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httpie

by jakubroztocil

jakubroztocil /httpie

As easy as HTTPie /aitch-tee-tee-pie/ 🥧 Modern, user-friendly command-line HTTP client for the API...

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HTTPie: a CLI, cURL-like tool for humans

HTTPie (pronounced aitch-tee-tee-pie) is a command line HTTP client. Its goal is to make CLI interaction with web services as human-friendly as possible. It provides a simple

http

command that allows for sending arbitrary HTTP requests using a simple and natural syntax, and displays colorized output. HTTPie can be used for testing, debugging, and generally interacting with HTTP servers.

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|docs| |pypi| |build| |coverage| |downloads| |gitter|

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.. image:: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/master/httpie.gif :alt: HTTPie in action :width: 100% :align: center

.. contents::

.. section-numbering::

About this document

This documentation is best viewed at

httpie.org/docs <https:></https:>

_, where you can select your corresponding HTTPie version as well as run examples directly from the browser using a `termible.io <https://termible.io?utm_source=httpie-readme\>

\_ embedded terminal. If you are reading this on GitHub, then this text covers the current \*development\* version. You are invited to submit fixes and improvements to the the docs by editing

README.rst https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/blob/master/README.rst`_.

Main features

  • Expressive and intuitive syntax
  • Formatted and colorized terminal output
  • Built-in JSON support
  • Forms and file uploads
  • HTTPS, proxies, and authentication
  • Arbitrary request data
  • Custom headers
  • Persistent sessions
  • Wget-like downloads
  • Linux, macOS and Windows support
  • Plugins
  • Documentation
  • Test coverage

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.. image:: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/master/httpie.png :alt: HTTPie compared to cURL :width: 100% :align: center

Installation

macOS

On macOS, HTTPie can be installed via

Homebrew <https:></https:>

_ (recommended):

.. code-block:: bash

$ brew install httpie

A MacPorts port is also available:

.. code-block:: bash

$ port install httpie

Linux

Most Linux distributions provide a package that can be installed using the system package manager, for example:

.. code-block:: bash

# Debian, Ubuntu, etc. $ apt install httpie

.. code-block:: bash

# Fedora $ dnf install httpie

.. code-block:: bash

# CentOS, RHEL, ... $ yum install httpie

.. code-block:: bash

# Gentoo $ emerge httpie

.. code-block:: bash

# Arch Linux $ pacman -S httpie

Windows, etc.

A universal installation method (that works on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, …, and always provides the latest version) is to use

pip

_:

.. code-block:: bash

# Make sure we have an up-to-date version of pip and setuptools: $ pip install --upgrade pip setuptools $ pip install --upgrade httpie

(If

pip

installation fails for some reason, you can try

easy\_install httpie

as a fallback.)

Python version

Python version 3.6 or greater is required.

Unstable version

You can also install the latest unreleased development version directly from the

master

branch on GitHub. It is a work-in-progress of a future stable release so the experience might be not as smooth.

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|build|

On macOS you can install it with Homebrew:

.. code-block:: bash

$ brew install httpie --HEAD

Otherwise with

pip

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pip install --upgrade https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/archive/master.tar.gz

Verify that now we have the

current development version identifier <https:></https:>

_ with the

-dev

suffix, for example:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --version # 2.0.0-dev

Usage

Hello World:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http https://httpie.org/hello

Synopsis:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http [flags] [METHOD] URL [ITEM [ITEM]]

See also

http --help

.

Examples

Custom

HTTP method

_,

HTTP headers
```_ and 

JSON

\_ data:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http PUT httpbin.org/put X-API-Token:123 name=John


Submitting

forms

\_:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -f POST httpbin.org/post hello=World


See the request that is being sent using one of the

output options

\_:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -v httpbin.org/get


Build and print a request without sending it using

offline mode

\_:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --offline httpbin.org/post hello=offline


Use

GitHub API

\_ to post a comment on an

issue https:

\_ with 

authentication

\_:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -a USERNAME POST https://api.github.com/repos/jakubroztocil/httpie/issues/83/comments body='HTTPie is awesome! :heart:'


Upload a file using

redirected input

\_:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/post < files/data.json


Download a file and save it via

redirected output

\_:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/image/png > image.png


Download a file

wget

 style:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --download httpbin.org/image/png


Use named

sessions

\_ to make certain aspects of the communication persistent between requests to the same host:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --session=logged-in -a username:password httpbin.org/get API-Key:123


.. code-block:: bash

$ http --session=logged-in httpbin.org/headers


Set a custom

Host

 header to work around missing DNS records:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http localhost:8000 Host:example.com


..

# HTTP method

The name of the HTTP method comes right before the URL argument:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http DELETE httpbin.org/delete


Which looks similar to the actual

Request-Line

 that is sent:

.. code-block:: http

DELETE /delete HTTP/1.1


When the

METHOD

 argument is omitted from the command, HTTPie defaults to either 

GET

 (with no request data) or 

POST

 (with request data).
# Request URL

The only information HTTPie needs to perform a request is a URL.

The default scheme is

http://

 and can be omitted from the argument:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http example.org # => http://example.org


HTTPie also installs an

https

 executable, where the default scheme is 

https://

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ https example.org # => https://example.org


## Querystring parameters

If you find yourself manually constructing URLs with querystring parameters on the terminal, you may appreciate the

param==value

 syntax for appending URL parameters.

With that, you don’t have to worry about escaping the

&

separators for your shell. Additionally, any special characters in the parameter name or value get automatically URL-escaped (as opposed to parameters specified in the full URL, which HTTPie doesn’t modify).

.. code-block:: bash

$ http https://api.github.com/search/repositories q==httpie per_page==1


.. code-block:: http

GET /search/repositories?q=httpie&per_page=1 HTTP/1.1


## URL shortcuts for 

localhost


Additionally, curl-like shorthand for localhost is supported. This means that, for example

:3000

 would expand to 

http://localhost:3000

If the port is omitted, then port 80 is assumed.

.. code-block:: bash

$ http :/foo


.. code-block:: http

GET /foo HTTP/1.1 Host: localhost


.. code-block:: bash

$ http :3000/bar


.. code-block:: http

GET /bar HTTP/1.1 Host: localhost:3000


.. code-block:: bash

$ http :


.. code-block:: http

GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: localhost


## Other default schemes

When HTTPie is invoked as

https

 then the default scheme is 

https://

(

$ https example.org

 will make a request to 

https://example.org

).

You can also use the

--default-scheme

 option to create shortcuts for other protocols than HTTP (possibly supported via plugins). Example for the 

httpie-unixsocket https:

\_ plugin:

.. code-block:: bash

Before $ http http+unix://%2Fvar%2Frun%2Fdocker.sock/info


.. code-block:: bash

Create an alias $ alias http-unix='http --default-scheme="http+unix"'


.. code-block:: bash

Now the scheme can be omitted $ http-unix %2Fvar%2Frun%2Fdocker.sock/info


## 

--path-as-is


The standard behaviour of HTTP clients is to normalize the path portion of URLs by squashing dot segments as a typically filesystem would:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -v example.org/./../../etc/password


.. code-block:: http

GET /etc/password HTTP/1.1


The

--path-as-is

 option allows you to disable this behavior:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --path-as-is -v example.org/./../../etc/password


.. code-block:: http

GET /../../etc/password HTTP/1.1


# Request items

There are a few different _request item_ types that provide a convenient mechanism for specifying HTTP headers, simple JSON and form data, files, and URL parameters.

They are key/value pairs specified after the URL. All have in common that they become part of the actual request that is sent and that their type is distinguished only by the separator used:

:

, 

=

, 

:=

, 

==

, 

@

, 

[email protected]

, and 

:[email protected]

. The ones with an

@

 expect a file path as value.

+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+ | Item Type | Description | +=======================+=====================================================+ | HTTP Headers | Arbitrary HTTP header, e.g.

X-API-Token:123

. | | 

Name:Value

 | | +-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+ | URL parameters | Appends the given name/value pair as a query | | 

name==value

 | string parameter to the URL. | | | The 

==

 separator is used. | +-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+ | Data Fields | Request data fields to be serialized as a JSON | | 

field=value

, | object (default), or to be form-encoded | | 

[email protected]

 | (

--form, -f

). | +-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+ | Raw JSON fields | Useful when sending JSON and one or | | 

field:=json

, | more fields need to be a 

Boolean

, 

Number

, | | 

field:[email protected]

 | nested 

Object

, or an 

Array

, e.g., | | | 

meals:='["ham","spam"]'

 or 

pies:=[1,2,3]

 | | | (note the quotes). | +-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+ | Form File Fields | Only available with 

--form, -f

. | | 

[email protected]/dir/file

 | For example 

[email protected]~/Pictures/img.png

. | | | The presence of a file field results | | | in a 

multipart/form-data

 request. | +-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+

Note that data fields aren’t the only way to specify request data:

Redirected input

\_ is a mechanism for passing arbitrary request data.
## Escaping rules

You can use

\

 to escape characters that shouldn’t be used as separators (or parts thereof). For instance, 

foo==bar

 will become a data key/value pair (

foo=

 and 

bar

) instead of a URL parameter.

Often it is necessary to quote the values, e.g.

foo='bar baz'

.

If any of the field names or headers starts with a minus (e.g.,

-fieldname

), you need to place all such items after the special token 

--

 to prevent confusion with 

--arguments

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/post -- -name-starting-with-dash=foo -Unusual-Header:bar


.. code-block:: http

POST /post HTTP/1.1 -Unusual-Header: bar Content-Type: application/json { "-name-starting-with-dash": "foo" }


# JSON

JSON is the _lingua franca_ of modern web services and it is also the**implicit content type** HTTPie uses by default.

Simple example:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http PUT httpbin.org/put name=John [email protected]


.. code-block:: http PUT / HTTP/1.1 Accept: application/json, _/_;q=0.5 Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate Content-Type: application/json Host: httpbin.org

{ "name": "John", "email": "[email protected]" }


## Default behaviour

If your command includes some data

request items

\_, they are serialized as a JSON object by default. HTTPie also automatically sets the following headers, both of which can be overwritten:

================ =======================================

Content-Type

application/json

Accept

application/json, */*;q=0.5

================ =======================================
## Explicit JSON

You can use

--json, -j

 to explicitly set 

Accept

to 

application/json

 regardless of whether you are sending data (it’s a shortcut for setting the header via the usual header notation:

http url Accept:'application/json, */*;q=0.5'

). Additionally, HTTPie will try to detect JSON responses even when the

Content-Type

 is incorrectly 

text/plain

 or unknown.
## Non-string JSON fields

Non-string JSON fields use the

:=

 separator, which allows you to embed arbitrary JSON data into the resulting JSON object. Additionally, text and raw JSON files can also be embedded into fields using 

[email protected]

 and 

:[email protected]

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http PUT httpbin.org/put \ name=John \ # String (default) age:=29 \ # Raw JSON — Number married:=false \ # Raw JSON — Boolean hobbies:='["http", "pies"]' \ # Raw JSON — Array favorite:='{"tool": "HTTPie"}' \ # Raw JSON — Object bookmarks:[email protected]/data.json \ # Embed JSON file [email protected]/text.txt # Embed text file


.. code-block:: http

PUT /person/1 HTTP/1.1 Accept: application/json, */*;q=0.5 Content-Type: application/json Host: httpbin.org { "age": 29, "hobbies": ["http", "pies"], "description": "John is a nice guy who likes pies.", "married": false, "name": "John", "favorite": { "tool": "HTTPie" }, "bookmarks": { "HTTPie": "https://httpie.org", } }


## Raw and complex JSON

Please note that with the

request items

\_ data field syntax, commands can quickly become unwieldy when sending complex structures. In such cases, it’s better to pass the full raw JSON data via

redirected input

\_, for example:

.. code-block:: bash

$ echo '{"hello": "world"}' | http POST httpbin.org/post


.. code-block:: bash

$ http POST httpbin.org/post < files/data.json


Furthermore, this syntax only allows you to send an object as the JSON document, but not an array, etc. Here, again, the solution is to use

redirected input

\_.
# Forms

Submitting forms is very similar to sending

JSON

\_ requests. Often the only difference is in adding the 

--form, -f

 option, which ensures that data fields are serialized as, and 

Content-Type

 is set to,

application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8

. It is possible to make form data the implicit content type instead of JSON via the 

config

\_ file.
## Regular forms

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --form POST httpbin.org/post name='John Smith'


.. code-block:: http

POST /post HTTP/1.1 Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8 name=John+Smith


## File upload forms

If one or more file fields is present, the serialization and content type is

multipart/form-data

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -f POST httpbin.org/post name='John Smith' [email protected]~/files/data.xml


The request above is the same as if the following HTML form were submitted:

.. code-block:: html
<form enctype="multipart/form-data" method="post" action="http://example.com/jobs">
    <input type="text" name="name">
    <input type="file" name="cv">
</form>

Note that

@

 is used to simulate a file upload form field, whereas

[email protected]

 just embeds the file content as a regular text field value.

When uploading files, their content type is inferred from the file name. You can manually override the inferred content type:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -f POST httpbin.org/post name='John Smith' [email protected]'~/files/data.bin;type=application/pdf'

# HTTP headers

To set custom headers you can use the

Header:Value

 notation:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/headers User-Agent:Bacon/1.0 'Cookie:valued-visitor=yes;foo=bar' \ X-Foo:Bar Referer:https://httpie.org/


.. code-block:: http

GET /headers HTTP/1.1 Accept: */* Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate Cookie: valued-visitor=yes;foo=bar Host: httpbin.org Referer: https://httpie.org/ User-Agent: Bacon/1.0 X-Foo: Bar


## Default request headers

There are a couple of default headers that HTTPie sets:

.. code-block:: http

GET / HTTP/1.1 Accept: */* Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate User-Agent: HTTPie/ Host:


Any of these can be overwritten and some of them unset (see bellow).

## Empty headers and header un-setting

To unset a previously specified header (such a one of the default headers), use

Header:

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/headers Accept: User-Agent:


To send a header with an empty value, use

Header;

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/headers 'Header;'


## Limiting response headers

The

--max-headers=n

 options allows you to control the number of headers HTTPie reads before giving up (the default 

0

, i.e., there’s no limit).

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --max-headers=100 httpbin.org/get


# Offline mode

Use

--offline

 to construct HTTP requests without sending them anywhere. With 

--offline

, HTTPie builds a request based on the specified options and arguments, prints it to 

stdout

, and then exists. It works completely offline; no network connection is ever made. This has a number of use cases, including:

Generating API documentation examples that you can copy & paste without sending a request:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --offline POST server.chess/api/games API-Key:ZZZ w=magnus b=hikaru t=180 i=2


.. code-block:: bash

$ http --offline MOVE server.chess/api/games/123 API-Key:ZZZ p=b a=R1a3 t=77


Generating raw requests that can be sent with any other client:

.. code-block:: bash

1. save a raw request to a file: $ http --offline POST httpbin.org/post hello=world > request.http


.. code-block:: bash

2. send it over the wire with, for example, the fantastic netcat tool: $ nc httpbin.org 80 < request.http


You can also use the

--offline

 mode for debugging and exploring HTTP and HTTPie, and for “dry runs”.

--offline

 has the side-effect of automatically activating 

--print=HB

, i.e., both the request headers and the body are printed. You can customize the output with the usual 

output options

\_, with the exception that there is not response to be printed. You can use 

--offline

 in combination with all the other options (e.g., 

--session

).
# Cookies

HTTP clients send cookies to the server as regular

HTTP headers

\_. That means, HTTPie does not offer any special syntax for specifying cookies — the usual

Header:Value

 notation is used:

Send a single cookie:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/cookies Cookie:sessionid=foo


.. code-block:: http

GET / HTTP/1.1 Accept: */* Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate Connection: keep-alive Cookie: sessionid=foo Host: httpbin.org User-Agent: HTTPie/0.9.9


Send multiple cookies (note the header is quoted to prevent the shell from interpreting the

;

):

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/cookies 'Cookie:sessionid=foo;another-cookie=bar'


.. code-block:: http

GET / HTTP/1.1 Accept: */* Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate Connection: keep-alive Cookie: sessionid=foo;another-cookie=bar Host: httpbin.org User-Agent: HTTPie/0.9.9


If you often deal with cookies in your requests, then chances are you’d appreciate the

sessions

\_ feature.
# Authentication

The currently supported authentication schemes are Basic and Digest (see

auth plugins

\_ for more). There are two flags that control authentication:

=================== ======================================================

--auth, -a

 Pass a 

username:password

 pair as the argument. Or, if you only specify a username (

-a username

), you’ll be prompted for the password before the request is sent. To send an empty password, pass 

username:

. The 

username:[email protected]

 URL syntax is supported as well (but credentials passed via 

-a

 have higher priority).

--auth-type, -A

 Specify the auth mechanism. Possible values are 

basic

 and 

digest

. The default value is 

basic

 so it can often be omitted. =================== ======================================================
## Basic auth

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -a username:password httpbin.org/basic-auth/username/password


## Digest auth

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -A digest -a username:password httpbin.org/digest-auth/httpie/username/password


## Password prompt

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -a username httpbin.org/basic-auth/username/password


## Empty password

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -a username: httpbin.org/headers


## 

.netrc


Authentication information from your

~/.netrc

file is by default honored as well.

For example:

.. code-block:: bash

$ cat ~/.netrc machine httpbin.org login httpie password test


.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/basic-auth/httpie/test HTTP/1.1 200 OK [...]


This can be disabled with the

--ignore-netrc

 option:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --ignore-netrc httpbin.org/basic-auth/httpie/test HTTP/1.1 401 UNAUTHORIZED [...]


## Auth plugins

Additional authentication mechanism can be installed as plugins. They can be found on the

Python Package Index https:

\_. Here’s a few picks:
- 

httpie-api-auth https:

\_: ApiAuth
- 

httpie-aws-auth https:

\_: AWS / Amazon S3
- 

httpie-edgegrid https:

\_: EdgeGrid
- 

httpie-hmac-auth https:

\_: HMAC
- 

httpie-jwt-auth https:

\_: JWTAuth (JSON Web Tokens)
- 

httpie-negotiate https:

\_: SPNEGO (GSS Negotiate)
- 

httpie-ntlm https:

\_: NTLM (NT LAN Manager)
- 

httpie-oauth https:

\_: OAuth
- 

requests-hawk https:

\_: Hawk

# HTTP redirects

By default, HTTP redirects are not followed and only the first response is shown:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/redirect/3


## Follow 

Location


To instruct HTTPie to follow the

Location

 header of 

30x

 responses and show the final response instead, use the 

--follow, -F

 option:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --follow httpbin.org/redirect/3


## Showing intermediary redirect responses

If you additionally wish to see the intermediary requests/responses, then use the

--all

 option as well:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --follow --all httpbin.org/redirect/3


## Limiting maximum redirects followed

To change the default limit of maximum

30

 redirects, use the

--max-redirects=

 option:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --follow --all --max-redirects=2 httpbin.org/redirect/3


# Proxies

You can specify proxies to be used through the

--proxy

 argument for each protocol (which is included in the value in case of redirects across protocols):

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --proxy=http:http://10.10.1.10:3128 --proxy=https:https://10.10.1.10:1080 example.org


With Basic authentication:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --proxy=http:http://user:[email protected]:3128 example.org


## Environment variables

You can also configure proxies by environment variables

ALL_PROXY

,

HTTP_PROXY

 and 

HTTPS_PROXY

, and the underlying Requests library will pick them up as well. If you want to disable proxies configured through the environment variables for certain hosts, you can specify them in 

NO_PROXY

.

In your

~/.bash_profile

:

.. code-block:: bash

export HTTP_PROXY=http://10.10.1.10:3128 export HTTPS_PROXY=https://10.10.1.10:1080 export NO\_PROXY=localhost,example.com

## SOCKS

Usage is the same as for other types of

proxies

\_:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --proxy=http:socks5://user:[email protected]:port --proxy=https:socks5://user:[email protected]:port example.org


# HTTPS

## Server SSL certificate verification

To skip the host’s SSL certificate verification, you can pass

--verify=no

(default is 

yes

):

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --verify=no https://httpbin.org/get


## Custom CA bundle

You can also use

--verify=

 to set a custom CA bundle path:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --verify=/ssl/custom_ca_bundle https://example.org


## Client side SSL certificate

To use a client side certificate for the SSL communication, you can pass the path of the cert file with

--cert

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --cert=client.pem https://example.org


If the private key is not contained in the cert file you may pass the path of the key file with

--cert-key

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --cert=client.crt --cert-key=client.key https://example.org


## SSL version

Use the

--ssl=

 option to specify the desired protocol version to use. This will default to SSL v2.3 which will negotiate the highest protocol that both the server and your installation of OpenSSL support. The available protocols are

ssl2.3

, 

ssl3

, 

tls1

, 

tls1.1

, 

tls1.2

, 

tls1.3

. (The actually available set of protocols may vary depending on your OpenSSL installation.)

.. code-block:: bash

Specify the vulnerable SSL v3 protocol to talk to an outdated server: $ http --ssl=ssl3 https://vulnerable.example.org


## SSL ciphers

You can specify the available ciphers with

--ciphers

. It should be a string in the

OpenSSL cipher list format https:

\_.

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --ciphers=ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 https://httpbin.org/get


Note: these cipher strings do not change the negotiated version of SSL or TLS, they only affect the list of available cipher suites.

To see the default cipher string, run

http --help

 and see the 

--ciphers

 section under SSL.
# Output options

By default, HTTPie only outputs the final response and the whole response message is printed (headers as well as the body). You can control what should be printed via several options:

================= =====================================================

--headers, -h

 Only the response headers are printed.

--body, -b

 Only the response body is printed.

--verbose, -v

 Print the whole HTTP exchange (request and response). This option also enables 

--all

 (see below).

--print, -p

 Selects parts of the HTTP exchange. ================= =====================================================

--verbose

 can often be useful for debugging the request and generating documentation examples:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --verbose PUT httpbin.org/put hello=world PUT /put HTTP/1.1 Accept: application/json, */*;q=0.5 Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate Content-Type: application/json Host: httpbin.org User-Agent: HTTPie/0.2.7dev { "hello": "world" } HTTP/1.1 200 OK Connection: keep-alive Content-Length: 477 Content-Type: application/json Date: Sun, 05 Aug 2012 00:25:23 GMT Server: gunicorn/0.13.4 { […] }


## What parts of the HTTP exchange should be printed

All the other

output options

\_ are under the hood just shortcuts for the more powerful 

--print, -p

. It accepts a string of characters each of which represents a specific part of the HTTP exchange:

========== ================== Character Stands for ========== ==================

H

 request headers

B

 request body

h

 response headers

b

 response body ========== ==================

Print request and response headers:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --print=Hh PUT httpbin.org/put hello=world


## Viewing intermediary requests/responses

To see all the HTTP communication, i.e. the final request/response as well as any possible intermediary requests/responses, use the

--all

option. The intermediary HTTP communication include followed redirects (with 

--follow

), the first unauthorized request when HTTP digest authentication is used (

--auth=digest

), etc.

.. code-block:: bash

Include all responses that lead to the final one: $ http --all --follow httpbin.org/redirect/3


The intermediary requests/response are by default formatted according to

--print, -p

 (and its shortcuts described above). If you’d like to change that, use the 

--history-print, -P

 option. It takes the same arguments as 

--print, -p

 but applies to the intermediary requests only.

.. code-block:: bash

Print the intermediary requests/responses differently than the final one: $ http -A digest -a foo:bar --all -p Hh -P H httpbin.org/digest-auth/auth/foo/bar


## Conditional body download

As an optimization, the response body is downloaded from the server only if it’s part of the output. This is similar to performing a

HEAD

request, except that it applies to any HTTP method you use.

Let’s say that there is an API that returns the whole resource when it is updated, but you are only interested in the response headers to see the status code after an update:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --headers PATCH httpbin.org/patch name='New Name'


Since we are only printing the HTTP headers here, the connection to the server is closed as soon as all the response headers have been received. Therefore, bandwidth and time isn’t wasted downloading the body which you don’t care about. The response headers are downloaded always, even if they are not part of the output

# Redirected Input

The universal method for passing request data is through redirected

stdin

(standard input)—piping. Such data is buffered and then with no further processing used as the request body. There are multiple useful ways to use piping:

Redirect from a file:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http PUT httpbin.org/put X-API-Token:123 < files/data.json


Or the output of another program:

.. code-block:: bash

$ grep '401 Unauthorized' /var/log/httpd/error_log | http POST httpbin.org/post


You can use

echo

 for simple data:

.. code-block:: bash

$ echo '{"name": "John"}' | http PATCH httpbin.org/patch X-API-Token:123


You can also use a Bash _here string_:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/post <<

You can even pipe web services together using HTTPie:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http GET https://api.github.com/repos/jakubroztocil/httpie | http POST httpbin.org/post

You can use

cat

to enter multiline data on the terminal:

.. code-block:: bash

$ cat | http POST httpbin.org/post<paste>
^D
</paste>

.. code-block:: bash

$ cat | http POST httpbin.org/post Content-Type:text/plain - buy milk - call parents ^D

On OS X, you can send the contents of the clipboard with

pbpaste

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ pbpaste | http PUT httpbin.org/put

Passing data through

stdin

cannot be combined with data fields specified on the command line:

.. code-block:: bash

$ echo 'data' | http POST example.org more=data # This is invalid

To prevent HTTPie from reading

stdin

data you can use the

--ignore-stdin

option.

Request data from a filename

An alternative to redirected

stdin

is specifying a filename (as

@/path/to/file

) whose content is used as if it came from

stdin

.

It has the advantage that the

Content-Type

header is automatically set to the appropriate value based on the filename extension. For example, the following request sends the verbatim contents of that XML file with

Content-Type: application/xml

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http PUT httpbin.org/put @files/data.xml

Terminal output

HTTPie does several things by default in order to make its terminal output easy to read.

Colors and formatting

Syntax highlighting is applied to HTTP headers and bodies (where it makes sense). You can choose your preferred color scheme via the

--style

option if you don’t like the default one. There dozens of styles available, here are just a few special or notable ones:

==================== ========================================================================

auto

Follows your terminal ANSI color styles. This is the default style used by HTTPie.

default

Default styles of the underlying Pygments library. Not actually used by default by HTTPie. You can enable it with

--style=default
monokai

A popular color scheme. Enable with

--style=monokai

.

fruity

A bold, colorful scheme. Enable with

--style=fruity

. … See

$ http --help

for all the possible

--style

values. ==================== ========================================================================

Also, the following formatting is applied:


- HTTP headers are sorted by name.
- JSON data is indented, sorted by keys, and unicode escapes are converted to the characters they represent.

One of these options can be used to control output processing:

==================== ========================================================

--pretty=all

 Apply both colors and formatting. Default for terminal output.

--pretty=colors

 Apply colors.

--pretty=format

 Apply formatting.

--pretty=none

 Disables output processing. Default for redirected output. ==================== ========================================================

You can control the applied formatting via the

--format-options

 option. The following options are available:

For example, this is how you would disable the default header and JSON key sorting, and specify a custom JSON indent size:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --format-options headers.sort:false,json.sort_keys:false,json.indent:2 httpbin.org/get


This is something you will typically store as one of the default options in your

config

\_ file. See 

http --help

 for all the available formatting options.

There are also two shortcuts that allow you to quickly disable and re-enable sorting-related format options (currently it means JSON keys and headers):

--unsorted

 and 

--sorted

.
## Binary data

Binary data is suppressed for terminal output, which makes it safe to perform requests to URLs that send back binary data. Binary data is suppressed also in redirected, but prettified output. The connection is closed as soon as we know that the response body is binary,

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/bytes/2000


You will nearly instantly see something like this:

.. code-block:: http

HTTP/1.1 200 OK Content-Type: application/octet-stream +-----------------------------------------+ | NOTE: binary data not shown in terminal | +-----------------------------------------+


# Redirected output

HTTPie uses a different set of defaults for redirected output than for

terminal output

\_. The differences being:
- Formatting and colors aren’t applied (unless 

--pretty

 is specified).
- Only the response body is printed (unless one of the 

output options

\_ is set).
- Also, binary data isn’t suppressed.

The reason is to make piping HTTPie’s output to another programs and downloading files work with no extra flags. Most of the time, only the raw response body is of an interest when the output is redirected.

Download a file:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http httpbin.org/image/png > image.png


Download an image of Octocat, resize it using ImageMagick, upload it elsewhere:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http octodex.github.com/images/original.jpg | convert - -resize 25% - | http example.org/Octocats


Force colorizing and formatting, and show both the request and the response in

less

 pager:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --pretty=all --verbose httpbin.org/get | less -R


The

-R

 flag tells 

less

 to interpret color escape sequences included HTTPie`s output.

You can create a shortcut for invoking HTTPie with colorized and paged output by adding the following to your

~/.bash_profile

:

.. code-block:: bash

function httpless { # `httpless example.org' http --pretty=all --print=hb "[email protected]" | less -R; }


# Download mode

HTTPie features a download mode in which it acts similarly to

wget

.

When enabled using the

--download, -d

 flag, response headers are printed to the terminal (

stderr

), and a progress bar is shown while the response body is being saved to a file.

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --download https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/archive/master.tar.gz


.. code-block:: http

HTTP/1.1 200 OK Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=httpie-master.tar.gz Content-Length: 257336 Content-Type: application/x-gzip Downloading 251.30 kB to "httpie-master.tar.gz" Done. 251.30 kB in 2.73862s (91.76 kB/s)


## Downloaded filename

There are three mutually exclusive ways through which HTTPie determines the output filename (with decreasing priority):

1. You can explicitly provide it via 

--output, -o

. The file gets overwritten if it already exists (or appended to with 

--continue, -c

).
2. The server may specify the filename in the optional 

Content-Disposition

response header. Any leading dots are stripped from a server-provided filename.
3. The last resort HTTPie uses is to generate the filename from a combination of the request URL and the response 

Content-Type

. The initial URL is always used as the basis for the generated filename — even if there has been one or more redirects.

To prevent data loss by overwriting, HTTPie adds a unique numerical suffix to the filename when necessary (unless specified with

--output, -o

).
## Piping while downloading

You can also redirect the response body to another program while the response headers and progress are still shown in the terminal:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -d https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/archive/master.tar.gz | tar zxf -


## Resuming downloads

If

--output, -o

 is specified, you can resume a partial download using the

--continue, -c

 option. This only works with servers that support

Range

 requests and 

206 Partial Content

 responses. If the server doesn’t support that, the whole file will simply be downloaded:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -dco file.zip example.org/file


## Other notes

- The 

--download

 option only changes how the response body is treated.
- You can still set custom headers, use sessions, 

--verbose, -v

, etc.
- 

--download

 always implies 

--follow

 (redirects are followed).
- 

--download

 also implies 

--check-status

(error HTTP status will result in a non-zero exist static code).
- HTTPie exits with status code 

1

 (error) if the body hasn’t been fully downloaded.
- 

Accept-Encoding

 cannot be set with 

--download

.

# Streamed responses

Responses are downloaded and printed in chunks which allows for streaming and large file downloads without using too much memory. However, when

colors and formatting

\_ is applied, the whole response is buffered and only then processed at once.
## Disabling buffering

You can use the

--stream, -S

 flag to make two things happen:
1. 

The output is flushed in much smaller chunks without any buffering, which makes HTTPie behave kind of like

tail -f

 for URLs.
2. Streaming becomes enabled even when the output is prettified: It will be applied to each line of the response and flushed immediately. This makes it possible to have a nice output for long-lived requests, such as one to the Twitter streaming API.

## Examples use cases

Prettified streamed response:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --stream -f -a YOUR-TWITTER-NAME https://stream.twitter.com/1/statuses/filter.json track='Justin Bieber'


Streamed output by small chunks Ă  la

tail -f

:

.. code-block:: bash

Send each new tweet (JSON object) mentioning "Apple" to another # server as soon as it arrives from the Twitter streaming API: $ http --stream -f -a YOUR-TWITTER-NAME https://stream.twitter.com/1/statuses/filter.json track=Apple \ | while read tweet; do echo "$tweet" | http POST example.org/tweets ; done


# Sessions

By default, every request HTTPie makes is completely independent of any previous ones to the same host.

However, HTTPie also supports persistent sessions via the

--session=SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH

 option. In a session, custom 

HTTP headers

\_ (except for the ones starting with 

Content-

 or 

If-

),

authentication

_, and 

cookies


.. code-block:: bash

Create a new session: $ http --session=./session.json httpbin.org/headers API-Token:123


.. code-block:: bash

Inspect / edit the generated session file: $ cat session.json


.. code-block:: bash

Re-use the existing session — the API-Token header will be set: $ http --session=./session.json httpbin.org/headers


All session data, including credentials, cookie data, and custom headers are stored in plain text. That means session files can also be created and edited manually in a text editor—they are regular JSON. It also means that they can be read by anyone who has access to the session file.

## Named sessions

You can create one or more named session per host. For example, this is how you can create a new session named

user1

 for 

httpbin.org

:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --session=user1 -a user1:password httpbin.org/get X-Foo:Bar


From now on, you can refer to the session by its name (

user1

). When you choose to use the session again, any previously specified authentication or HTTP headers will automatically be set:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --session=user1 httpbin.org/get


To create or reuse a different session, simple specify a different name:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --session=user2 -a user2:password httpbin.org/get X-Bar:Foo


Named sessions’s data is stored in JSON files inside the

sessions

subdirectory of the 

config

\_ directory, typically:

~/.config/httpie/sessions//.json

(

%APPDATA%\httpie\sessions<host><name>.json

 on Windows).

If you have executed the above commands on a unix machine, you should be able list the generated sessions files using:

.. code-block:: bash

$ ls -l ~/.config/httpie/sessions/httpbin.org


## Anonymous sessions

Instead of a name, you can also directly specify a path to a session file. This allows for sessions to be re-used across multiple hosts:

.. code-block:: bash

Create a session: $ http --session=/tmp/session.json example.org


.. code-block:: bash

Use the session to make a request to another host: $ http --session=/tmp/session.json admin.example.org


.. code-block:: bash

You can also refer to a previously created named session: $ http --session=~/.config/httpie/sessions/another.example.org/test.json example.org


When creating anonymous sessions, please remember to always include at least one

/

, even if the session files is located in the current directory (i.e., 

--session=./session.json

 instead of just 

--session=session.json

), otherwise HTTPie assumes a named session instead.
## Readonly session

To use an existing session file without updating it from the request/response exchange after it has been created, specify the session name via

--session-read-only=SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH

 instead.

.. code-block:: bash

If the session file doesn’t exist, then it is created: $ http --session-read-only=./ro-session.json httpbin.org/headers Custom-Header:orig-value


.. code-block:: bash

But it is not updated: $ http --session-read-only=./ro-session.json httpbin.org/headers Custom-Header:new-value


## Cookie Storage Behaviour

**TL;DR:** Cookie storage priority: Server response \> Command line request \> Session file

To set a cookie within a Session there are three options:

1. Get a 

Set-Cookie

 header in a response from a server

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --session=./session.json httpbin.org/cookie/set?foo=bar


1. Set the cookie name and value through the command line as seen in 

cookies

\_

.. code-block:: bash

$ http --session=./session.json httpbin.org/headers Cookie:foo=bar


1. Manually set cookie parameters in the json file of the session

.. code-block:: json

{ "__meta__": { "about": "HTTPie session file", "help": "https://httpie.org/doc#sessions", "httpie": "2.2.0-dev" }, "auth": { "password": null, "type": null, "username": null }, "cookies": { "foo": { "expires": null, "path": "/", "secure": false, "value": "bar" } } }


Cookies will be set in the session file with the priority specified above. For example, a cookie set through the command line will overwrite a cookie of the same name stored in the session file. If the server returns a

Set-Cookie

 header with a cookie of the same name, the returned cookie will overwrite the preexisting cookie.

Expired cookies are never stored. If a cookie in a session file expires, it will be removed before sending a new request. If the server expires an existing cookie, it will also be removed from the session file.

# Config

HTTPie uses a simple

config.json

 file. The file doesn’t exist by default but you can create it manually.
## Config file directory

To see the exact location for your installation, run

http --debug

 and look for 

config_dir

 in the output.

The default location of the configuration file on most platforms is

$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/httpie/config.json

 (defaulting to

~/.config/httpie/config.json

).

For backwards compatibility, if the directory

~/.httpie

 exists, the configuration file there will be used instead.

On Windows, the config file is located at

%APPDATA%\httpie\config.json

.

The config directory can be changed by setting the

$HTTPIE_CONFIG_DIR

environment variable:

.. code-block:: bash

$ export HTTPIE_CONFIG_DIR=/tmp/httpie $ http httpbin.org/get


## Configurable options

Currently HTTPie offers a single configurable option:

default_options

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

An

Array

 (by default empty) of default options that should be applied to every invocation of HTTPie.

For instance, you can use this config option to change your default color theme:

.. code-block:: bash

$ cat ~/.config/httpie/config.json


.. code-block:: json

{ "default_options": ["--style=fruity"] }


Even though it is technically possible to include there any of HTTPie’s options, it is not recommended to modify the default behaviour in a way that would break your compatibility with the wider world as that can generate a lot of confusion.

## Un-setting previously specified options

Default options from the config file, or specified any other way, can be unset for a particular invocation via

--no-OPTION

 arguments passed on the command line (e.g., 

--no-style

 or 

--no-session

).
# Scripting

When using HTTPie from shell scripts, it can be handy to set the

--check-status

 flag. It instructs HTTPie to exit with an error if the HTTP status is one of 

3xx

, 

4xx

, or 

5xx

. The exit status will be 

3

 (unless 

--follow

 is set), 

4

, or 

5

, respectively.

.. code-block:: bash

#!/bin/bash if http --check-status --ignore-stdin --timeout=2.5 HEAD httpbin.org/get &> /dev/null; then echo 'OK!' else case $? in 2) echo 'Request timed out!' ;; 3) echo 'Unexpected HTTP 3xx Redirection!' ;; 4) echo 'HTTP 4xx Client Error!' ;; 5) echo 'HTTP 5xx Server Error!' ;; 6) echo 'Exceeded --max-redirects= redirects!' ;; *) echo 'Other Error!' ;; esac fi


## Best practices

The default behaviour of automatically reading

stdin

 is typically not desirable during non-interactive invocations. You most likely want to use the 

--ignore-stdin

 option to disable it.

It is a common gotcha that without this option HTTPie seemingly hangs. What happens is that when HTTPie is invoked for example from a cron job,

stdin

 is not connected to a terminal. Therefore, rules for 

redirected input

\_ apply, i.e., HTTPie starts to read it expecting that the request body will be passed through. And since there’s no data nor 

EOF

, it will be stuck. So unless you’re piping some data to HTTPie, this flag should be used in scripts.

Also, it might be good to set a connection

--timeout

 limit to prevent your program from hanging if the server never responds.
# Meta

## Interface design

The syntax of the command arguments closely corresponds to the actual HTTP requests sent over the wire. It has the advantage that it’s easy to remember and read. It is often possible to translate an HTTP request to an HTTPie argument list just by inlining the request elements. For example, compare this HTTP request:

.. code-block:: http

POST /post HTTP/1.1 Host: httpbin.org X-API-Key: 123 User-Agent: Bacon/1.0 Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded name=value&name2=value2


with the HTTPie command that sends it:

.. code-block:: bash

$ http -f POST httpbin.org/post \ X-API-Key:123 \ User-Agent:Bacon/1.0 \ name=value \ name2=value2


Notice that both the order of elements and the syntax is very similar, and that only a small portion of the command is used to control HTTPie and doesn’t directly correspond to any part of the request (here it’s only

-f

asking HTTPie to send a form request).

The two modes,

--pretty=all

 (default for terminal) and 

--pretty=none

(default for redirected output), allow for both user-friendly interactive use and usage from scripts, where HTTPie serves as a generic HTTP client.

As HTTPie is still under heavy development, the existing command line syntax and some of the

--OPTIONS

 may change slightly before HTTPie reaches its final version 

1.0

. All changes are recorded in the

change log

\_.
## User support

Please use the following support channels:

- 

GitHub issues https:

\_ for bug reports and feature requests.
- 

Our Gitter chat room https:

\_ to ask questions, discuss features, and for general discussion.
- 

StackOverflow https:

\_ to ask questions (please make sure to use the

httpie https:

\_ tag).
- Tweet directly to 

@clihttp https:

\_.
- You can also tweet directly to 

@jakubroztocil

\_.

## Related projects

Dependencies ~~~~~~~~~~~~

Under the hood, HTTPie uses these two amazing libraries:

- 

Requests https:

\_ — Python HTTP library for humans
- 

Pygments https:

\_ — Python syntax highlighter

HTTPie friends ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

HTTPie plays exceptionally well with the following tools:

- 

jq https:

\_ — CLI JSON processor that works great in conjunction with HTTPie
- 

http-prompt https:

\_ — interactive shell for HTTPie featuring autocomplete and command syntax highlighting

Alternatives ~~~~~~~~~~~~

- 

httpcat https:

\_ — a lower-level sister utility of HTTPie for constructing raw HTTP requests on the command line.
- 

curl https:

\_ — a "Swiss knife" command line tool and an exceptional library for transferring data with URLs.

## Contributing

See

CONTRIBUTING.rst https:

\_.
## Change log

See

CHANGELOG https:

\_.
## Artwork

- 

Logo https:

\_ by 

Cláudia Delgado https:

\_.
- 

Animation https:

\_ by 

Allen Smith https:

\_ of GitHub.

## Licence

BSD-3-Clause:

LICENSE https:

\_.
## Authors

Jakub Roztocil

\_ (

@jakubroztocil

_) created HTTPie and 

these fine people

```_ have contributed.

.. _pip: https://pip.pypa.io/en/stable/installing/ .. _GitHub API: https://developer.github.com/v3/issues/comments/#create-a-comment .. _these fine people: https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/contributors .. _Jakub Roztocil: https://roztocil.co .. [email protected]: https://twitter.com/jakubroztocil

.. |docs| image:: https://img.shields.io/badge/stable%20docs-httpie.org%2Fdocs-brightgreen?style=flat-square :target: https://httpie.org/docs :alt: Stable documentation

.. |pypi| image:: https://img.shields.io/pypi/v/httpie.svg?style=flat-square&label=latest%20stable%20version :target: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/httpie :alt: Latest version released on PyPi

.. |coverage| image:: https://img.shields.io/codecov/c/github/jakubroztocil/httpie?style=flat-square :target: https://codecov.io/gh/jakubroztocil/httpie :alt: Test coverage

.. |build| image:: https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/workflows/Build/badge.svg :target: https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/actions :alt: Build status of the master branch on Mac/Linux/Windows

.. |gitter| image:: https://img.shields.io/gitter/room/jkbrzt/httpie.svg?style=flat-square :target: https://gitter.im/jkbrzt/httpie :alt: Chat on Gitter

.. |downloads| image:: https://pepy.tech/badge/httpie :target: https://pepy.tech/project/httpie :alt: Download count

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