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general purpose extensions to golang's database/sql

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Build Status Coverage Status Godoc license

sqlx is a library which provides a set of extensions on go's standard

library. The sqlx versions of
, et al. all leave the underlying interfaces untouched, so that their interfaces are a superset on the standard ones. This makes it relatively painless to integrate existing codebases using database/sql with sqlx.

Major additional concepts are:

  • Marshal rows into structs (with embedded struct support), maps, and slices
  • Named parameter support including prepared statements
  • Get
    to go quickly from query to struct/slice

In addition to the godoc API documentation, there is also some user documentation that explains how to use

along with sqlx.

Recent Changes

  • The introduction of

    sets the required minimum Go version to 1.8.
  • sqlx/types.JsonText has been renamed to JSONText to follow Go naming conventions.

This breaks backwards compatibility, but it's in a way that is trivially fixable (

). The
package is both experimental and not in active development currently.
  • Using Go 1.6 and below with
    can be potentially unsafe, especially when used with common auto-scan sqlx idioms like
    . See golang bug #13905.

Backwards Compatibility

There is no Go1-like promise of absolute stability, but I take the issue seriously and will maintain the library in a compatible state unless vital bugs prevent me from doing so. Since #59 and #60 necessitated breaking behavior, a wider API cleanup was done at the time of fixing. It's possible this will happen in future; if it does, a git tag will be provided for users requiring the old behavior to continue to use it until such a time as they can migrate.


go get


Row headers can be ambiguous (

SELECT 1 AS a, 2 AS a
), and the result of
does not fully qualify column names in queries like:
SELECT,,, FROM foos AS a JOIN foos AS b ON a.parent =;

making a struct or map destination ambiguous. Use

in your queries to give columns distinct names,
to scan them manually, or
to get a slice of results.


Below is an example which shows some common use cases for sqlx. Check sqlx_test.go for more usage.

package main

import ( "database/sql" "fmt" "log"

_ ""


var schema = ` CREATE TABLE person ( first_name text, last_name text, email text );

CREATE TABLE place ( country text, city text NULL, telcode integer )`

type Person struct { FirstName string db:"first_name" LastName string db:"last_name" Email string }

type Place struct { Country string City sql.NullString TelCode int }

func main() { // this Pings the database trying to connect, panics on error // use sqlx.Open() for sql.Open() semantics db, err := sqlx.Connect("postgres", "user=foo dbname=bar sslmode=disable") if err != nil { log.Fatalln(err) }

// exec the schema or fail; multi-statement Exec behavior varies between
// database drivers;  pq will exec them all, sqlite3 won't, ymmv

tx := db.MustBegin()
tx.MustExec("INSERT INTO person (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES ($1, $2, $3)", "Jason", "Moiron", "[email protected]")
tx.MustExec("INSERT INTO person (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES ($1, $2, $3)", "John", "Doe", "[email protected]")
tx.MustExec("INSERT INTO place (country, city, telcode) VALUES ($1, $2, $3)", "United States", "New York", "1")
tx.MustExec("INSERT INTO place (country, telcode) VALUES ($1, $2)", "Hong Kong", "852")
tx.MustExec("INSERT INTO place (country, telcode) VALUES ($1, $2)", "Singapore", "65")
// Named queries can use structs, so if you have an existing struct (i.e. person := &Person{}) that you have populated, you can pass it in as &person
tx.NamedExec("INSERT INTO person (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES (:first_name, :last_name, :email)", &Person{"Jane", "Citizen", "[email protected]"})

// Query the database, storing results in a []Person (wrapped in []interface{})
people := []Person{}
db.Select(&people, "SELECT * FROM person ORDER BY first_name ASC")
jason, john := people[0], people[1]

fmt.Printf("%#v\n%#v", jason, john)
// Person{FirstName:"Jason", LastName:"Moiron", Email:"[email protected]"}
// Person{FirstName:"John", LastName:"Doe", Email:"[email protected]"}

// You can also get a single result, a la QueryRow
jason = Person{}
err = db.Get(&jason, "SELECT * FROM person WHERE first_name=$1", "Jason")
fmt.Printf("%#v\n", jason)
// Person{FirstName:"Jason", LastName:"Moiron", Email:"[email protected]"}

// if you have null fields and use SELECT *, you must use sql.Null* in your struct
places := []Place{}
err = db.Select(&places, "SELECT * FROM place ORDER BY telcode ASC")
if err != nil {
usa, singsing, honkers := places[0], places[1], places[2]

fmt.Printf("%#v\n%#v\n%#v\n", usa, singsing, honkers)
// Place{Country:"United States", City:sql.NullString{String:"New York", Valid:true}, TelCode:1}
// Place{Country:"Singapore", City:sql.NullString{String:"", Valid:false}, TelCode:65}
// Place{Country:"Hong Kong", City:sql.NullString{String:"", Valid:false}, TelCode:852}

// Loop through rows using only one struct
place := Place{}
rows, err := db.Queryx("SELECT * FROM place")
for rows.Next() {
    err := rows.StructScan(&place)
    if err != nil {
    fmt.Printf("%#v\n", place)
// Place{Country:"United States", City:sql.NullString{String:"New York", Valid:true}, TelCode:1}
// Place{Country:"Hong Kong", City:sql.NullString{String:"", Valid:false}, TelCode:852}
// Place{Country:"Singapore", City:sql.NullString{String:"", Valid:false}, TelCode:65}

// Named queries, using `:name` as the bindvar.  Automatic bindvar support
// which takes into account the dbtype based on the driverName on sqlx.Open/Connect
_, err = db.NamedExec(`INSERT INTO person (first_name,last_name,email) VALUES (:first,:last,:email)`, 
        "first": "Bin",
        "last": "Smuth",
        "email": "[email protected]",

// Selects Mr. Smith from the database
rows, err = db.NamedQuery(`SELECT * FROM person WHERE first_name=:fn`, map[string]interface{}{"fn": "Bin"})

// Named queries can also use structs.  Their bind names follow the same rules
// as the name -> db mapping, so struct fields are lowercased and the `db` tag
// is taken into consideration.
rows, err = db.NamedQuery(`SELECT * FROM person WHERE first_name=:first_name`, jason)


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