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:exclamation: uplift modeling in scikit-learn style in python :snake:

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.. image:: :align: center :alt: scikit-uplift: uplift modeling in scikit-learn style in python


scikit-uplift (sklift) is an uplift modeling python package that provides fast sklearn-style models implementation, evaluation metrics and visualization tools.

Uplift modeling estimates a causal effect of treatment and uses it to effectively target customers that are most likely to respond to a marketing campaign.

Use cases for uplift modeling:

  • Target customers in the marketing campaign. Quite useful in promotion of some popular product where there is a big part of customers who make a target action by themself without any influence. By modeling uplift you can find customers who are likely to make the target action (for instance, install an app) only when treated (for instance, received a push).

  • Combine a churn model and an uplift model to offer some bonus to a group of customers who are likely to churn.

  • Select a tiny group of customers in the campaign where a price per customer is high.

Read more about uplift modeling problem in

User Guide 

Articles in russian on

Part 1 
__ ,
Part 2 
__ and
Part 3 

Why sklift

  • Сomfortable and intuitive scikit-learn-like API;

  • More uplift metrics than you have ever seen in one place! Include brilliants like Area Under Uplift Curve (AUUC) or Area Under Qini Curve (Qini coefficient) with ideal cases;

  • Supporting any estimator compatible with scikit-learn (e.g. Xgboost, LightGBM, Catboost, etc.);

  • All approaches can be used in the

    . See the example of usage on
    the Tutorials page 
  • Also metrics are compatible with the classes from

    . See the example of usage on
    the Tutorials page 
  • Almost all implemented approaches solve classification and regression problems;

  • Nice and useful viz for analysing a performance model.


Install the package by the following command from PyPI:

.. code-block:: bash

pip install scikit-uplift

Or install from source:

.. code-block:: bash

git clone
cd scikit-uplift
python install


The full documentation is available at

Or you can build the documentation locally using

_ 1.4 or later:

.. code-block:: bash

cd docs
pip install -r requirements.txt
make html

And if you now point your browser to

, you should see a documentation site.

Quick Start

See the RetailHero tutorial notebook (

__ |Open In Colab1|,
_ |Open In Colab2|_) for details.

Train and predict uplift model

Use the intuitive python API to train uplift models with


.. code-block:: python

# import approaches
from sklift.models import SoloModel, ClassTransformation
# import any estimator adheres to scikit-learn conventions.
from lightgbm import LGBMClassifier

define models

estimator = LGBMClassifier(n_estimators=10)

define metamodel

slearner = SoloModel(estimator=estimator)

fit model X=X_tr, y=y_tr, treatment=trmnt_tr, )

predict uplift

uplift_slearner = slearner.predict(X_val)

Evaluate your uplift model

Uplift model evaluation metrics are available in


.. code-block:: python

# import metrics to evaluate your model
from sklift.metrics import (
    uplift_at_k, uplift_auc_score, qini_auc_score, weighted_average_uplift

[email protected]%

uplift_at_k = uplift_at_k(y_true=y_val, uplift=uplift_slearner, treatment=trmnt_val, strategy='overall', k=0.3)

Area Under Qini Curve

qini_coef = qini_auc_score(y_true=y_val, uplift=uplift_slearner, treatment=trmnt_val)

Area Under Uplift Curve

uplift_auc = uplift_auc_score(y_true=y_val, uplift=uplift_slearner, treatment=trmnt_val)

Weighted average uplift

wau = weighted_average_uplift(y_true=y_val, uplift=uplift_slearner, treatment=trmnt_val)

Vizualize the results

Visualize performance metrics with


.. code-block:: python

from sklift.viz import plot_qini_curve
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1) ax.set_title('Qini curves')

plot_qini_curve( y_test, uplift_slearner, trmnt_test, perfect=True, name='Slearner', ax=ax );

plot_qini_curve( y_test, uplift_revert, trmnt_test, perfect=False, name='Revert label', ax=ax );

.. image:: docs/static/images/quickstart_qini.png :width: 514px :height: 400px :alt: Example of some models qini curves, perfect qini curve and random qini curve


We welcome new contributors of all experience levels.

  • Please see our
    Contributing Guide 
    _ for more details.
  • By participating in this project, you agree to abide by its
    Code of Conduct 

If you have any questions, please contact us at [email protected]

Important links ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

  • Official source code repo:
  • Issue tracker:
  • Documentation:
  • User Guide:
  • Contributing guide:
  • Release History:


Papers and materials

  1. Gutierrez, P., & Gérardy, J. Y. Causal Inference and Uplift Modelling: A Review of the Literature. In International Conference on Predictive Applications and APIs (pp. 1-13).

  2. Artem Betlei, Criteo Research; Eustache Diemert, Criteo Research; Massih-Reza Amini, Univ. Grenoble Alpes Dependent and Shared Data Representations improve Uplift Prediction in Imbalanced Treatment Conditions FAIM'18 Workshop on CausalML.

  3. Eustache Diemert, Artem Betlei, Christophe Renaudin, and Massih-Reza Amini. 2018. A Large Scale Benchmark for Uplift Modeling. In Proceedings of AdKDD & TargetAd (ADKDD’18). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 6 pages.

  4. Athey, Susan, and Imbens, Guido. 2015. Machine learning methods for estimating heterogeneous causal effects. Preprint, arXiv:1504.01132. Google Scholar.

  5. Oscar Mesalles Naranjo. 2012. Testing a New Metric for Uplift Models. Dissertation Presented for the Degree of MSc in Statistics and Operational Research.

  6. Kane, K., V. S. Y. Lo, and J. Zheng. 2014. Mining for the Truly Responsive Customers and Prospects Using True-Lift Modeling: Comparison of New and Existing Methods. Journal of Marketing Analytics 2 (4): 218–238.

  7. Maciej Jaskowski and Szymon Jaroszewicz. Uplift modeling for clinical trial data. ICML Workshop on Clinical Data Analysis, 2012.

  8. Lo, Victor. 2002. The True Lift Model - A Novel Data Mining Approach to Response Modeling in Database Marketing. SIGKDD Explorations. 4. 78-86.

  9. Zhao, Yan & Fang, Xiao & Simchi-Levi, David. 2017. Uplift Modeling with Multiple Treatments and General Response Types. 10.1137/1.9781611974973.66.

  10. Nicholas J Radcliffe. 2007. Using control groups to target on predicted lift: Building and assessing uplift model. Direct Marketing Analytics Journal, (3):14–21, 2007.

  11. Devriendt, F., Guns, T., & Verbeke, W. 2020. Learning to rank for uplift modeling. ArXiv, abs/2002.05897.


Tags ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ EN: uplift modeling, uplift modelling, causal inference, causal effect, causality, individual treatment effect, true lift, net lift, incremental modeling

RU: аплифт моделирование, Uplift модель

ZH: 隆起建模,因果推断,因果效应,因果关系,个人治疗效应,真正的电梯,净电梯

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