Need help with tfmigrate?
Click the “chat” button below for chat support from the developer who created it, or find similar developers for support.

About the developer

minamijoyo
405 Stars 15 Forks MIT License 249 Commits 8 Opened issues

Description

A Terraform state migration tool for GitOps

Services available

!
?

Need anything else?

Contributors list

# 51,177
Terrafo...
terrafo...
Go
Homebre...
214 commits
# 398,131
C
C++
command...
openssh
2 commits

tfmigrate

License: MIT GitHub release GoDoc

A Terraform state migration tool for GitOps.

Table of content

Features

  • GitOps friendly: Write terraform state mv/rm/import commands in HCL, plan and apply it.
  • Monorepo style support: Move resources to other tfstates to split and merge easily for refactoring.
  • Dry run migration: Simulate state operations with a temporary local tfstate and check to see if terraform plan has no changes after the migration without updating remote tfstate.
  • Migration history: Keep track of which migrations have been applied and apply all unapplied migrations in sequence.

You can apply terraform state operations in a declarative way.

In short, write the following migration file and save it as

state_mv.hcl
:
migration "state" "test" {
  dir = "dir1"
  actions = [
    "mv aws_security_group.foo aws_security_group.foo2",
    "mv aws_security_group.bar aws_security_group.bar2",
  ]
}

Then, apply it:

$ tfmigrate apply state_mv.hcl

It works as you expect, but it's just a text file, so you can commit it to git.

Why?

If you have been using Terraform in production for a long time, tfstate manipulations are unavoidable for various reasons. As you know, the terraform state command is your friend, but it's error-prone and not suitable for a GitOps workflow.

In team development, Terraform configurations are generally managed by git and states are shared via remote state storage which is outside of version control. It's a best practice for Terraform. However, most Terraform refactorings require not only configuration changes, but also state operations such as state mv/rm/import. It's not desirable to change the remote state before merging configuration changes. Your colleagues may be working on something else and your CI/CD pipeline continuously plan and apply their changes automatically. At the same time, you probably want to check to see if terraform plan has no changes after the migration before merging configuration changes.

To fit into the GitOps workflow, the answer is obvious. We should commit all terraform state operations to git. This brings us to a new paradigm, that is to say, Terraform state operation as Code!

Supported Terraform versions

The tfmigrate invokes

terraform
command under the hood. This is because we want to support multiple terraform versions in a stable way. Currently supported terraform versions are as follows:
  • Terraform v1.0.x
  • Terraform v0.15.x
  • Terraform v0.14.x
  • Terraform v0.13.x
  • Terraform v0.12.x

Getting Started

As you know, terraform state operations are dangerous if you don't understand what you are actually doing. If I were you, I wouldn't use a new tool in production from the start. So, we recommend you to play an example sandbox environment first, which is safe to run terraform state command without any credentials. The sandbox environment mocks the AWS API with

localstack
and doesn't actually create any resources. So you can safely run the
tfmigrate
and
terraform
commands, and easily understand how the tfmigrate works.

Build a sandbox environment with docker-compose and run bash:

$ git clone https://github.com/minamijoyo/tfmigrate
$ cd tfmigrate/
$ docker-compose build
$ docker-compose run --rm tfmigrate /bin/bash

In the sandbox environment, create and initialize a working directory from test fixtures:

# mkdir -p tmp/dir1 && cd tmp/dir1
# terraform init -from-module=../../test-fixtures/backend_s3/
# cat main.tf

This example contains two

aws_security_group
resources:
resource "aws_security_group" "foo" {
  name = "foo"
}

resource "aws_security_group" "bar" { name = "bar" }

Apply it and confirm that the state of resources are stored in the tfstate:

# terraform apply -auto-approve
# terraform state list
aws_security_group.bar
aws_security_group.foo

Now, let's rename

aws_security_group.foo
to
aws_security_group.baz
:
# cat << EOF > main.tf
resource "aws_security_group" "baz" {
  name = "foo"
}

resource "aws_security_group" "bar" { name = "bar" } EOF

At this point, of course, there are differences in the plan:

# terraform plan
(snip.)
Plan: 1 to add, 0 to change, 1 to destroy.

Now it's time for tfmigrate. Create a migration file:

# cat << EOF > tfmigrate_test.hcl
migration "state" "test" {
  actions = [
    "mv aws_security_group.foo aws_security_group.baz",
  ]
}
EOF

Run

tfmigrate plan
to check to see if
terraform plan
has no changes after the migration without updating remote tfstate:
# tfmigrate plan tfmigrate_test.hcl
(snip.)
YYYY/MM/DD hh:mm:ss [INFO] [migrator] state migrator plan success!
# echo $?
0

The plan command computes a new state by applying state migration operations to a temporary state. It will fail if terraform plan detects any diffs with the new state. If you are wondering how the

tfmigrate
command actually works, you can see all
terraform
commands executed by the tfmigrate with log level
DEBUG
:
# TFMIGRATE_LOG=DEBUG tfmigrate plan tfmigrate_test.hcl

If looks good, apply it:

# tfmigrate apply tfmigrate_test.hcl
(snip.)
YYYY/MM/DD hh:mm:ss [INFO] [migrator] state migrator apply success!
# echo $?
0

The apply command computes a new state and pushes it to remote state. It will fail if terraform plan detects any diffs with the new state.

You can confirm the latest remote state has no changes with terraform plan:

# terraform plan
(snip.)
No changes. Infrastructure is up-to-date.

terraform state list

aws_security_group.bar aws_security_group.baz

There is no magic. The tfmigrate just did the boring work for you.

Furthermore, you can also move resources to another directory. Let's split the tfstate in two. Create a new empty directory with a different remote state path:

# mkdir dir2
# cat config.tf | sed 's/test\/terraform.tfstate/dir2\/terraform.tfstate/' > dir2/config.tf

Move the resource definition of

aws_security_group.baz
in
main.tf
to
dir2/main.tf
and rename it to
aws_security_group.baz2
:
# cat << EOF > main.tf
resource "aws_security_group" "bar" {
  name = "bar"
}
EOF

cat << EOF > dir2/main.tf

resource "aws_security_group" "baz2" { name = "foo" } EOF

Create a

multi_state
migration file:
# cat << EOF > tfmigrate_multi_state_test.hcl
migration "multi_state" "test" {
  from_dir = "."
  to_dir   = "dir2"

actions = [ "mv aws_security_group.baz aws_security_group.baz2", ] } EOF

Run tfmigrate plan & apply:

# tfmigrate plan tfmigrate_multi_state_test.hcl
# tfmigrate apply tfmigrate_multi_state_test.hcl

You can see the tfstate was split in two:

# terraform state list
aws_security_group.bar
# cd dir2 && terraform state list
aws_security_group.baz2

Install

Homebrew

If you are macOS user:

$ brew install minamijoyo/tfmigrate/tfmigrate

Download

Download the latest compiled binaries and put it anywhere in your executable path.

https://github.com/minamijoyo/tfmigrate/releases

Source

If you have Go 1.15+ development environment:

$ git clone https://github.com/minamijoyo/tfmigrate
$ cd tfmigrate/
$ make install
$ tfmigrate --version

Usage

$ tfmigrate --help
Usage: tfmigrate [--version] [--help]  []

Available commands are: apply Compute a new state and push it to remote state plan Compute a new state

$ tfmigrate plan --help
Usage: tfmigrate plan [PATH]

Plan computes a new state by applying state migration operations to a temporary state. It will fail if terraform plan detects any diffs with the new state.

Arguments: PATH A path of migration file Required in non-history mode. Optional in history-mode.

Options: --config A path to tfmigrate config file

$ tfmigrate apply --help
Usage: tfmigrate apply [PATH]

Apply computes a new state and pushes it to remote state. It will fail if terraform plan detects any diffs with the new state.

Arguments PATH A path of migration file Required in non-history mode. Optional in history-mode.

Options: --config A path to tfmigrate config file

Configurations

Environment variables

You can customize the behavior by setting environment variables.

  • TFMIGRATE_LOG
    : A log level. Valid values are
    TRACE
    ,
    DEBUG
    ,
    INFO
    ,
    WARN
    ,
    ERROR
    . Default to
    INFO
    .
  • TFMIGRATE_EXEC_PATH
    : A string how terraform command is executed. Default to
    terraform
    . It's intended to inject a wrapper command such as direnv. e.g.)
    direnv exec . terraform
    .

Some history storage implementations may read additional cloud provider-specific environment variables. For details, refer to a configuration file section for storage block described below.

Configuration file

You can customize the behavior by setting a configuration file. The path of configuration file defaults to

.tfmigrate.hcl
. You can change it with command line flag
--config
.

The syntax of configuration file is as follows:

  • A configuration file must be written in the HCL2.
  • The extension of file must be
    .hcl
    (for HCL native syntax) or
    .json
    (for HCL JSON syntax).
  • The file must contain exactly one
    tfmigrate
    block.

An example of configuration file is as follows.

tfmigrate {
  migration_dir = "./tfmigrate"
  history {
    storage "s3" {
      bucket = "tfmigrate-test"
      key    = "tfmigrate/history.json"
    }
  }
}

tfmigrate block

The

tfmigrate
block has the following attributes:
  • migration_dir
    (optional): A path to directory where migration files are stored. Default to
    .
    (current directory).

The

tfmigrate
block has the following blocks:
  • history
    (optional): Keep track of which migrations have been applied.

history block

The

history
block has the following blocks:
  • storage
    (required): A migration history data store

storage block

The storage block has one label, which is a type of storage. Valid types are as follows:

  • local
    : Save a history file to local filesystem.
  • s3
    : Save a history file to AWS S3.

If your cloud provider has not been supported yet, as a workaround, you can use

local
storage and synchronize a history file to your cloud storage with a wrapper script.

storage block (local)

The

local
storage has the following attributes:
  • path
    (required): A path to a migration history file.

An example of configuration file is as follows.

tfmigrate {
  migration_dir = "./tfmigrate"
  history {
    storage "local" {
      path = "tmp/history.json"
    }
  }
}

storage block (s3)

The

s3
storage has the following attributes:
  • bucket
    (required): Name of the bucket.
  • key
    (required): Path to the migration history file.
  • region
    (optional): AWS region. This can also be sourced from the
    AWS_DEFAULT_REGION
    and
    AWS_REGION
    environment variables.
  • access_key
    (optional): AWS access key. This can also be sourced from the
    AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID
    environment variable, AWS shared credentials file, or AWS shared configuration file.
  • secret_key
    (optional): AWS secret key. This can also be sourced from the
    AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY
    environment variable, AWS shared credentials file, or AWS shared configuration file.
  • profile
    (optional): Name of AWS profile in AWS shared credentials file or AWS shared configuration file to use for credentials and/or configuration. This can also be sourced from the
    AWS_PROFILE
    environment variable.
  • role_arn
    (optional): Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the IAM Role to assume.

The following attributes are also available, but they are intended to use with

localstack
for testing.
  • endpoint
    (optional): Custom endpoint for the AWS S3 API.
  • skip_credentials_validation
    (optional): Skip credentials validation via the STS API.
  • skip_metadata_api_check
    (optional): Skip usage of EC2 Metadata API.
  • force_path_style
    (optional): Enable path-style S3 URLs (
    https:///
    instead of
    https://.
    ).

An example of configuration file is as follows.

tfmigrate {
  migration_dir = "./tfmigrate"
  history {
    storage "s3" {
      bucket  = "tfmigrate-test"
      key     = "tfmigrate/history.json"
      region  = "ap-northeast-1"
      profile = "dev"
    }
  }
}

Migration file

You can write terraform state operations in HCL. The syntax of migration file is as follows:

  • A migration file must be written in the HCL2.
  • The extension of file must be
    .hcl
    (for HCL native syntax) or
    .json
    (for HCL JSON syntax).

Although the filename can be arbitrary string, note that in history mode unapplied migrations will be applied in alphabetical order by filename. It's possible to use a serial number for a filename (e.g.

123.hcl
), but we recommend you to use a timestamp as a prefix to avoid git conflicts (e.g.
20201114000000_dir1.hcl
)

An example of migration file is as follows.

migration "state" "test" {
  dir = "dir1"
  actions = [
    "mv aws_security_group.foo aws_security_group.foo2",
    "mv aws_security_group.bar aws_security_group.bar2",
  ]
}

The above example is written in HCL native syntax, but you can also write them in HCL JSON syntax. This is useful when generating a migration file from other tools.

{
  "migration": {
    "state": {
      "test": {
        "dir": "dir1",
        "actions": [
          "mv aws_security_group.foo aws_security_group.foo2",
          "mv aws_security_group.bar aws_security_group.bar2"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}

migration block

  • The file must contain exactly one
    migration
    block.
  • The first label is the migration type. There are two types of
    migration
    block,
    state
    and
    multi_state
    , and specify one of them.
  • The second label is the migration name, which is an arbitrary string.

The file must contain only one block, and multiple blocks are not allowed, because it's hard to re-run the file if partially failed.

migration block (state)

The

state
migration updates the state in a single directory. It has the following attributes.
  • dir
    (optional): A working directory for executing terraform command. Default to
    .
    (current directory).
  • actions
    (required): Actions is a list of state action. An action is a plain text for state operation. Valid formats are the following.
    • "mv  "
    • "rm ...
    • "import 
      "
  • force
    (optional): Apply migrations even if plan show changes

Note that

dir
is relative path to the current working directory where
tfmigrate
command is invoked.

We could define strict block schema for action, but intentionally use a schema-less string to allow us to easily copy terraform state command to action.

Examples of migration block (state) are as follows.

state mv

migration "state" "test" {
  dir = "dir1"
  actions = [
    "mv aws_security_group.foo aws_security_group.foo2",
    "mv aws_security_group.bar aws_security_group.bar2",
  ]
}

state rm

migration "state" "test" {
  dir = "dir1"
  actions = [
    "rm aws_security_group.baz",
  ]
}

state import

migration "state" "test" {
  dir = "dir1"
  actions = [
    "import aws_security_group.qux qux",
  ]
}

migration block (multi_state)

The

multi_state
migration updates states in two different directories. It is intended for moving resources across states. It has the following attributes.
  • from_dir
    (required): A working directory where states of resources move from.
  • from_workspace
    (optional): A terraform workspace in the FROM directory. Defaults to "default".
  • to_dir
    (required): A working directory where states of resources move to.
  • to_workspace
    (optional): A terraform workspace in the TO directory. Defaults to "default".
  • actions
    (required): Actions is a list of multi state action. An action is a plain text for state operation. Valid formats are the following.
    • "mv  "
  • force
    (optional): Apply migrations even if plan show changes

Note that

from_dir
and
to_dir
are relative path to the current working directory where
tfmigrate
command is invoked.

Example of migration block (multi_state) are as follows.

multi_state mv

migration "multi_state" "mv_dir1_dir2" {
  from_dir = "dir1"
  to_dir   = "dir2"
  actions = [
    "mv aws_security_group.foo aws_security_group.foo2",
    "mv aws_security_group.bar aws_security_group.bar2",
  ]
}

License

MIT

We use cookies. If you continue to browse the site, you agree to the use of cookies. For more information on our use of cookies please see our Privacy Policy.