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mal

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kanaka /mal

mal - Make a Lisp

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mal - Make a Lisp

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Description

1. Mal is a Clojure inspired Lisp interpreter

2. Mal is a learning tool

Each implementation of mal is separated into 11 incremental, self-contained (and testable) steps that demonstrate core concepts of Lisp. The last step is capable of self-hosting (running the mal implementation of mal). See the make-a-lisp process guide.

The make-a-lisp steps are:

Each make-a-lisp step has an associated architectural diagram. That elements that are new for that step are highlighted in red. Here is the final diagram for step A:

stepA_mal architecture

If you are interested in creating a mal implementation (or just interested in using mal for something), please drop by the #mal channel on freenode. In addition to the make-a-lisp process guide there is also a mal/make-a-lisp FAQ where I attempt to answer some common questions.

3. Mal is implemented in 82 languages (85 different implementations and 105 runtime modes)

| Language | Creator | | -------- | ------- | | Ada | Chris Moore | | Ada #2 | Nicolas Boulenguez | | GNU Awk | Miutsuru Kariya | | Bash 4 | Joel Martin | | BASIC (C64 & QBasic) | Joel Martin | | BBC BASIC V | Ben Harris | | C | Joel Martin | | C++ | Stephen Thirlwall | | C# | Joel Martin | | ChucK | Vasilij Schneidermann | | Clojure (Clojure & ClojureScript) | Joel Martin | | CoffeeScript | Joel Martin | | Common Lisp | Iqbal Ansari | | Crystal | Linda_pp | | D | Dov Murik | | Dart | Harry Terkelsen | | Elixir | Martin Ek | | Elm | Jos van Bakel | | Emacs Lisp | Vasilij Schneidermann | | Erlang | Nathan Fiedler | | ES6 (ECMAScript 2015) | Joel Martin | | F# | Peter Stephens | | Factor | Jordan Lewis | | Fantom | Dov Murik | | Forth | Chris Houser | | GNU Guile | Mu Lei | | GNU Smalltalk | Vasilij Schneidermann | | Go | Joel Martin | | Groovy | Joel Martin | | Haskell | Joel Martin | | Haxe (Neko, Python, C++, & JS) | Joel Martin | | Hy | Joel Martin | | Io | Dov Murik | | Java | Joel Martin | | JavaScript (Demo) | Joel Martin | | jq | Ali MohammadPur | | Julia | Joel Martin | | Kotlin | Javier Fernandez-Ivern | | LiveScript | Jos van Bakel | | Logo | Dov Murik | | Lua | Joel Martin | | GNU Make | Joel Martin | | mal itself | Joel Martin | | MATLAB (GNU Octave & MATLAB) | Joel Martin | | miniMAL (Repo, Demo) | Joel Martin | | NASM | Ben Dudson | | Nim | Dennis Felsing | | Object Pascal | Joel Martin | | Objective C | Joel Martin | | OCaml | Chris Houser | | Perl | Joel Martin | | Perl 6 | Hinrik Örn Sigurðsson | | PHP | Joel Martin | | Picolisp | Vasilij Schneidermann | | Pike | Dov Murik | | PL/pgSQL (PostgreSQL) | Joel Martin | | PL/SQL (Oracle) | Joel Martin | | PostScript | Joel Martin | | PowerShell | Joel Martin | | Python (2.X & 3.X) | Joel Martin | | Python #2 (3.X) | Gavin Lewis | | RPython | Joel Martin | | R | Joel Martin | | Racket | Joel Martin | | Rexx | Dov Murik | | Ruby | Joel Martin | | Rust | Joel Martin | | Scala | Joel Martin | | Scheme (R7RS) | Vasilij Schneidermann | | Skew | Dov Murik | | Swift 2 | Keith Rollin | | Swift 3 | Joel Martin | | Swift 4 | 陆遥 | | Swift 5 | Oleg Montak | | Tcl | Dov Murik | | TypeScript | Masahiro Wakame | | Vala | Simon Tatham | | VHDL | Dov Murik | | Vimscript | Dov Murik | | Visual Basic.NET | Joel Martin | | WebAssembly (wasm) | Joel Martin | | Wren | Dov Murik | | XSLT | Ali MohammadPur | | Yorick | Dov Murik | | Zig | Josh Tobin |

Presentations

Mal was presented publicly for the first time in a lightning talk at Clojure West 2014 (unfortunately there is no video). See examples/clojurewest2014.mal for the presentation that was given at the conference (yes, the presentation is a mal program).

At Midwest.io 2015, Joel Martin gave a presentation on Mal titled "Achievement Unlocked: A Better Path to Language Learning".Video,Slides.

More recently Joel gave a presentation on "Make Your Own Lisp Interpreter in 10 Incremental Steps" at LambdaConf 2016:Part 1,Part 2,Part 3,Part 4,Slides.

Building/running implementations

The simplest way to run any given implementation is to use docker. Every implementation has a docker image pre-built with language dependencies installed. You can launch the REPL using a convenient target in the top level Makefile (where IMPL is the implementation directory name and stepX is the step to run):

make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL^stepX" # OR stepA is the default step: make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL"

External Implementations

The following implementations are maintained as separate projects:

HolyC

Rust

  • by Tim Morgan
  • by vi - using Pest grammar, not using typical Mal infrastructure (cargo-ized steps and built-in converted tests).

Other mal Projects

  • malc - Mal (Make A Lisp) compiler. Compiles a Mal program to LLVM assembly language, then binary.
  • malcc - malcc is an incremental compiler implementation for the Mal language. It uses the Tiny C Compiler as the compiler backend and has full support for the Mal language, including macros, tail-call elimination, and even run-time eval. "I Built a Lisp Compiler" post about the process.
  • frock - Clojure-flavoured PHP. Uses mal/php to run programs.
  • flk - A LISP that runs wherever Bash is
  • glisp - Self-bootstrapping graphic design tool on Lisp. Live Demo

Implementation Details

Ada

The Ada implementation was developed with GNAT 4.9 on debian. It also compiles unchanged on windows if you have windows versions of git, GNAT and (optionally) make. There are no external dependencies (readline not implemented).

cd impls/ada make ./stepX\_YYY

Ada.2

The second Ada implementation was developed with GNAT 8 and links with the GNU readline library.

cd impls/ada make ./stepX\_YYY

GNU awk

The GNU awk implementation of mal has been tested with GNU awk 4.1.1.

cd impls/gawk gawk -O -f stepX\_YYY.awk

Bash 4

cd impls/bash bash stepX\_YYY.sh

BASIC (C64 and QBasic)

The BASIC implementation uses a preprocessor that can generate BASIC code that is compatible with both C64 BASIC (CBM v2) and QBasic. The C64 mode has been tested withcbmbasic (the patched version is currently required to fix issues with line input) and the QBasic mode has been tested with qb64.

Generate C64 code and run it using cbmbasic:

cd impls/basic make stepX\_YYY.bas STEP=stepX\_YYY ./run

Generate QBasic code and load it into qb64:

cd impls/basic make MODE=qbasic stepX\_YYY.bas ./qb64 stepX\_YYY.bas

Thanks to Steven Syrek for the original inspiration for this implementation.

BBC BASIC V

The BBC BASIC V implementation can run in the Brandy interpreter:

cd impls/bbc-basic brandy -quit stepX\_YYY.bbc

Or in ARM BBC BASIC V under RISC OS 3 or later:

\*Dir bbc-basic.riscos \*Run setup \*Run stepX\_YYY

C

The C implementation of mal requires the following libraries (lib and header packages): glib, libffi6, libgc, and either the libedit or GNU readline library.

cd impls/c make ./stepX\_YYY

C++

The C++ implementation of mal requires g++-4.9 or clang++-3.5 and a readline compatible library to build. See the

cpp/README.md

for more details:

cd impls/cpp make # OR make CXX=clang++-3.5 ./stepX\_YYY

C#

The C# implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the Mono C# compiler (mcs) and the Mono runtime (version 2.10.8.1). Both are required to build and run the C# implementation.

cd impls/cs make mono ./stepX\_YYY.exe

ChucK

The ChucK implementation has been tested with ChucK 1.3.5.2.

cd impls/chuck ./run

Clojure

For the most part the Clojure implementation requires Clojure 1.5, however, to pass all tests, Clojure 1.8.0-RC4 is required.

cd impls/clojure lein with-profile +stepX trampoline run

CoffeeScript

sudo npm install -g coffee-script cd impls/coffee coffee ./stepX\_YYY

Common Lisp

The implementation has been tested with SBCL, CCL, CMUCL, GNU CLISP, ECL and Allegro CL on Ubuntu 16.04 and Ubuntu 12.04, see the README for more details. Provided you have the dependencies mentioned installed, do the following to run the implementation

cd impls/common-lisp make ./run

Crystal

The Crystal implementation of mal has been tested with Crystal 0.26.1.

cd impls/crystal crystal run ./stepX\_YYY.cr # OR make # needed to run tests ./stepX\_YYY

D

The D implementation of mal was tested with GDC 4.8. It requires the GNU readline library.

cd impls/d make ./stepX\_YYY

Dart

The Dart implementation has been tested with Dart 1.20.

cd impls/dart dart ./stepX\_YYY

Emacs Lisp

The Emacs Lisp implementation of mal has been tested with Emacs 24.3 and 24.5. While there is very basic readline editing (

<backspace></backspace>

and

C-d

work,

C-c

cancels the process), it is recommended to use

rlwrap

.

cd impls/elisp emacs -Q --batch --load stepX\_YYY.el # with full readline support rlwrap emacs -Q --batch --load stepX\_YYY.el

Elixir

The Elixir implementation of mal has been tested with Elixir 1.0.5.

cd impls/elixir mix stepX\_YYY # Or with readline/line editing functionality: iex -S mix stepX\_YYY

Elm

The Elm implementation of mal has been tested with Elm 0.18.0

cd impls/elm make stepX\_YYY.js STEP=stepX\_YYY ./run

Erlang

The Erlang implementation of mal requires Erlang/OTP R17and rebar to build.

cd impls/erlang make # OR MAL\_STEP=stepX\_YYY rebar compile escriptize # build individual step ./stepX\_YYY

ES6 (ECMAScript 2015)

The ES6 / ECMAScript 2015 implementation uses thebabel compiler to generate ES5 compatible JavaScript. The generated code has been tested with Node 0.12.4.

cd impls/es6 make node build/stepX\_YYY.js

F#

The F# implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the Mono F# compiler (fsharpc) and the Mono runtime (version 3.12.1). The mono C# compiler (mcs) is also necessary to compile the readline dependency. All are required to build and run the F# implementation.

cd impls/fsharp make mono ./stepX\_YYY.exe

Factor

The Factor implementation of mal has been tested with Factor 0.97 (factorcode.org).

cd impls/factor FACTOR\_ROOTS=. factor -run=stepX\_YYY

Fantom

The Fantom implementation of mal has been tested with Fantom 1.0.70.

cd impls/fantom make lib/fan/stepX\_YYY.pod STEP=stepX\_YYY ./run

Forth

cd impls/forth gforth stepX\_YYY.fs

GNU Guile 2.1+

cd impls/guile guile -L ./ stepX\_YYY.scm

GNU Smalltalk

The Smalltalk implementation of mal has been tested with GNU Smalltalk 3.2.91.

cd impls/gnu-smalltalk ./run

Go

The Go implementation of mal requires that go is installed on on the path. The implementation has been tested with Go 1.3.1.

cd impls/go make ./stepX\_YYY

Groovy

The Groovy implementation of mal requires Groovy to run and has been tested with Groovy 1.8.6.

cd impls/groovy make groovy ./stepX\_YYY.groovy

Haskell

The Haskell implementation requires the ghc compiler version 7.10.1 or later and also the Haskell parsec and readline (or editline) packages.

cd impls/haskell make ./stepX\_YYY

Haxe (Neko, Python, C++ and JavaScript)

The Haxe implementation of mal requires Haxe version 3.2 to compile. Four different Haxe targets are supported: Neko, Python, C++, and JavaScript.

cd impls/haxe # Neko make all-neko neko ./stepX\_YYY.n # Python make all-python python3 ./stepX\_YYY.py # C++ make all-cpp ./cpp/stepX\_YYY # JavaScript make all-js node ./stepX\_YYY.js

Hy

The Hy implementation of mal has been tested with Hy 0.13.0.

cd impls/hy ./stepX\_YYY.hy

Io

The Io implementation of mal has been tested with Io version 20110905.

cd impls/io io ./stepX\_YYY.io

Java 1.7

The Java implementation of mal requires maven2 to build.

cd impls/java mvn compile mvn -quiet exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=mal.stepX\_YYY # OR mvn -quiet exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=mal.stepX\_YYY -Dexec.args="CMDLINE\_ARGS"

JavaScript/Node

cd impls/js npm install node stepX\_YYY.js

Julia

The Julia implementation of mal requires Julia 0.4.

cd impls/julia julia stepX\_YYY.jl

jq

Tested against version 1.6, with a lot of cheating in the IO department

cd impls/jq STEP=stepA\_YYY ./run # with Debug DEBUG=true STEP=stepA\_YYY ./run

Kotlin

The Kotlin implementation of mal has been tested with Kotlin 1.0.

cd impls/kotlin make java -jar stepX\_YYY.jar

LiveScript

The LiveScript implementation of mal has been tested with LiveScript 1.5.

cd impls/livescript make node\_modules/.bin/lsc stepX\_YYY.ls

Logo

The Logo implementation of mal has been tested with UCBLogo 6.0.

cd impls/logo logo stepX\_YYY.lg

Lua

The Lua implementation of mal has been tested with Lua 5.3.5 The implementation requires luarocks to be installed.

cd impls/lua make # to build and link linenoise.so and rex\_pcre.so ./stepX\_YYY.lua

Mal

Running the mal implementation of mal involves running stepA of one of the other implementations and passing the mal step to run as a command line argument.

cd impls/IMPL IMPL\_STEPA\_CMD ../mal/stepX\_YYY.mal

GNU Make 3.81

cd impls/make make -f stepX\_YYY.mk

NASM

The NASM implementation of mal is written for x86-64 Linux, and has been tested with Linux 3.16.0-4-amd64 and NASM version 2.11.05.

cd impls/nasm make ./stepX\_YYY

Nim 1.0.4

The Nim implementation of mal has been tested with Nim 1.0.4.

cd impls/nim make # OR nimble build ./stepX\_YYY

Object Pascal

The Object Pascal implementation of mal has been built and tested on Linux using the Free Pascal compiler version 2.6.2 and 2.6.4.

cd impls/objpascal make ./stepX\_YYY

Objective C

The Objective C implementation of mal has been built and tested on Linux using clang/LLVM 3.6. It has also been built and tested on OS X using XCode 7.

cd impls/objc make ./stepX\_YYY

OCaml 4.01.0

cd impls/ocaml make ./stepX\_YYY

MATLAB (GNU Octave and MATLAB)

The MatLab implementation has been tested with GNU Octave 4.2.1. It has also been tested with MATLAB version R2014a on Linux. Note that MATLAB is a commercial product.

cd impls/matlab ./stepX\_YYY octave -q --no-gui --no-history --eval "stepX\_YYY();quit;" matlab -nodisplay -nosplash -nodesktop -nojvm -r "stepX\_YYY();quit;" # OR with command line arguments octave -q --no-gui --no-history --eval "stepX\_YYY('arg1','arg2');quit;" matlab -nodisplay -nosplash -nodesktop -nojvm -r "stepX\_YYY('arg1','arg2');quit;"

miniMAL

miniMAL is small Lisp interpreter implemented in less than 1024 bytes of JavaScript. To run the miniMAL implementation of mal you need to download/install the miniMAL interpreter (which requires Node.js). ``` cd impls/miniMAL

Download miniMAL and dependencies

npm install export PATH=

pwd

/node_modules/minimal-lisp/:$PATH

Now run mal implementation in miniMAL

miniMAL ./stepX_YYY ```

Perl 5

The Perl 5 implementation should work with perl 5.19.3 and later.

For readline line editing support, install Term::ReadLine::Perl or Term::ReadLine::Gnu from CPAN.

cd impls/perl perl stepX\_YYY.pl

Perl 6

The Perl 6 implementation was tested on Rakudo Perl 6 2016.04.

cd impls/perl6 perl6 stepX\_YYY.pl

PHP 5.3

The PHP implementation of mal requires the php command line interface to run.

cd impls/php php stepX\_YYY.php

Picolisp

The Picolisp implementation requires libreadline and Picolisp 3.1.11 or later.

cd impls/picolisp ./run

Pike

The Pike implementation was tested on Pike 8.0.

cd impls/pike pike stepX\_YYY.pike

PL/pgSQL (PostgreSQL SQL Procedural Language)

The PL/pgSQL implementation of mal requires a running PostgreSQL server (the "kanaka/mal-test-plpgsql" docker image automatically starts a PostgreSQL server). The implementation connects to the PostgreSQL server and create a database named "mal" to store tables and stored procedures. The wrapper script uses the psql command to connect to the server and defaults to the user "postgres" but this can be overridden with the PSQL_USER environment variable. A password can be specified using the PGPASSWORD environment variable. The implementation has been tested with PostgreSQL 9.4.

cd impls/plpgsql ./wrap.sh stepX\_YYY.sql # OR PSQL\_USER=myuser PGPASSWORD=mypass ./wrap.sh stepX\_YYY.sql

PL/SQL (Oracle SQL Procedural Language)

The PL/SQL implementation of mal requires a running Oracle DB server (the "kanaka/mal-test-plsql" docker image automatically starts an Oracle Express server). The implementation connects to the Oracle server to create types, tables and stored procedures. The default SQL*Plus logon value (username/[email protected]_identifier) is "system/oracle" but this can be overridden with the ORACLE_LOGON environment variable. The implementation has been tested with Oracle Express Edition 11g Release 2. Note that any SQL*Plus connection warnings (user password expiration, etc) will interfere with the ability of the wrapper script to communicate with the DB.

cd impls/plsql ./wrap.sh stepX\_YYY.sql # OR ORACLE\_LOGON=myuser/[email protected] ./wrap.sh stepX\_YYY.sql

PostScript Level 2/3

The PostScript implementation of mal requires Ghostscript to run. It has been tested with Ghostscript 9.10.

cd impls/ps gs -q -dNODISPLAY -I./ stepX\_YYY.ps

PowerShell

The PowerShell implementation of mal requires the PowerShell script language. It has been tested with PowerShell 6.0.0 Alpha 9 on Linux.

cd impls/powershell powershell ./stepX\_YYY.ps1

Python (2.X and 3.X)

cd impls/python python stepX\_YYY.py

Python.2 (3.X)

The second Python implementation makes heavy use of type annotations and uses the Arpeggio parser library.

# Recommended: do these steps in a Python virtual environment. pip3 install Arpeggio==1.9.0 python3 stepX\_YYY.py

RPython

You must have rpython on your path (included with pypy).

cd impls/rpython make # this takes a very long time ./stepX\_YYY

R

The R implementation of mal requires R (r-base-core) to run.

cd impls/r make libs # to download and build rdyncall Rscript stepX\_YYY.r

Racket (5.3)

The Racket implementation of mal requires the Racket compiler/interpreter to run.

cd impls/racket ./stepX\_YYY.rkt

Rexx

The Rexx implementation of mal has been tested with Regina Rexx 3.6.

cd impls/rexx make rexx -a ./stepX\_YYY.rexxpp

Ruby (1.9+)

cd impls/ruby ruby stepX\_YYY.rb

Rust (1.38+)

The rust implementation of mal requires the rust compiler and build tool (cargo) to build.

cd impls/rust cargo run --release --bin stepX\_YYY

Scala

Install scala and sbt (http://www.scala-sbt.org/0.13/tutorial/Installing-sbt-on-Linux.html):

cd impls/scala sbt 'run-main stepX\_YYY' # OR sbt compile scala -classpath target/scala\*/classes stepX\_YYY

Scheme (R7RS)

The Scheme implementation of mal has been tested with Chibi-Scheme 0.7.3, Kawa 2.4, Gauche 0.9.5, CHICKEN 4.11.0, Sagittarius 0.8.3, Cyclone 0.6.3 (Git version) and Foment 0.4 (Git version). You should be able to get it running on other conforming R7RS implementations after figuring out how libraries are loaded and adjusting the

Makefile

and

run

script accordingly.

cd impls/scheme make symlinks # chibi scheme\_MODE=chibi ./run # kawa make kawa scheme\_MODE=kawa ./run # gauche scheme\_MODE=gauche ./run # chicken make chicken scheme\_MODE=chicken ./run # sagittarius scheme\_MODE=sagittarius ./run # cyclone make cyclone scheme\_MODE=cyclone ./run # foment scheme\_MODE=foment ./run

Skew

The Skew implementation of mal has been tested with Skew 0.7.42.

cd impls/skew make node stepX\_YYY.js

Swift

The Swift implementation of mal requires the Swift 2.0 compiler (XCode 7.0) to build. Older versions will not work due to changes in the language and standard library.

cd impls/swift make ./stepX\_YYY

Swift 3

The Swift 3 implementation of mal requires the Swift 3.0 compiler. It has been tested with Swift 3 Preview 3.

cd impls/swift3 make ./stepX\_YYY

Swift 4

The Swift 4 implementation of mal requires the Swift 4.0 compiler. It has been tested with Swift 4.2.3 release.

cd impls/swift4 make ./stepX\_YYY

Swift 5

The Swift 5 implementation of mal requires the Swift 5.0 compiler. It has been tested with Swift 5.1.1 release.

cd impls/swift5 swift run stepX\_YYY

Tcl 8.6

The Tcl implementation of mal requires Tcl 8.6 to run. For readline line editing support, install tclreadline.

cd impls/tcl tclsh ./stepX\_YYY.tcl

TypeScript

The TypeScript implementation of mal requires the TypeScript 2.2 compiler. It has been tested with Node.js v6.

cd impls/ts make node ./stepX\_YYY.js

Vala

The Vala implementation of mal has been tested with the Vala 0.40.8 compiler. You will need to install

valac

and

libreadline-dev

or equivalent.

cd impls/vala make ./stepX\_YYY

VHDL

The VHDL implementation of mal has been tested with GHDL 0.29.

cd impls/vhdl make ./run\_vhdl.sh ./stepX\_YYY

Vimscript

The Vimscript implementation of mal requires Vim 8.0 to run.

cd impls/vimscript ./run\_vimscript.sh ./stepX\_YYY.vim

Visual Basic.NET

The VB.NET implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the Mono VB compiler (vbnc) and the Mono runtime (version 2.10.8.1). Both are required to build and run the VB.NET implementation.

cd impls/vb make mono ./stepX\_YYY.exe

WebAssembly (wasm)

The WebAssembly implementation is written inWam (WebAssembly Macro language) and runs under several different non-web embeddings (runtimes):node,wasmtime,wasmer,lucet,wax,wace,warpy.

cd impls/wasm # node make wasm\_MODE=node ./run.js ./stepX\_YYY.wasm # wasmtime make wasm\_MODE=wasmtime wasmtime --dir=./ --dir=../ --dir=/ ./stepX\_YYY.wasm # wasmer make wasm\_MODE=wasmer wasmer run --dir=./ --dir=../ --dir=/ ./stepX\_YYY.wasm # lucet make wasm\_MODE=lucet lucet-wasi --dir=./:./ --dir=../:../ --dir=/:/ ./stepX\_YYY.so # wax make wasm\_MODE=wax wax ./stepX\_YYY.wasm # wace make wasm\_MODE=wace\_libc wace ./stepX\_YYY.wasm # warpy make wasm\_MODE=warpy warpy --argv --memory-pages 256 ./stepX\_YYY.wasm

XSLT

The XSLT implementation of mal is written with XSLT 3 and tested on Saxon 9.9.1.6 Home Edition.

cd impls/xslt STEP=stepX\_YY ./run

Wren

The Wren implementation of mal was tested on Wren 0.2.0.

cd impls/wren wren ./stepX\_YYY.wren

Yorick

The Yorick implementation of mal was tested on Yorick 2.2.04.

cd impls/yorick yorick -batch ./stepX\_YYY.i

Zig

The Zig implementation of mal was tested on Zig 0.5.

cd impls/zig zig build stepX\_YYY

Running tests

The top level Makefile has a number of useful targets to assist with implementation development and testing. The

help

target provides a list of the targets and options:

make help

Functional tests

The are almost 800 generic functional tests (for all implementations) in the

tests/

directory. Each step has a corresponding test file containing tests specific to that step. The

runtest.py

test harness launches a Mal step implementation and then feeds the tests one at a time to the implementation and compares the output/return value to the expected output/return value.

  • To run all the tests across all implementations (be prepared to wait):
make test
  • To run all tests against a single implementation:
make "test^IMPL" # e.g. make "test^clojure" make "test^js"
  • To run tests for a single step against all implementations:
make "test^stepX" # e.g. make "test^step2" make "test^step7"
  • To run tests for a specific step against a single implementation:
make "test^IMPL^stepX" # e.g make "test^ruby^step3" make "test^ps^step4"

Self-hosted functional tests

  • To run the functional tests in self-hosted mode, you specify
    mal
    as the test implementation and use the
    MAL\_IMPL
    make variable to change the underlying host language (default is JavaScript): ``` make MAL_IMPL=IMPL "test^mal^step2"

e.g.

make "test^mal^step2" # js is default make MAL_IMPL=ruby "test^mal^step2" make MAL_IMPL=python "test^mal^step2" ```

Starting the REPL

  • To start the REPL of an implementation in a specific step:
make "repl^IMPL^stepX" # e.g make "repl^ruby^step3" make "repl^ps^step4"
  • If you omit the step, then
    stepA
    is used:
make "repl^IMPL" # e.g make "repl^ruby" make "repl^ps"
  • To start the REPL of the self-hosted implementation, specify
    mal
    as the REPL implementation and use the
    MAL\_IMPL
    make variable to change the underlying host language (default is JavaScript): ``` make MAL_IMPL=IMPL "repl^mal^stepX"

e.g.

make "repl^mal^step2" # js is default make MAL_IMPL=ruby "repl^mal^step2" make MAL_IMPL=python "repl^mal" ```

Performance tests

Warning: These performance tests are neither statistically valid nor comprehensive; runtime performance is a not a primary goal of mal. If you draw any serious conclusions from these performance tests, then please contact me about some amazing oceanfront property in Kansas that I'm willing to sell you for cheap.

  • To run performance tests against a single implementation: ``` make "perf^IMPL"

e.g.

make "perf^js" ```

  • To run performance tests against all implementations:
    make "perf"

Generating language statistics

  • To report line and byte statistics for a single implementation: ``` make "stats^IMPL"

e.g.

make "stats^js" ```

Dockerized testing

Every implementation directory contains a Dockerfile to create a docker image containing all the dependencies for that implementation. In addition, the top-level Makefile contains support for running the tests target (and perf, stats, repl, etc) within a docker container for that implementation by passing _"DOCKERIZE=1"_on the make command line. For example:

make DOCKERIZE=1 "test^js^step3"

Existing implementations already have docker images built and pushed to the docker registry. However, if you wish to build or rebuild a docker image locally, the toplevel Makefile provides a rule for building docker images:

make "docker-build^IMPL"

Notes: * Docker images are named _"kanaka/mal-test-IMPL"_* JVM-based language implementations (Groovy, Java, Clojure, Scala): you will probably need to run this command once manually first

make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL"

before you can run tests because runtime dependencies need to be downloaded to avoid the tests timing out. These dependencies are downloaded to dot-files in the /mal directory so they will persist between runs.

License

Mal (make-a-lisp) is licensed under the MPL 2.0 (Mozilla Public License 2.0). See LICENSE.txt for more details.

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