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general purpose extensions to golang's database/sql

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sqlx is a library which provides a set of extensions on go's standard

library. The sqlx versions of
, et al. all leave the underlying interfaces untouched, so that their interfaces are a superset on the standard ones. This makes it relatively painless to integrate existing codebases using database/sql with sqlx.

Major additional concepts are:

  • Marshal rows into structs (with embedded struct support), maps, and slices
  • Named parameter support including prepared statements
  • Get
    to go quickly from query to struct/slice

In addition to the godoc API documentation, there is also some user documentation that explains how to use

along with sqlx.

Recent Changes


  • sqlx.DB.Connx(context.Context) *sqlx.Conn
  • sqlx.BindDriver(driverName, bindType)
  • support for
    to do "batch" insertions
  • allocation & perf improvements for

DB.Connx returns an

, which is an
-alike consistent with sqlx's wrapping of other types.

allows users to control the bindvars that sqlx will use for drivers, and add new drivers at runtime. This results in a very slight performance hit when resolving the driver into a bind type (~40ns per call), but it allows users to specify what bindtype their driver uses even when sqlx has not been updated to know about it by default.

Backwards Compatibility

Compatibility with the most recent two versions of Go is a requirement for any new changes. Compatibility beyond that is not guaranteed.

Versioning is done with Go modules. Breaking changes (eg. removing deprecated API) will get major version number bumps.


go get


Row headers can be ambiguous (

SELECT 1 AS a, 2 AS a
), and the result of
does not fully qualify column names in queries like:
SELECT,,, FROM foos AS a JOIN foos AS b ON a.parent =;

making a struct or map destination ambiguous. Use

in your queries to give columns distinct names,
to scan them manually, or
to get a slice of results.


Below is an example which shows some common use cases for sqlx. Check sqlx_test.go for more usage.

package main

import ( "database/sql" "fmt" "log"

_ ""


var schema = ` CREATE TABLE person ( first_name text, last_name text, email text );

CREATE TABLE place ( country text, city text NULL, telcode integer )`

type Person struct { FirstName string db:"first_name" LastName string db:"last_name" Email string }

type Place struct { Country string City sql.NullString TelCode int }

func main() { // this Pings the database trying to connect // use sqlx.Open() for sql.Open() semantics db, err := sqlx.Connect("postgres", "user=foo dbname=bar sslmode=disable") if err != nil { log.Fatalln(err) }

// exec the schema or fail; multi-statement Exec behavior varies between
// database drivers;  pq will exec them all, sqlite3 won't, ymmv

tx := db.MustBegin()
tx.MustExec("INSERT INTO person (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES ($1, $2, $3)", "Jason", "Moiron", "[email protected]")
tx.MustExec("INSERT INTO person (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES ($1, $2, $3)", "John", "Doe", "[email protected]")
tx.MustExec("INSERT INTO place (country, city, telcode) VALUES ($1, $2, $3)", "United States", "New York", "1")
tx.MustExec("INSERT INTO place (country, telcode) VALUES ($1, $2)", "Hong Kong", "852")
tx.MustExec("INSERT INTO place (country, telcode) VALUES ($1, $2)", "Singapore", "65")
// Named queries can use structs, so if you have an existing struct (i.e. person := &Person{}) that you have populated, you can pass it in as &person
tx.NamedExec("INSERT INTO person (first_name, last_name, email) VALUES (:first_name, :last_name, :email)", &Person{"Jane", "Citizen", "[email protected]"})

// Query the database, storing results in a []Person (wrapped in []interface{})
people := []Person{}
db.Select(&people, "SELECT * FROM person ORDER BY first_name ASC")
jason, john := people[0], people[1]

fmt.Printf("%#v\n%#v", jason, john)
// Person{FirstName:"Jason", LastName:"Moiron", Email:"[email protected]"}
// Person{FirstName:"John", LastName:"Doe", Email:"[email protected]"}

// You can also get a single result, a la QueryRow
jason = Person{}
err = db.Get(&jason, "SELECT * FROM person WHERE first_name=$1", "Jason")
fmt.Printf("%#v\n", jason)
// Person{FirstName:"Jason", LastName:"Moiron", Email:"[email protected]"}

// if you have null fields and use SELECT *, you must use sql.Null* in your struct
places := []Place{}
err = db.Select(&places, "SELECT * FROM place ORDER BY telcode ASC")
if err != nil {
usa, singsing, honkers := places[0], places[1], places[2]

fmt.Printf("%#v\n%#v\n%#v\n", usa, singsing, honkers)
// Place{Country:"United States", City:sql.NullString{String:"New York", Valid:true}, TelCode:1}
// Place{Country:"Singapore", City:sql.NullString{String:"", Valid:false}, TelCode:65}
// Place{Country:"Hong Kong", City:sql.NullString{String:"", Valid:false}, TelCode:852}

// Loop through rows using only one struct
place := Place{}
rows, err := db.Queryx("SELECT * FROM place")
for rows.Next() {
    err := rows.StructScan(&place)
    if err != nil {
    fmt.Printf("%#v\n", place)
// Place{Country:"United States", City:sql.NullString{String:"New York", Valid:true}, TelCode:1}
// Place{Country:"Hong Kong", City:sql.NullString{String:"", Valid:false}, TelCode:852}
// Place{Country:"Singapore", City:sql.NullString{String:"", Valid:false}, TelCode:65}

// Named queries, using `:name` as the bindvar.  Automatic bindvar support
// which takes into account the dbtype based on the driverName on sqlx.Open/Connect
_, err = db.NamedExec(`INSERT INTO person (first_name,last_name,email) VALUES (:first,:last,:email)`, 
        "first": "Bin",
        "last": "Smuth",
        "email": "[email protected]",

// Selects Mr. Smith from the database
rows, err = db.NamedQuery(`SELECT * FROM person WHERE first_name=:fn`, map[string]interface{}{"fn": "Bin"})

// Named queries can also use structs.  Their bind names follow the same rules
// as the name -> db mapping, so struct fields are lowercased and the `db` tag
// is taken into consideration.
rows, err = db.NamedQuery(`SELECT * FROM person WHERE first_name=:first_name`, jason)

// batch insert

// batch insert with structs
personStructs := []Person{
    {FirstName: "Ardie", LastName: "Savea", Email: "[email protected]"},
    {FirstName: "Sonny Bill", LastName: "Williams", Email: "[email protected]"},
    {FirstName: "Ngani", LastName: "Laumape", Email: "[email protected]"},

_, err = db.NamedExec(`INSERT INTO person (first_name, last_name, email)
    VALUES (:first_name, :last_name, :email)`, personStructs)

// batch insert with maps
personMaps := []map[string]interface{}{
    {"first_name": "Ardie", "last_name": "Savea", "email": "[email protected]"},
    {"first_name": "Sonny Bill", "last_name": "Williams", "email": "[email protected]"},
    {"first_name": "Ngani", "last_name": "Laumape", "email": "[email protected]"},

_, err = db.NamedExec(`INSERT INTO person (first_name, last_name, email)
    VALUES (:first_name, :last_name, :email)`, personMaps)


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