prefix all lines by that many spaces
  • inline_script
    (default
    true
    ) -- escape HTML comments and the slash in occurrences of
     in strings
  • keep_quoted_props
    (default
    false
    ) -- when turned on, prevents stripping quotes from property names in object literals.
  • max_line_len
    (default
    false
    ) -- maximum line length (for uglified code)
  • preamble
    (default
    null
    ) -- when passed it must be a string and it will be prepended to the output literally. The source map will adjust for this text. Can be used to insert a comment containing licensing information, for example.
  • preserve_line
    (default
    false
    ) -- pass
    true
    to retain line numbering on a best effort basis.
  • quote_keys
    (default
    false
    ) -- pass
    true
    to quote all keys in literal objects
  • quote_style
    (default
    0
    ) -- preferred quote style for strings (affects quoted property names and directives as well):
    • 0
      -- prefers double quotes, switches to single quotes when there are more double quotes in the string itself.
      0
      is best for gzip size.
    • 1
      -- always use single quotes
    • 2
      -- always use double quotes
    • 3
      -- always use the original quotes
  • semicolons
    (default
    true
    ) -- separate statements with semicolons. If you pass
    false
    then whenever possible we will use a newline instead of a semicolon, leading to more readable output of uglified code (size before gzip could be smaller; size after gzip insignificantly larger).
  • shebang
    (default
    true
    ) -- preserve shebang
    #!
    in preamble (bash scripts)
  • v8
    (default
    false
    ) -- enable workarounds for Chrome & Node.js bugs
  • width
    (default
    80
    ) -- only takes effect when beautification is on, this specifies an (orientative) line width that the beautifier will try to obey. It refers to the width of the line text (excluding indentation). It doesn't work very well currently, but it does make the code generated by UglifyJS more readable.
  • wrap_iife
    (default
    false
    ) -- pass
    true
    to wrap immediately invoked function expressions. See #640 for more details.

Miscellaneous

Keeping copyright notices or other comments

You can pass

--comments
to retain certain comments in the output. By default it will keep JSDoc-style comments that contain "@preserve", "@license" or "@cc_on" (conditional compilation for IE). You can pass
--comments all
to keep all the comments, or a valid JavaScript regexp to keep only comments that match this regexp. For example
--comments /^!/
will keep comments like
/*! Copyright Notice */
.

Note, however, that there might be situations where comments are lost. For example:

javascript
function f() {
    /** @preserve Foo Bar */
    function g() {
        // this function is never called
    }
    return something();
}

Even though it has "@preserve", the comment will be lost because the inner function

g
(which is the AST node to which the comment is attached to) is discarded by the compressor as not referenced.

The safest comments where to place copyright information (or other info that needs to be kept in the output) are comments attached to toplevel nodes.

The
unsafe
compress
option

It enables some transformations that might break code logic in certain contrived cases, but should be fine for most code. You might want to try it on your own code, it should reduce the minified size. Here's what happens when this flag is on:

  • new Array(1, 2, 3)
    or
    Array(1, 2, 3)
    [ 1, 2, 3 ]
  • new Object()
    {}
  • String(exp)
    or
    exp.toString()
    "" + exp
  • new Object/RegExp/Function/Error/Array (...)
    → we discard the
    new

Conditional compilation

You can use the

--define
(
-d
) switch in order to declare global variables that UglifyJS will assume to be constants (unless defined in scope). For example if you pass
--define DEBUG=false
then, coupled with dead code removal UglifyJS will discard the following from the output:
javascript
if (DEBUG) {
    console.log("debug stuff");
}

You can specify nested constants in the form of

--define env.DEBUG=false
.

UglifyJS will warn about the condition being always false and about dropping unreachable code; for now there is no option to turn off only this specific warning, you can pass

warnings=false
to turn off all warnings.

Another way of doing that is to declare your globals as constants in a separate file and include it into the build. For example you can have a

build/defines.js
file with the following:
javascript
var DEBUG = false;
var PRODUCTION = true;
// etc.

and build your code like this:

uglifyjs build/defines.js js/foo.js js/bar.js... -c

UglifyJS will notice the constants and, since they cannot be altered, it will evaluate references to them to the value itself and drop unreachable code as usual. The build will contain the

const
declarations if you use them. If you are targeting < ES6 environments which does not support
const
, using
var
with
reduce_vars
(enabled by default) should suffice.

Conditional compilation API

You can also use conditional compilation via the programmatic API. With the difference that the property name is

global_defs
and is a compressor property:
var result = UglifyJS.minify(fs.readFileSync("input.js", "utf8"), {
    compress: {
        dead_code: true,
        global_defs: {
            DEBUG: false
        }
    }
});

To replace an identifier with an arbitrary non-constant expression it is necessary to prefix the

global_defs
key with
"@"
to instruct UglifyJS to parse the value as an expression:
javascript
UglifyJS.minify("alert('hello');", {
    compress: {
        global_defs: {
            "@alert": "console.log"
        }
    }
}).code;
// returns: 'console.log("hello");'

Otherwise it would be replaced as string literal:

javascript
UglifyJS.minify("alert('hello');", {
    compress: {
        global_defs: {
            "alert": "console.log"
        }
    }
}).code;
// returns: '"console.log"("hello");'

Using native Uglify AST with
minify()

// example: parse only, produce native Uglify AST

var result = UglifyJS.minify(code, { parse: {}, compress: false, mangle: false, output: { ast: true, code: false // optional - faster if false } });

// result.ast contains native Uglify AST

// example: accept native Uglify AST input and then compress and mangle
//          to produce both code and native AST.

var result = UglifyJS.minify(ast, { compress: {}, mangle: {}, output: { ast: true, code: true // optional - faster if false } });

// result.ast contains native Uglify AST // result.code contains the minified code in string form.

Working with Uglify AST

Transversal and transformation of the native AST can be performed through

TreeWalker
and
TreeTransformer
respectively.

ESTree / SpiderMonkey AST

UglifyJS has its own abstract syntax tree format; for practical reasons we can't easily change to using the SpiderMonkey AST internally. However, UglifyJS now has a converter which can import a SpiderMonkey AST.

For example Acorn is a super-fast parser that produces a SpiderMonkey AST. It has a small CLI utility that parses one file and dumps the AST in JSON on the standard output. To use UglifyJS to mangle and compress that:

acorn file.js | uglifyjs -p spidermonkey -m -c

The

-p spidermonkey
option tells UglifyJS that all input files are not JavaScript, but JS code described in SpiderMonkey AST in JSON. Therefore we don't use our own parser in this case, but just transform that AST into our internal AST.

Use Acorn for parsing

More for fun, I added the

-p acorn
option which will use Acorn to do all the parsing. If you pass this option, UglifyJS will
require("acorn")
.

Acorn is really fast (e.g. 250ms instead of 380ms on some 650K code), but converting the SpiderMonkey tree that Acorn produces takes another 150ms so in total it's a bit more than just using UglifyJS's own parser.

Uglify Fast Minify Mode

It's not well known, but whitespace removal and symbol mangling accounts for 95% of the size reduction in minified code for most JavaScript - not elaborate code transforms. One can simply disable

compress
to speed up Uglify builds by 3 to 4 times. In this fast
mangle
-only mode Uglify has comparable minify speeds and gzip sizes to
butternut
:

| d3.js | minify size | gzip size | minify time (seconds) | | --- | ---: | ---: | ---: | | original | 451,131 | 108,733 | - | | [email protected] mangle=false, compress=false | 316,600 | 85,245 | 0.70 | | [email protected] mangle=true, compress=false | 220,216 | 72,730 | 1.13 | | [email protected] | 217,568 | 72,738 | 1.41 | | [email protected] mangle=true, compress=true | 212,511 | 71,560 | 3.36 | | [email protected] | 210,713 | 72,140 | 12.64 |

To enable fast minify mode from the CLI use:

uglifyjs file.js -m
To enable fast minify mode with the API use:
js
UglifyJS.minify(code, { compress: false, mangle: true });

Source maps and debugging

Various

compress
transforms that simplify, rearrange, inline and remove code are known to have an adverse effect on debugging with source maps. This is expected as code is optimized and mappings are often simply not possible as some code no longer exists. For highest fidelity in source map debugging disable the Uglify
compress
option and just use
mangle
.

Compiler assumptions

To allow for better optimizations, the compiler makes various assumptions:

  • The code does not rely on preserving its runtime performance characteristics. Typically uglified code will run faster due to less instructions and easier inlining, but may be slower on rare occasions for a specific platform, e.g. see
    reduce_funcs
    .
  • .toString()
    and
    .valueOf()
    don't have side effects, and for built-in objects they have not been overridden.
  • undefined
    ,
    NaN
    and
    Infinity
    have not been externally redefined.
  • arguments.callee
    ,
    arguments.caller
    and
    Function.prototype.caller
    are not used.
  • The code doesn't expect the contents of
    Function.prototype.toString()
    or
    Error.prototype.stack
    to be anything in particular.
  • Getting and setting properties on a plain object does not cause other side effects (using
    .watch()
    or
    Proxy
    ).
  • Object properties can be added, removed and modified (not prevented with
    Object.defineProperty()
    ,
    Object.defineProperties()
    ,
    Object.freeze()
    ,
    Object.preventExtensions()
    or
    Object.seal()
    ).
  • When
    toplevel
    is enabled, UglifyJS effectively assumes input code is wrapped within
    function(){ ... }
    , thus forbids aliasing of declared global variables:
    js
    A = "FAIL";
    var B = "FAIL";
    // can be `global`, `self`, `window` etc.
    var top = function() {
      return this;
    }();
    // "PASS"
    top.A = "PASS";
    console.log(A);
    // "FAIL" after compress and/or mangle
    top.B = "PASS";
    console.log(B);
    
  • Use of
    arguments
    alongside destructuring as function parameters, e.g.
    function({}, arguments) {}
    will result in
    SyntaxError
    in earlier versions of Chrome and Node.js - UglifyJS may modify the input which in turn may suppress those errors.

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