pip-tools

by jazzband

jazzband / pip-tools

A set of tools to keep your pinned Python dependencies fresh.

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==================================

pip-tools = pip-compile + pip-sync

A set of command line tools to help you keep your

pip
-based packages fresh, even when you've pinned them. You do pin them, right? (In building your Python application and its dependencies for production, you want to make sure that your builds are predictable and deterministic.)

.. image:: https://github.com/jazzband/pip-tools/raw/master/img/pip-tools-overview.png :alt: pip-tools overview for phase II

.. |buildstatus-travis| image:: https://img.shields.io/travis/jazzband/pip-tools/master.svg?logo=travis :alt: Travis CI build status :target: https://travis-ci.org/jazzband/pip-tools .. |buildstatus-appveyor| image:: https://img.shields.io/appveyor/ci/jazzband/pip-tools/master.svg?logo=appveyor :alt: AppVeyor build status :target: https://ci.appveyor.com/project/jazzband/pip-tools .. |codecov| image:: https://codecov.io/gh/jazzband/pip-tools/branch/master/graph/badge.svg :alt: Coverage :target: https://codecov.io/gh/jazzband/pip-tools .. |jazzband| image:: https://jazzband.co/static/img/badge.svg :alt: Jazzband :target: https://jazzband.co/ .. |pypi| image:: https://img.shields.io/pypi/v/pip-tools.svg :alt: PyPI version :target: https://pypi.org/project/pip-tools/ .. |pyversions| image:: https://img.shields.io/pypi/pyversions/pip-tools.svg :alt: Supported Python versions :target: https://pypi.org/project/pip-tools/ .. _You do pin them, right?: http://nvie.com/posts/pin-your-packages/

Installation

Similar to

pip
,
pip-tools
must be installed in each of your project's
virtual environments
_:

.. code-block:: bash

$ source /path/to/venv/bin/activate
(venv)$ python -m pip install pip-tools

Note: all of the remaining example commands assume you've activated your project's virtual environment.

.. _virtual environments: https://packaging.python.org/tutorials/installing-packages/#creating-virtual-environments

Example usage for
pip-compile

The

pip-compile
command lets you compile a
requirements.txt
file from your dependencies, specified in either
setup.py
or
requirements.in
.

Run it with

pip-compile
or
python -m piptools compile
. If you use multiple Python versions, you can run
pip-compile
as
py -X.Y -m piptools
compile
on Windows and
pythonX.Y -m piptools compile
on other systems.

pip-compile
should be run from the same virtual environment as your project so conditional dependencies that require a specific Python version, or other environment markers, resolve relative to your project's environment.

Note: ensure you don't have

requirements.txt
if you compile
setup.py
or
requirements.in
from scratch, otherwise, it might interfere.

Requirements from
setup.py

Suppose you have a Django project, and want to pin it for production. If you have a

setup.py
with
install_requires=['django']
, then run
pip-compile
without any arguments:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-compile
#
# This file is autogenerated by pip-compile
# To update, run:
#
#    pip-compile
#
asgiref==3.2.3            # via django
django==3.0.3             # via my_django_project (setup.py)
pytz==2019.3              # via django
sqlparse==0.3.0           # via django

pip-compile
will produce your
requirements.txt
, with all the Django dependencies (and all underlying dependencies) pinned.

Without
setup.py

If you don't use

setup.py
(
it's easy to write one
_), you can create a
requirements.in
file to declare the Django dependency:

.. code-block:: ini

# requirements.in
django

Now, run

pip-compile requirements.in
:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-compile requirements.in
#
# This file is autogenerated by pip-compile
# To update, run:
#
#    pip-compile requirements.in
#
asgiref==3.2.3            # via django
django==3.0.3             # via -r requirements.in
pytz==2019.3              # via django
sqlparse==0.3.0           # via django

And it will produce your

requirements.txt
, with all the Django dependencies (and all underlying dependencies) pinned.

.. _it's easy to write one: https://packaging.python.org/guides/distributing-packages-using-setuptools/#configuring-your-project

Using hashes

If you would like to use Hash-Checking Mode available in

pip
since version 8.0,
pip-compile
offers
--generate-hashes
flag:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-compile --generate-hashes requirements.in
#
# This file is autogenerated by pip-compile
# To update, run:
#
#    pip-compile --generate-hashes requirements.in
#
asgiref==3.2.3 \
    --hash=sha256:7e06d934a7718bf3975acbf87780ba678957b87c7adc056f13b6215d610695a0 \
    --hash=sha256:ea448f92fc35a0ef4b1508f53a04c4670255a3f33d22a81c8fc9c872036adbe5 \
    # via django
django==3.0.3 \
    --hash=sha256:2f1ba1db8648484dd5c238fb62504777b7ad090c81c5f1fd8d5eb5ec21b5f283 \
    --hash=sha256:c91c91a7ad6ef67a874a4f76f58ba534f9208412692a840e1d125eb5c279cb0a \
    # via -r requirements.in
pytz==2019.3 \
    --hash=sha256:1c557d7d0e871de1f5ccd5833f60fb2550652da6be2693c1e02300743d21500d \
    --hash=sha256:b02c06db6cf09c12dd25137e563b31700d3b80fcc4ad23abb7a315f2789819be \
    # via django
sqlparse==0.3.0 \
    --hash=sha256:40afe6b8d4b1117e7dff5504d7a8ce07d9a1b15aeeade8a2d10f130a834f8177 \
    --hash=sha256:7c3dca29c022744e95b547e867cee89f4fce4373f3549ccd8797d8eb52cdb873 \
    # via django

Updating requirements

To update all packages, periodically re-run

pip-compile --upgrade
.

To update a specific package to the latest or a specific version use the

--upgrade-package
or
-P
flag:

.. code-block:: bash

# only update the django package
$ pip-compile --upgrade-package django

update both the django and requests packages

$ pip-compile --upgrade-package django --upgrade-package requests

update the django package to the latest, and requests to v2.0.0

$ pip-compile --upgrade-package django --upgrade-package requests==2.0.0

You can combine

--upgrade
and
--upgrade-package
in one command, to provide constraints on the allowed upgrades. For example to upgrade all packages whilst constraining requests to the latest version less than 3.0:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-compile --upgrade --upgrade-package 'requests<3.0'

Output File

To output the pinned requirements in a filename other than

requirements.txt
, use
--output-file
. This might be useful for compiling multiple files, for example with different constraints on django to test a library with both versions using
tox 
__:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-compile --upgrade-package 'django<1.0' --output-file requirements-django0x.txt
$ pip-compile --upgrade-package 'django<2.0' --output-file requirements-django1x.txt

Or to output to standard output, use

--output-file=-
:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-compile --output-file=- > requirements.txt
$ pip-compile - --output-file=- < requirements.in > requirements.txt

Forwarding options to
pip

Any valid

pip
flags or arguments may be passed on with
pip-compile
's
--pip-args
option, e.g.

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-compile requirements.in --pip-args '--retries 10 --timeout 30'

Configuration

You might be wrapping the

pip-compile
command in another script. To avoid confusing consumers of your custom script you can override the update command generated at the top of requirements files by setting the
CUSTOM_COMPILE_COMMAND
environment variable.

.. code-block:: bash

$ CUSTOM_COMPILE_COMMAND="./pipcompilewrapper" pip-compile requirements.in
#
# This file is autogenerated by pip-compile
# To update, run:
#
#    ./pipcompilewrapper
#
asgiref==3.2.3            # via django
django==3.0.3             # via -r requirements.in
pytz==2019.3              # via django
sqlparse==0.3.0           # via django

Workflow for layered requirements

If you have different environments that you need to install different but compatible packages for, then you can create layered requirements files and use one layer to constrain the other.

For example, if you have a Django project where you want the newest

2.1
release in production and when developing you want to use the Django debug toolbar, then you can create two
*.in
files, one for each layer:

.. code-block:: ini

# requirements.in
django<2.2

At the top of the development requirements

dev-requirements.in
you use
-c
requirements.txt
to constrain the dev requirements to packages already selected for production in
requirements.txt
.

.. code-block:: ini

# dev-requirements.in
-c requirements.txt
django-debug-toolbar

First, compile

requirements.txt
as usual:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-compile
#
# This file is autogenerated by pip-compile
# To update, run:
#
#    pip-compile
#
django==2.1.15            # via -r requirements.in
pytz==2019.3              # via django

Now compile the dev requirements and the

requirements.txt
file is used as a constraint:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-compile dev-requirements.in
#
# This file is autogenerated by pip-compile
# To update, run:
#
#    pip-compile dev-requirements.in
#
django-debug-toolbar==2.2  # via -r dev-requirements.in
django==2.1.15            # via -c requirements.txt, django-debug-toolbar
pytz==2019.3              # via -c requirements.txt, django
sqlparse==0.3.0           # via django-debug-toolbar

As you can see above, even though a

2.2
release of Django is available, the dev requirements only include a
2.1
version of Django because they were constrained. Now both compiled requirements files can be installed safely in the dev environment.

To install requirements in production stage use:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-sync

You can install requirements in development stage by:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-sync requirements.txt dev-requirements.txt

Version control integration

You might use

pip-compile
as a hook for the
pre-commit 
. See
pre-commit docs 
for instructions. Sample
.pre-commit-config.yaml
:

.. code-block:: yaml

repos:
  - repo: https://github.com/jazzband/pip-tools
    rev: 5.0.0
    hooks:
      - id: pip-compile

You might want to customize

pip-compile
args by configuring
args
and/or
files
, for example:

.. code-block:: yaml

repos:
  - repo: https://github.com/jazzband/pip-tools
    rev: 5.0.0
    hooks:
      - id: pip-compile
        files: ^requirements/production\.(in|txt)$
        args: [--index-url=https://example.com, requirements/production.in]

Example usage for
pip-sync

Now that you have a

requirements.txt
, you can use
pip-sync
to update your virtual environment to reflect exactly what's in there. This will install/upgrade/uninstall everything necessary to match the
requirements.txt
contents.

Run it with

pip-sync
or
python -m piptools sync
. If you use multiple Python versions, you can also run
py -X.Y -m piptools sync
on Windows and
pythonX.Y -m piptools sync
on other systems.

pip-sync
must be installed into and run from the same virtual environment as your project to identify which packages to install or upgrade.

Be careful:

pip-sync
is meant to be used only with a
requirements.txt
generated by
pip-compile
.

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-sync
Uninstalling flake8-2.4.1:
  Successfully uninstalled flake8-2.4.1
Collecting click==4.1
  Downloading click-4.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (62kB)
    100% |................................| 65kB 1.8MB/s
  Found existing installation: click 4.0
    Uninstalling click-4.0:
      Successfully uninstalled click-4.0
Successfully installed click-4.1

To sync multiple

*.txt
dependency lists, just pass them in via command line arguments, e.g.

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-sync dev-requirements.txt requirements.txt

Passing in empty arguments would cause it to default to

requirements.txt
.

Any valid

pip install
flags or arguments may be passed with
pip-sync
's
--pip-args
option, e.g.

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip-sync requirements.txt --pip-args '--no-cache-dir --no-deps'

If you use multiple Python versions, you can run

pip-sync
as
py -X.Y -m piptools sync ...
on Windows and
pythonX.Y -m piptools sync ...
on other systems.

Note:

pip-sync
will not upgrade or uninstall packaging tools like
setuptools
,
pip
, or
pip-tools
itself. Use
python -m pip install --upgrade
to upgrade those packages.

Should I commit
requirements.in
and
requirements.txt
to source control?

Generally, yes. If you want a reproducible environment installation available from your source control, then yes, you should commit both

requirements.in
and
requirements.txt
to source control.

Note that if you are deploying on multiple Python environments (read the section below), then you must commit a seperate output file for each Python environment. We suggest to use the

{env}-requirements.txt
format (ex:
win32-py2.7-requirements.txt
,
macos-py3.6-requirements.txt
, etc.).

Cross-environment usage of
requirements.in
/
requirements.txt
and
pip-compile

The dependencies of a package can change depending on the Python environment in which it is installed. Here, we define a Python environment as the combination of Operating System, Python version (2.7, 3.6, etc.), and Python implementation (CPython, PyPy, etc.). For an exact definition, refer to the possible combinations of

PEP 508
environment markers
_.

As the resulting

requirements.txt
can differ for each environment, users must execute
pip-compile
on each Python environment separately to generate a
requirements.txt
valid for each said environment. The same
requirements.in
can be used as the source file for all environments, using
PEP 508 environment markers
_ as needed, the same way it would be done for regular
pip
cross-environment usage.

If the generated

requirements.txt
remains exactly the same for all Python environments, then it can be used across Python environments safely. But users should be careful as any package update can introduce environment-dependant dependencies, making any newly generated
requirements.txt
environment-dependant too. As a general rule, it's advised that users should still always execute
pip-compile
on each targeted Python environment to avoid issues.

.. _PEP 508 environment markers: https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0508/#environment-markers

Other useful tools

  • pipdeptree
    _ to print the dependency tree of the installed packages.
  • requirements.in
    /
    requirements.txt
    syntax highlighting:
    • requirements.txt.vim
      _ for Vim.
    • Python extension for VS Code
      _ for VS Code.

.. _pipdeptree: https://github.com/naiquevin/pipdeptree .. _requirements.txt.vim: https://github.com/raimon49/requirements.txt.vim .. _Python extension for VS Code: https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=ms-python.python

Deprecations

This section lists

pip-tools
features that are currently deprecated.
  • --index/--no-index
    command-line options, use instead
    --emit-index-url/--no-emit-index-url
    (since 5.2.0).

Versions and compatibility

The table below summarizes the latest

pip-tools
versions with the required
pip
versions.

+---------------+-----------------+ | pip-tools | pip | +===============+=================+ | 4.5.* | 8.1.3 - 20.0.2 | +---------------+-----------------+ | 5.0.0 - 5.3.0 | 20.0 - 20.1.1 | +---------------+-----------------+ | >= 5.4.0 | 20.1 - 20.2.* | +---------------+-----------------+

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