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A carefully crafted Org exporter back-end for Hugo

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+TITLE: Ox-Hugo: A carefully crafted Org exporter back-end for Hugo

+AUTHOR: Kaushal Modi

[[][]] [[][file:]] [[][]]


=ox-hugo= is an Org exporter backend that exports Org to [[][Hugo]]-compatible Markdown ([[][Blackfriday]]) and also generates the front-matter (in TOML or YAML format).

The =ox-hugo= backend extends from a /parent/ backend =ox-blackfriday.el=. The latter is the one that primarily does the Blackfriday-friendly Markdown content generation. The main job of =ox-hugo= is to generate the front-matter for each exported content file, and then append that generated Markdown to it.

There are, though, few functions that =ox-hugo.el= overrides over those by =ox-blackfriday.el=.

See the [[][Real World Examples]] section to quickly jump to sites generated using =ox-hugo= and their Org sources. * Table of Contents - [[#screenshots][Screenshots]] - [[#documentation][Documentation]] - [[#source-of-the-documentation-site][Source of the Documentation site]] - [[#demo][Demo]] - [[#installation][Installation]] - [[#usage][Usage]] - [[#spacemacs][Spacemacs]] - [[#before-you-export][Before you export]] - [[#export-bindings][Export bindings]] - [[#customization-options][Customization Options]] - [[#changelog][Changelog]] - [[#thanks][Thanks]]

  • Screenshots Before you read further, you can see below how =ox-hugo= translates Org to Markdown (Org on the left; exported Markdown with Hugo front-matter on the right). ** One post per Org subtree (preferred) [[][]]
  • Files in above screenshot :: [[][Org]] -> [[][Markdown]] ** One post per Org file [[][]]
  • Files in above screenshot :: [[][Org]] -> [[][Markdown]] ** Editorial The preferred way to organize the posts is as Org subtrees (also the main reason to write this package, as nothing like that was out there) as it makes the meta-data management for Hugo front-matter pretty effortless.

If you are a /one Org-file per post/ type of a person, that flow works too! Just note that in this flow many of those =#+hugo_= properties need to be managed manually.. just as one would manage the front-matter in Markdown files --- See the Org versions in the above screenshots for comparison. * Documentation =ox-hugo= uses itself to generate its documentation!

You can generate the same too! Simply clone this repo and do =make doc_md=.

Make sure you visit the above link to read more on: - [[][Why =ox-hugo=?]] - [[][Auto exporting to Markdown each time the Org file is saved]] - [[][Using Org Capture to start a new blog post]] - .. and many more topics and examples ** Source of the Documentation site - [[][Org source]]

The documentation site is published by first using =ox-hugo= to export from Org to Markdown, and then finally =hugo=. /So no Markdown files are committed in the =doc/content/= directory./ * Demo [[][Org source]] → [[][=ox-hugo= Exported Markdown]] →

The test site uses a [[][minimal]] theme written just for debug purposes (not extra aesthetics). The test site is designed to verify if all the content translates from Org to Markdown as expected.

/See [[][Hugo Themes]] for examples of really good site prettification and presentation styles./

  • Installation This package requires emacs 24.4+ and Org 9.0+. It is available on Melpa ([[]]).
  • Usage Once the package is installed, you will need to /require/ it so that the =ox-hugo= export options are available in the /Org Export Dispatcher/ menu (the one you see when you hit =C-c C-e= to initiate any export).

You can do that by adding the below to your config:

+begin_src emacs-lisp

(with-eval-after-load 'ox (require 'ox-hugo))


If you use [[][=use-package=]], you can do the below instead:

+begin_src emacs-lisp

(use-package ox-hugo :ensure t ;Auto-install the package from Melpa (optional) :after ox)


Also see the [[][Auto Exporting]] section. ** Spacemacs Spacemacs users can use =ox-hugo= by setting the variable =org-enable-hugo-support=.

+begin_src emacs-lisp

(setq-default dotspacemacs-configuration-layers '((org :variables org-enable-hugo-support t)))


/This was verified to work on Spacemacs =develop= branch ([[][ref]])./ ** Before you export Before you export check that these properties are set as you need: - HUGOBASEDIR :: Root directory of the source for the Hugo site. If this is set to =~/hugo/=, the exported Markdown files will be saved to =~/hugo/content//= directory[fn:-1-section_more]. By default, the Markdown files reside in a hierarchy under the =content/= directory in the site root directory ([[][ref]]).

 If you try to export without setting this property, you will get
 this error:
   user-error: It is mandatory to set the HUGO_BASE_DIR property
               or the `org-hugo-base-dir' local variable
 This property can be set by one of two ways:
  1. Setting the ~#+hugobasedir:~ keyword in the Org file.
  2. Setting the ~org-hugo-base-dir~ variable in a ~.dir-locals.el~ or File Local Variables.
  • HUGO_SECTION :: The default Hugo section name for all the posts. See [[][here]] for more information on Hugo sections. It is common for this property to be set to =posts= or =blog=. The default value is set using =org-hugo-default-section-directory=. See [[][Hugo Section]] for details.

Important: If you choose to export an Org subtree as a post, you need to set the =EXPORTFILENAME= subtree property. That property is used by this package to figure out where the current post starts.

[fn:-1-sectionmore] The ~HUGOSECTION~ is the bare-minimum requirement to specify the destination path. That path can be further tweaked using ~HUGOBUNDLE~ key (and the associated ~EXPORTHUGOBUNDLE~ property), and the ~EXPORTHUGO_SECTION~ property (only for /per-subtree/ exports). * Export bindings The common =ox-hugo= export bindings are: *** For both one-post-per-subtree and one-post-per-file flows - =C-c C-e H H= :: Export "What I Mean". - If point is in a /valid Hugo post subtree/, export that subtree to a Hugo post in Markdown.

A /valid Hugo post subtree/ is an Org subtree that has the
=EXPORT_FILE_NAME= property set.
  • If the file is intended to be exported as a whole (i.e. has the =#+title= keyword), export the whole Org file to a Hugo post in Markdown.
    • =C-c C-e H A= :: Export all "What I Mean"
  • If the Org file has one or more 'valid Hugo post subtrees', export them to Hugo posts in Markdown.
  • If the file is intended to be exported as a whole (i.e. no 'valid Hugo post subtrees' at all, and has the =#+title= keyword), export the whole Org file to a Hugo post in Markdown. *** For only the one-post-per-file flow
    • =C-c C-e H h= :: Export the Org file to a Hugo post in Markdown. ** Customization Options Do =M-x customize-group=, and select =org-export-hugo= to see the available customization options for this package. *** =org-hugo-pandoc-cite-references-heading=
    • Default value :: ="References {#references}"=

This is the Markdown heading that gets inserted before the section of references inserted by Pandoc inserted (See [[][Pandoc Citations]]) at the end of the post.

To prevent the insertion of that Markdown heading, set this variable to an empty string (=""=). * Changelog ** v0.8 <2018-01-26 Fri> *** Features - Support exporting content files and attachments (images, documents) to Page Bundles organization structure (Hugo v0.32+) -- #[[][111]]. - Support exporting =resources= front-matter (Hugo v0.33+) -- #[[][115]]. - Support exporting =headless= front-matter (Hugo v0.35+). - Advanced table styling is now possible by specifying =#+attrhtml= and =#+attrcss= (this one is unique to =ox-hugo=) above Org tables. See its [[][documentation]] -- #[[][93]]. - Similarly, support =#+attrhtml= and =#+attrcss= for paragraphs, example blocks, source blocks, plain lists and quote blocks too -- #[[][113]]. - Now =publishDate= front-matter property gets auto-derived from the =SCHEDULED= special property if associated with the valid Hugo post subtree -- commit [[][0807f42d]]. - Date values can now be easily set using the =C-c .= binding in the =HUGOPUBLISHDATE= and =HUGOEXPIRYDATE= properties too. - Export source blocks and table captions -- #[[][38]]. Here's a suggested CSS for the captions: #+beginsrc css figcaption, .src-block-caption, .table-caption { font-style: italic; text-align: center; } #+endsrc - Export descriptive or definition lists in Blackfriday-friendly Markdown format -- #[[][114]]. - Support Org Special Blocks like in HTML and [[][LaTeX exports]] -- #[[][105]]. Here's one little example: #+beginsrc org ,#+beginmark /Some/ marked text ,#+endmark #+endsrc - Allow setting =:EXPORTHUGOSECTION:= in the valid Hugo post subtree itself. - Enable replacing any key in the front-matter with anything; it's even possible to swap the keys now (tags↔categories: commit [[][fb21e82c]]). New keyword: =HUGOFRONTMATTERKEYREPLACE= -- see commit [[][b72a5fb0]]. - Now all the Org keyword values that should get merged, get merged -- commit [[][38eba6d5]]. - Add =title= as a valid property of =menu= front-matter (Hugo v0.32+). *** Backward-incompatible changes - A "better user-experience" change.. now you do not need to use /double-underscores/ as /space/ replacement in =#+hugotags=, =#+hugocategories= and =#+keywords=. See this commit for details and examples -- commit [[][319435db]]. *** Fixes - Fix =HUGOLEVELOFFSET= not getting set -- #[[][117]], thanks @[[][shimmy1996]]! - Fix internal subtree counter not getting reset after a file-based export. - Fix clickable image links with =#+name= -- commit [[][fef0ec50]]. - Make title text rendering more robust.. now Markdown markup characters like ==, =_= and =`= show up fine, verbatim, in the title. - Make em dash, en dash, horizontal ellipsis render in post titles too -- Hugo #[][4175], and in source block captions and table captions too. - Fix double-escaping of =#= and =![= in Markdown export -- #[][110]. ** Meta - Re-write the logic for parsing meta-data for various kinds of dates, and optimize the logic for parsing newline separated lists like tags and categories. - The =hugo-bare-min-theme= used for the test site is made more portable (at some point, that theme might be moved to a separate repo). ** v0.7 <2017-12-18 Mon> *** Features - Now C-c C-e H H works for both per-subtree and per-file flows -- commit [[][b1b5d28b]]. - Support Org heading based internal links -- #[[][88]]. - Support list values for custom front-matter variables -- #[[][99]]. - Support specifying multiple [[][hugo output formats]] .. Now the =outputs= front-matter variable is a list. - Support the Org =#+author= and =#+creator= keywords and their respective Org Export Options -- #[[][106]]. - Support Org Export Snippets and Export Blocks -- commit [[][1149f20cd]]. - Now post titles can be set to =nil= i.e. be not be a part of the front-matter .. /because you can/. - Improve the messages printed by =ox-hugo= on doing per-subtree or per-file exports.. the progress of files exported using per-subtree flow is now clearer, and the name of the file exported using per-file flow is now explicit.. Helps when you batch export a dozen files with a mix of these 2 flows. *** Backward-incompatible changes - Obsolete /org-hugo-export-subtree-\ast{}/ functions and replace them with /org-hugo-export-wim-\ast{}/ (What I Mean) functions. See the doc string of =org-hugo-export-wim-to-md= for details.

If you are using the [[][Auto-export on saving]] flow, note the function name change there too! *** Fixes - Fix number of backticks in code fence when code contains code fence (/pathological corner case/). - Better document the =HUGOCODEFENCE= keyword -- #[[][102]]. - Don't render =(c)=, =(r)=, =(tm)= inside Latex equations -- #[][104]. - Better recognition of TOML-compatible integers and floats in meta data for front-matter so that valid integers/floats don't get unnecessarily double-quoted. *** Meta - Add a [[][=debugprint.html=]] partial to help pretty-print various Hugo objects like Page Params, File and SiteInfo for debug on the test site. - The test site now has [[][tags]] and [[][categories]] pages. - Add few real world example posts containing complex Latex equations: [[][1]], [[][2]]. - Turns out =ox-hugo= works on emacs 24.4 too (/but please upgrade to the latest Emacs and Org stable versions!/). ** v0.6 <2017-11-09 Thu> *** Features - Support the =num= export option. Now you can prefix all post headings (or some not.. the ones with =UNNUMBERED= property set to =t=) with their section numbers -- #[[][76]]. - Org TOC's are now exported as unordered Markdown lists. This allows having TOC's with unnumbered headings too! This also enables prefixing the section headings with their full section numbers, and also having only selected headings unnumbered (both in the post body and the TOC). - Add support for exporting internal links to source blocks, tables and images by their block names! -- #[[][29]]. - Org table column alignment markers (==, ==, ==) are now exported to equivalent Markdown tables.. so a center-aligned column in Org buffer will remain center-aligned in the final HTML too! -- #[[][95]]. - Allow setting multiple Hugo aliases for a post. Also infer the section name from inherited =HUGOSECTION= values (subtree-based exports) for those alias prefixes. - Prevent a footnote ref to appear by itself on a newline (based on wrapping) in the browser -- #[[][96]]. - If Hugo shortcodes are used specifically in Markdown (=md=) source blocks, they will be auto-escaped (useful when you want to document/talk about some Hugo shortcode in a blog post) -- #[[][94]]. - If an Org table has just 1 row, don't make it render as a header row in the final HTML. - If you have a case where you need to have an Org source block instead a quote block, and then a source block after that quote block (/I know, a very common case../ :wink:), Blackfriday barfs (Blackfriday #[[][407]]). But we now have a workaround, which /just works/ -- #[[][98]]. - Now =ATTRHTML= above even hyper-linked images works (earlier it worked only above non-hyper-linked images). *** Backward-incompatible changes - Org TOC's are exported as unordered Markdown lists instead of ordered Markdown lists, and now full section numbers (like 1.2.3) are shown in the TOC instead of just the last digit (like 3.) -- commit [[][4be378e7]]. - The =num= Org export option is default to =nil= (only for =ox-hugo=). So Org TOC's are exported without section numbers by default. To get section numbers, set =num= to =t= or =onlytoc=. *** Fixes - Now exporting 1-row Org tables works too. - Add missing http/https/ftp prefix for hyper-linked images. *** Meta - Add documentation on how you can have [[][Images live in the same directory as Org source]] -- #[[][91]]. - Now only Org files for the [[][documentation site]] need to be committed to git. =ox-hugo= then exports those to Markdown, and then Hugo publishes those to HTML (as before) --- all on Netlify. - Be sure to check out the moderately revamped [[][Test Site]]. That might be of interest even if you want to check out what the new features and changes look like, without first installing/updating =ox-hugo= yourself :smile:. ** v0.5 <2017-11-06 Mon> *** Features - Export TOC as a Markdown ordered list. See [[][Table of Contents]] -- #[[][88]]. - =#+attrhtml= above http/https/ftp links is now supported (useful for specifying the =target=, =rel=, attributes, for example). ** v0.4.1 <2017-10-29 Sun> *** Features - Support specifying the =:height= parameter in the =#+attrhtml= above image links. That eventually gets transformed to the =height= parameter in the =figure= tag in the HTML generated by Hugo. This feature requires building Hugo from its master branch with commit [][488631fe]. *** Fixes - Fix =EXPORTHUGOSECTION= not getting inherited #[[][90]]. ** v0.4 <2017-10-28 Sat> *** Backward-incompatible changes - Restore the default Org behavior of =#+tags=. Now that keyword (and the =EXPORTTAGS= property) is not used by =ox-hugo=. Fixes #[[][89]]. - File-based exports must now use =#+hugotags= to set the post tags. - Subtree-based exports can use the =EXPORTHUGOTAGS= property to override Org-style tags on the same headline (and the ones inherited from Org-style tags from any of the parent subtrees and =#+filetags=). - Note that for subtree-based exports, =#+filetags= can be used to set tags globally in the file. Earlier =#+tags= was used for that purpose. - Subtree-based exports can use the =EXPORTHUGOCATEGORIES= property to override Org-style categories (tags with "@" prefix) on the same headline (and the ones inherited from Org-style categories from any of the parent subtrees and =#+filetags=). - Note that for subtree-based exports, =#+filetags= can be used to set categories (tags with "@") globally in the file.

See the new section added to documentation: [[][Tags and Categories]] *** Features - Support specifying the =:width= parameter in the =#+attr_html= above image links. That eventually gets transformed to the =width= parameter in the =figure= tag in the HTML generated by Hugo. ** v0.3.2 <2017-10-24 Tue> *** Fixes - Fix issue with headline metadata parsing (ALLTAGS, CLOSED, TODO) when a post Org heading was immediately followed by that post's sub-heading. This issue was seen in subtree-based exports #[[][87]]. ** v0.3.1 <2017-10-19 Thu> *** Fixes - Fix the source block line number annotation when the line numbers increased in number of digits in the same code block. ** v0.3 <2017-10-18 Wed> *** Features - Source blocks can now be exported with line numbers and/or highlighting!

See [[][Source Blocks]] for details. ** v0.2.3 <2017-10-11 Wed> *** Fixes - =org-hugo-slug= earlier stripped off only the =code= HTML tag (~ .. ~) from the input string, if present. Now it does that for any HTML tag, like =span=. For example, this HTML gets stripped off from the above heading (only inside =org-hugo-slug= when deriving the slug string): ~<2017-10-11 Wed>~. ** v0.2.2 <2017-10-10 Tue> *** Backward-incompatible changes - Now =ox-hugo= by default requires text, to be sub/super-scripted, to be wrapped in ={}=. So now =ab= will be exported as =ab=, but =a{b}= will be exported as =ab=. To revert back to the earlier behavior, user needs to add =#+options: ^:t= to their Org file. ** v0.2.1 <2017-09-28 Thu> *** Fixes - Single column tables now export correctly #[[][84]]. - Ignore =HUGOWEIGHT= set to =auto= for /per-file/ exports #[[][83]]. ** v0.2 <2017-09-27 Wed> *** Features - Add support for all Hugo =figure= shortcode parameters #[[][79]]. - New option =org-hugo-delete-trailing-ws= defaults to =t=; now Hugo deletes trailing white-spaces by default. - New options =org-hugo-default-static-subdirectory-for-externals= and =org-hugo-external-file-extensions-allowed-for-copying= (related to #[[][69]]). *** Fixes - Remove =HUGOSTATICIMAGE= option; fix attachment re-write #[[][69]]. - Fix incorrectly inserted hard line-breaks #[[][72]]. Added a new option =HUGOPRESERVEFILLING=. - Fix error happening when a post title was set to an empty string [ [[][ba9e8365]] ]. *** Backward-incompatible changes - Switch the default value of =org-hugo-use-code-for-kbd= option to =nil= [ [[][88ba15ae]] ]. ** v0.1.3 <2017-09-13 Wed> - Now a HUGO key value set to ="nil"=, like =#+hugocodefence: nil=, will evaluate as /nil/ instead of /t/, as now =org-hugo--plist-get-true-p= is used to parse boolean keys instead of =plist-get=. ** v0.1.2 <2017-09-12 Tue> - Make DateTime matching better; new internal variable =org-hugo--date-time-regexp=. Earlier time zones ahead of UTC (with =+= sign) were not detected as dates in =org-hugo--quote-string= and thus were unnecessarily quoted. ** v0.1.1 <2017-09-11 Mon> - Use CLOSED log drawer info if available to set the date in front-matter #[[][68]]. - Code optimization: Use of =org-entry-get= at places instead of maintaining global variables. * Thanks - Matt Price ([[][@titaniumbones]]) - Puneeth Chaganti ([[][@punchagan]]) - Also thanks to ~ (/not hyperlinking the link as it is insecure --- not https/), ~ (/not hyperlinking the link as it is insecure --- not https/) and the [[][=goorgeous=]] project by Chase Adams ([[][@chaseadamsio]]) for inspiration to start this project.

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