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Summary

The Userspace CNI is a Container Network Interface (CNI) plugin designed to implement userspace networking (as opposed to kernel space networking). An example is any DPDK based applications. It is designed to run with either OVS-DPDK or VPP along with the Multus CNI plugin in Kubernetes deployments. It enhances high performance container Networking solution and Data Plane Acceleration for containers.

Links

Useful Links: * Source Code: https://github.com/intel/userspace-cni-network-plugin * Design Document: Userspace Design Document

Weekly Meeting

Weekly Meeting Details: * Meeting Time: 12:00 PM UTC every other Wednesday * 8:00 AM EST / 1:00 PM GMT * Meeting Dates: * 08/14/2019 08/28/2019 * 09/11/2019 09/25/2019 * 10/09/2019 10/23/2019 * 11/06/2019 (No 11/20/2019 meeting, KubeCon NA - San Diego) * 12/04/2019 12/18/2019 * Meeting Bridge: https://zoom.us/j/2392609689 * Meeting Minute Document: Userspace CNI: Weekly Meeting Minutes

Since it currently a small group, we are some what flexible and move the meeting time around from time to time. Any meeting time/date changes will be broadcast on the Intel slack channel and updated meeting times will be posted in the Userspace CNI: Weekly Meeting Minutes document as soon as possible.

Contacts

For any questions about Userspace CNI, please reach out. * Report issue via Github: userspace-cni-network-plugin/issues * Contact via slack: Intel-Corp Slack * Feel free to contact the developer @garyloug or @bmcfall in slack * Contact via Google Group: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/userspace-cni

Userspace CNI Plugin

The Userspace CNI is a Container Network Interface (CNI) plugin designed to implement userspace networking (as opposed to kernel space networking), like DPDK based applications. It is designed to run with either OVS-DPDK or VPP running on the host, along with the Multus CNI plugin, which enables additional interfaces in a container.

Userspace networking requires additional considerations. For one, the interface needs to be created/configured on a local vswitch (running on the host). There may also be a desire to add the interface to a specfic network on the host through the local vswitch. Second, when the interface is inserted into the container, it is not owned by the kernel, so additional work needs to be done in the container to consume the interface and add to a network within the container. The Userspace CNI is designed to work with these additional considerations by provisioning the local vswitch (OVS-DPDK/VPP), and by pushing data into the container so the interface can be consumed.

The Userspace CNI, based on the input config data, adds interfaces (memif and/or vhost-user interfaces) to a local OVS-DPDK or VPP instance running on the host. Then adds that interface to a local network, like an L2 Bridge. The Userspace CNI then processes config data intended for the container and adds that data to a Database the container can consume.

DPDK Vhostuser is new virtualization technology. Please refer to here for more information.

Vhostuser plugin

Build & Clean

This plugin is recommended to be built with Go 1.11.10 and either OVS-DPDK 2.9.0-3 or VPP 19.04. Other versions of Go, OVS-DPDK and VPP are theoretically supported, but MIGHT cause unknown issue.

There are a few environmental variables used in building and teating this plugin. Here is an example:

   cat ~/.bashrc
   :
   export GOPATH=~/go
   export CNI_PATH=$GOPATH/src/github.com/containernetworking/plugins/bin

The Userspace CNI requires several files from VPP in-order to build. If VPP should be installed but is not installed, see Installing VPP section below for instructions. If Userspace CNI is being built on a build server or is using OVS-DPDK (i.e. - don't want VPP installed), then follow the instructions below under Building VPP CNI Library with OVS.

To get and build the Userspace CNI plugin:

   cd $GOPATH/src/
   go get github.com/intel/userspace-cni-network-plugin
   cd github.com/intel/userspace-cni-network-plugin
   make

Once the binary is built, it needs to be copied to the CNI directory:

   cp userspace/userspace $CNI_PATH/.

To remove the binary and temporary files generated while building the source code, perform a make clean:

   make clean

Update dependencies

This project is currently using go modules to manage dependencies. Please refer to official documentation to learn more about go modules behavior and typical workflow.

Network Configuration Reference

  • type
    (string, required): "userspace"
  • name
    (string, required): Name of the network
  • host
    (dictionary, required): Host based configurations. Contains userspace interface configuration data as well as host network data userspace interface should be injected into.
  • container
    (dictionary, optional): Container based configurations. Contains userspace interface configuration data as well as container network data userspace interface should be injected into. Defaults used when data omitted.
  • ipam
    (dictionary, optional): IPAM configuration to be used for this network.

Work Standalone

Given the following network configuration:

sudo cat > /etc/cni/net.d/90-userspace.conf <

Integrated with Multus Plugin

Integrate with the Multus plugin for a high performance container networking solution for NFV Environments. Refer to Multus (NFV based Multi - Network plugin), DPDK-SRIOV CNI plugins: * Multus - Multi Network plugin * DPDK-SRIOV - Dataplane plugin

Encourage the users/developers to use Multus based Kubernetes CDR/TPR based network objects. Please follow the configuration details in the link: Usage with Kubernetes CRD/TPR based Network Objects

Please refer the Kubernetes Network SIG - Multiple Network PoC proposal for more details refer the link: K8s Multiple Network proposal

Userspace CNI with multus

Multus Configuration Details

# cat > /etc/cni/net.d/10-multus.conf <

Note: The Userspace CNI supports different IPAM plugins for the IP addresses management. The generated IP address information will be stored in one configuration file.

Logging Options

You may wish to enable some enhanced logging, especially to understand what is or isn't working with a particular configuration. Userspace CNI always log via

STDERR
, which is the standard method by which CNI plugins communicate errors, and these errors are logged by the Kubelet. This method is always enabled.

Writing to a Log File

Optionally, Userspace CNI can log to a file on the filesystem. This file will be written locally on each node where CNI is executed. Configure this via the

LogFile
option in the CNI configuration. By default this additional logging to a flat file is disabled.

For example in your CNI configuration, you may set:

    "LogFile": "/var/log/userspace-cni.log",

Logging Level

The default logging level is set as

warning
-- this will log critical errors and issues detect.

The available logging level values, in increasing order of verbosity are:

  • panic
    • Code exiting immediately.
  • error
    • Unusual event occurred (invalid input or system issue), so exiting code prematurely.
  • warning
    • Unusual event occurred (invalid input or system issue), but continuing with default value.
  • info
    • Basic information, indication of major code paths.
  • debug
    • Additional information, indication of minor code branches.
  • verbose
    • Output of larger variables in code and debug of low level functions.

You may configure the logging level by using the

LogLevel
option in your CNI configuration. For example:
    "LogLevel": "debug",

OVS CNI Library Intro

OVS CNI Library is written in GO and used by UserSpace CNI to interface with the OVS. OVS currently does not have a GO-API, though there are some external packages that are being explored. When the CNI is invoked, OVS CNI library builds up an OVS CLI command (ovs-vsctl) and executes the request.

Installing OVS

To install the DPDK-OVS, the source codes contains a document for how to install the DPDK-OVS.

Running OVS CNI Library with OVS

The Userspace CNI plugin builds the OVS CNI Library from the cniovs sub-folder. In order to run with the OVS CNI Library, the OVS python script must be installed on the system. To install the script, run make install as described in Building VPP CNI Library with OVS.

Configuring the System

DPDK-OVS is a DPDK based application, so some detailed system requirements can be found at DPDK requirements. Hugepages are the main requirement for the VHOSTUSER virtual ports. ``` echo 'vm.nrhugepages=2048' > /etc/sysctl.d/hugepages.conf

Or add the following configuration to the grub configuration:
default_hugepagesz=2m hugepagesz=2m hugepages=2048 ```

VPP CNI Library Intro

VPP CNI Library is written in GO and used by UserSpace CNI to interface with the VPP GO-API. When the CNI is invoked, VPP CNI library opens a GO Channel to the local VPP instance and passes gRPC messages between the two.

As mentioned above, to build the Userspace CNI, VPP needs to be installed, or serveral VPP files to compile against. When VPP is installed, it copies it's json API files to /usr/share/vpp/api/. VPP CNI Libary uses these files to compile against and generate the properly versioned messages to the local VPP Instance. So to build the VPP CNI, VPP must be installed (or the proper json files must be in /usr/share/vpp/api/).

Building VPP CNI Library with OVS

The Userspace CNI plugin builds the VPP CNI Library from the cnivpp sub-folder. In order to run with the VPP CNI Library, VPP must be installed on the system. If VPP should be installed but is not installed, see the Installing VPP section below.

If the desire is to run the OVS CNI Library with OVS (i.e. - don't want VPP installed), several files from a typical VPP install need to be on the system to build. To install just these files and NOT VPP, run:

   cd $GOPATH/src/
   go get github.com/Billy99/user-space-net-plugin
   cd github.com/Billy99/user-space-net-plugin
   make install
This will install only the 5 or 6 files needed to build the VPP CNI Library. To remove these files, run:
   make clean
make install requires several packages to execute, primarily wget, cpio and rpm2cpio on CentOS, and binutils on Ubuntu. If these packages are not installed on your system, the following can be run to install the required packages:
   make install-dep
NOTE: make install has been made to work for CentOS and Ubuntu based systems. Other platforms will be made to work long term. If there is an immediate need for other platforms, please open an issue to expedite the feature (https://github.com/intel/userspace-cni-network-plugin/issues).

Installing VPP

There are several ways to install VPP. This code is based on a fixed release VPP (VPP 19.04 initially), so it is best to install a released version (even though it is possible to build your own).

Prerequisites

Below are the VPP prerequisites: * Hugepages: VPP requires 2M Hugepages. By default, VPP uses 1024 hugepages. If hugepages are not configured, on install VPP will allocate them. This is primarily an issue if you are running in a VM that does not already have hugepage backing, especially when you reboot the VM. If you would like to change the number of hugepages VPP uses, after installing VPP, edit /etc/sysctl.d/80-vpp.conf. However, once VPP has been installed, the default value has been applied. As an example, to reduce the number of hugepages to 512, use:

   vm.nr_hugepages=512  
   vm.max_map_count=2048  
   kernel.shmmax=1073741824

* SELinux: VPP works with SELinux enabled, but when running with containers, work still needs to be done. Set SELinux to permissive.

Install on CentOS

To install VPP on CentOS from https://packagecloud.io/fdio/ repository:

curl -s https://packagecloud.io/install/repositories/fdio/1904/script.rpm.sh | sudo bash
To resolve dependency issues, install the following packages:
yum install -y epel-release mbedtls python36
Installing RPMs:
yum install -y vpp vpp-lib vpp-plugins vpp-devel vpp-api-python vpp-api-lua vpp-selinux-policy

To start and enable VPP:

sudo systemctl start vpp
sudo systemctl enable vpp

Install on Ubuntu

OLD - Needs to be updated!

To install on Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial) as an example to demonstrate how to install VPP from pre-build packages:

export UBUNTU="xenial"
export RELEASE=".stable.1904"
sudo rm /etc/apt/sources.list.d/99fd.io.list
echo "deb [trusted=yes] https://nexus.fd.io/content/repositories/fd.io$RELEASE.ubuntu.$UBUNTU.main/ ./" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/99fd.io.list
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install vpp vpp-lib

Install on Other Distros

For installing VPP on other distros, see: https://wiki.fd.io/view/VPP/InstallingVPPbinariesfrompackages

Testing

Testing with VPP Docker Image and CNI

There are a few environmental variables used in this test. Here is an example: ``` cat ~/.bashrc : export GOPATH=~/go export CNI_PATH=$GOPATH/src/github.com/containernetworking/plugins/bin

In order to test, a container with VPP 19.04 and usrsp-app has been created:

docker pull bmcfall/vpp-centos-userspace-cni:latest ``` More details on the Docker Image, how to build from scratch and other information, see README.md in the './docker/vpp-centos-userspace-cni/' subfolder.

Setup your configuration file in your CNI directory. An example is /etc/cni/net.d/.

NOTE: The userspace netconf definition is still a work in progress. So the example below is just an example, see pkg/types/types.go for latest definitions.

Example of how to setup a configuration for a VPP memif interface between the host and container:

sudo vi /etc/cni/net.d/90-userspace.conf 
{
    "cniVersion": "0.3.1",
        "type": "userspace",
        "name": "memif-network",
        "host": {
                "engine": "vpp",
                "iftype": "memif",
                "netType": "bridge",
                "memif": {
                        "role": "master",
                        "mode": "ethernet"
                },
                "bridge": {
                        "bridgeName": "4"
                }
        },
        "container": {
                "engine": "vpp",
                "iftype": "memif",
                "netType": "interface",
                "memif": {
                        "role": "slave",
                        "mode": "ethernet"
                }
        },
        "ipam": {
                "type": "host-local",
                "subnet": "192.168.210.0/24",
                "routes": [
                        { "dst": "0.0.0.0/0" }
                ]
        }
}

To test, currently using a local script (copied from CNI scripts): https://github.com/containernetworking/cni/blob/master/scripts/docker-run.sh). To run script:

   cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/intel/userspace-cni-network-plugin/
   sudo CNI_PATH=$CNI_PATH GOPATH=$GOPATH ./scripts/usrsp-docker-run.sh -it --privileged vpp-centos-userspace-cni

NOTE: The usrsp-docker-run.sh script mounts some volumes in the container. Change as needed: * -v /var/lib/cni/usrspcni/shared:/var/lib/cni/usrspcni/shared:rw * Socket files (memif or vhost-user) are passed to the container through a subdirectory of this base directory.. * -v /var/lib/cni/usrspcni/$contid:/var/lib/cni/usrspcni/data:rw * Current implementation is to write the remote configuration into a file and share the directory with the container, which is the volume mapping. Directory is currently hard coded. * --device=/dev/hugepages:/dev/hugepages * VPP requires hugepages, so need to map hugepoages into container.

In the container, you should see the usrsp-app ouput the message sequence of its communication with local VPP (VPP in the container) and some database dumps interleaved.

Verify Host

To verify the local config (on host) in another window:

Before Container Started: ``` vppctl show interface Name Idx State Counter Count
GigabitEthernet0/8/0 1 down
GigabitEthernet0/9/0 2 down
local0 0 down

vppctl show mode l3 local0
l3 GigabitEthernet0/8/0
l3 GigabitEthernet0/9/0

vppctl show memif sockets id listener filename 0 no /run/vpp/memif.sock ```

After the container is started, on the host there should be an additional memif interface created and added to a new L2 bridge, all created by the Userspace CNI.

After Container Started: ``` vppctl show interface Name Idx State Counter Count GigabitEthernet0/8/0 1 down GigabitEthernet0/9/0 2 down local0 0 down memif1/0 3 up

vppctl show mode l3 local0 l3 GigabitEthernet0/8/0 l3 GigabitEthernet0/9/0 l2 bridge memif1/0 bd_id 4 shg 0

vppctl show memif sockets id listener filename 0 no /run/vpp/memif.sock 1 yes (1) /var/run/vpp/cni/shared/memif-79b661b189b2-net0.sock

interface memif1/0 remote-name "VPP 18.07-16~gca7a68e~b66" remote-interface "memif1/0" socket-id 1 id 0 mode ethernet flags admin-up connected listener-fd 22 conn-fd 23 num-s2m-rings 1 num-m2s-rings 1 buffer-size 0 num-regions 1 region 0 size 4227328 fd 24 master-to-slave ring 0: region 0 offset 16512 ring-size 1024 int-fd 26 head 1024 tail 0 flags 0x0001 interrupts 0 slave-to-master ring 0: region 0 offset 0 ring-size 1024 int-fd 25 head 0 tail 0 flags 0x0001 interrupts 0 ```

Verify Container

The container is setup to start VPP, read the config pushed by the User Space CNI, apply the data and then exit to bash. To verify the container config, in the container, run the following: ``` vppctl show interface Name Idx State Counter Count
local0 0 down
memif1/0 1 up

vppctl show interface addr local0 (dn): memif1/0 (up): L3 192.168.210.45/24

vppctl show mode
l3 local0
l3 memif1/0

vppctl show memif sockets id listener filename 0 no /run/vpp/memif.sock 1 no /var/run/vpp/cni/shared/memif-05138381d803-net0.sock

interface memif1/0 remote-name "VPP 18.07-rc2~11-g18bde8a" remote-interface "memif1/0" socket-id 1 id 0 mode ethernet flags admin-up slave connected listener-fd 0 conn-fd 17 num-s2m-rings 1 num-m2s-rings 1 buffer-size 2048 num-regions 1 region 0 size 4227328 fd 18 slave-to-master ring 0: region 0 offset 0 ring-size 1024 int-fd 19 head 0 tail 0 flags 0x0001 interrupts 0 master-to-slave ring 0: region 0 offset 16512 ring-size 1024 int-fd 20 head 1024 tail 0 flags 0x0001 interrupts 0 ```

Ping

If a second container is started on the same host, the two containers will have L3 connectivity through an L2 bridge on the host. Because the interfaces in the host are owned by VPP, use VPP in one of the containers to ping between the two containers. ``` vppctl ping 192.168.210.46
64 bytes from 192.168.210.46: icmpseq=2 ttl=64 time=39.0119 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.210.46: icmpseq=3 ttl=64 time=37.9991 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.210.46: icmpseq=4 ttl=64 time=57.0304 ms 64 bytes from 192.168.210.46: icmpseq=5 ttl=64 time=40.0044 ms

Statistics: 5 sent, 4 received, 20% packet loss ```

Debug

The vpp-centos-userspace-cni container runs a script at startup (in Dockefile CMD command) which starts VPP and then runs usrsp-app. Assuming the same notes above, to see what is happening in the container, cause vpp-centos-userspace-cni container to start in bash and skip the script, then run VPP and usrsp-app manually: ``` cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/containernetworking/cni/scripts sudo CNIPATH=$CNIPATH GOPATH=$GOPATH ./scripts/usrsp-docker-run.sh -it --privileged bmcfall/vpp-centos-userspace-cni:0.2.0 bash

/* Within Container: */ vpp -c /etc/vpp/startup.conf & usrsp-app ```

Testing with DPDK Testpmd Application

To follow this example you should have a system with kubernetes available and configured to support native 1 GB hugepages. You should also have multus-cni and userspace-cni-network-plugin up and running. See

examples/crd-userspace-net-ovs-no-ipam.yaml
for example config to use with multus. If using OVS, check that you have bridge named
br0
in your OVS with
ovs-vsctl show
and if not, create it with
ovs-vsctl add-br br0 -- set bridge br0 datapath_type=netdev
.

1. Build the image to be used

Build container image from

FROM ubuntu:bionic

RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y dpdk;

ENTRYPOINT ["bash"]

Dockerfile and tag it as

ubuntu-dpdk
:
docker build . -t ubuntu-dpdk

2. Create pod with multiple vhostuser interfaces

Copy

get-prefix.sh
script from userspace-cni-network-plugin repo to
/var/lib/cni/vhostuser/
. See
examples/pod-multi-vhost.yaml
and start the pod:
kubectl create -f examples/pod-multi-vhost.yaml

3. Open terminal to pod and start testpmd

Open terminal to the created pod once it is running:

kubectl exec -it multi-vhost-example bash

Launch testpmd and automatically start forwarding packets after sending first burst:

# Get container ID
export ID=$(/vhu/get-prefix.sh)

Run testpmd with ports created by vhostplugin

Note: change coremask to suit your system

testpmd
-d librte_pmd_virtio.so.17.11
-m 1024
-c 0xC
--file-prefix=testpmd_
--vdev=net_virtio_user0,path=/vhu/${ID}/${ID:0:12}-net1
--vdev=net_virtio_user1,path=/vhu/${ID}/${ID:0:12}-net2
--no-pci
--
--no-lsc-interrupt
--auto-start
--tx-first
--stats-period 1
--disable-hw-vlan;

If packets are not going through, you may need to configure direct flows to your switch between the used ports. For example, with OVS as the switch, this is done by getting the port numbers with

ovs-ofctl dump-ports br0
and configuring flow, for example, from port 1 to port 2 with
ovs-ofctl add-flow br0 in_port=1,action=output:2
and vice versa.

Testing with DPDK L3FWD Application

To follow this example you should have a system with kubernetes available and configured to support native 1 GB hugepages. You should also have multus-cni and userspace-cni-network-plugin up and running. See

examples/crd-userspace-net-ovs-no-ipam.yaml
for example config to use with multus. If using OVS, check that you have bridge named
br0
in your OVS with
ovs-vsctl show
and if not, create it with
ovs-vsctl add-br br0 -- set bridge br0 datapath_type=netdev
.

1. Build the images to be used

Create the l3fwd Dockerfile: ```bash $ cat < l3fwd-dockerfile FROM ubuntu:bionic

RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends \ build-essential make wget vim dpdk libnuma-dev \ && apt-get clean && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*

ENV DPDKVERSION=17.11.3 \ RTESDK=/usr/src/dpdk \ RTETARGET=x8664-native-linuxapp-gcc

RUN wget http://fast.dpdk.org/rel/dpdk-\${DPDKVERSION}.tar.xz && tar xf dpdk-\${DPDKVERSION}.tar.xz && \ mv dpdk-stable-\${DPDKVERSION} \${RTESDK}

RUN sed -i s/CONFIGRTEEALIGBUIO=y/CONFIGRTEEALIGBUIO=n/ \${RTESDK}/config/commonlinuxapp \ && sed -i s/CONFIGRTELIBRTEKNI=y/CONFIGRTELIBRTEKNI=n/ \${RTESDK}/config/commonlinuxapp \ && sed -i s/CONFIGRTEKNIKMOD=y/CONFIGRTEKNIKMOD=n/ \${RTESDK}/config/commonlinuxapp

RUN cd \${RTESDK} && make install T=\${RTETARGET} && make -C examples

WORKDIR \${RTESDK}/examples/l3fwd/\${RTETARGET}/app/ EOF ```

Build the l3fwd Docker image, tag it as

dpdk-l3fwd
:
bash
docker build -t dpdk-l3fwd -f l3fwd-dockerfile .

Create the pktgen Dockerfile: ```bash $ cat < pktgen-dockerfile FROM debian:jessie

RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends \ gcc build-essential make wget curl git liblua5.2-dev libedit-dev libpcap-dev libncurses5-dev libncursesw5-dev pkg-config vim libnuma-dev ca-certificates \ && apt-get clean && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*

ENV DPDKVERSION=17.11.3 \ RTESDK=/usr/src/dpdk \ RTETARGET=x8664-native-linuxapp-gcc \ PKTGENCOMMIT=pktgen-3.4.8 \ PKTGENDIR=/usr/src/pktgen

RUN wget http://fast.dpdk.org/rel/dpdk-\${DPDKVERSION}.tar.xz && tar xf dpdk-\${DPDKVERSION}.tar.xz && \ mv dpdk-stable-\${DPDKVERSION} \${RTESDK}

RUN sed -i s/CONFIGRTEEALIGBUIO=y/CONFIGRTEEALIGBUIO=n/ \${RTESDK}/config/commonlinuxapp \ && sed -i s/CONFIGRTELIBRTEKNI=y/CONFIGRTELIBRTEKNI=n/ \${RTESDK}/config/commonlinuxapp \ && sed -i s/CONFIGRTEKNIKMOD=y/CONFIGRTEKNIKMOD=n/ \${RTESDK}/config/commonlinuxapp

RUN sed -i s/CONFIGRTEAPPTEST=y/CONFIGRTEAPPTEST=n/ \${RTESDK}/config/commonlinuxapp \ && sed -i s/CONFIGRTETESTPMD=y/CONFIGRTETESTPMD=n/ \${RTESDK}/config/commonlinuxapp

RUN cd \${RTESDK} \ && make install T=\${RTETARGET} DESTDIR=install -j

RUN git config --global user.email "[email protected]" \ && git config --global user.name "root"

RUN git clone http://dpdk.org/git/apps/pktgen-dpdk \ && cd pktgen-dpdk \ && git checkout \${PKTGENCOMMIT} \ && cd .. \ && mv pktgen-dpdk \${PKTGENDIR}

RUN cd \${PKTGEN_DIR} \ && make -j

WORKDIR \${PKTGEN_DIR}/ EOF ```

Build the pktgen Docker image, tag it as

dpdk-pktgen
:
bash
docker build -t dpdk-pktgen -f pktgen-dockerfile .

2. Create the pods to be used

Create the l3fwd Pod Spec:

bash
$ cat < l3fwd-pod.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  generateName: dpdk-l3fwd-
  annotations:
    k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/networks: userspace-networkobj
spec:
  containers:
  - name: dpdk-l3fwd
    image: dpdk-l3fwd
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    securityContext:
      privileged: true
      runAsUser: 0
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /vhu/
      name: socket
    - mountPath: /dev/hugepages
      name: hugepage
    resources:
      requests:
        memory: 2Gi
      limits:
        hugepages-1Gi: 2Gi
    command: ["sleep", "infinity"]
  volumes:
  - name: socket
    hostPath:
      path: /var/lib/cni/vhostuser/
  - name: hugepage
    emptyDir:
      medium: HugePages
  securityContext:
    runAsUser: 0
  restartPolicy: Never
EOF

Create the pktgen Pod Spec:

bash
$ cat < pktgen-pod.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  generateName: dpdk-pktgen-
  annotations:
    k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/networks: userspace-networkobj
spec:
  containers:
  - name: dpdk-pktgen
    image: dpdk-pktgen
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    securityContext:
      privileged: true
      runAsUser: 0
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /vhu/
      name: socket
    - mountPath: /dev/hugepages
      name: hugepage
    resources:
      requests:
        memory: 2Gi
      limits:
        hugepages-1Gi: 2Gi
    command: ["sleep", "infinity"]
  volumes:
  - name: socket
    hostPath:
      path: /var/lib/cni/vhostuser/
  - name: hugepage
    emptyDir:
      medium: HugePages
  securityContext:
    runAsUser: 0
  restartPolicy: Never
EOF

Deploy both pods:

bash
$ kubectl create -f l3fwd-pod.yaml
$ kubectl create -f pktgen-pod.yaml

Verify your pods are running and note their unique name IDs:

bash
$ kubectl get pods
NAME                       READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
dpdk-l3fwd-vj4hj      1/1        Running   0                 51s
dpdk-pktgen-xrsz9   1/1        Running   0                 2s

3. Run L3FWD and Pktgen

Using your pod ID, open a bash shell in the pktgen pod:

bash
$ kubectl exec -it dpdk-pktgen- bash

Export the port ID prefex and start the pktgen application (adjust cores, memory, etc. to suit your system):

bash
$ export ID=$(/vhu/get-prefix.sh)
$ ./app/x86_64-native-linuxapp-gcc/pktgen -l 10,11,12 --vdev=virtio_user0,path=/vhu/${ID}/${ID:0:12}-net1 --no-pci --socket-mem=1024,1024 --master-lcore 10 -- -m 11:12.0 -P

The pktgen application should launch. Among the statistics, make note of the pktgen source MAC address listed as

Src MAC Address
. For example:
bash
Src MAC Address   :   f2:89:22:4e:28:3b

In another terminal, open a bash shell in the l3fwd pod:

bash
kubectl exec -it dpdk-l3fwd- bash

Export the port ID prefex and start the l3fwd application. Set the destination MAC address using the

--eth-dest
argument. This should be the
Src MAC Address
previously noted from the pktgen pod (adjust cores, memory, etc. to suit your system):
bash
$ export ID=$(/vhu/get-prefix.sh)
$ ./l3fwd -c 0x10 --vdev=virtio_user0,path=/vhu/${ID}/${ID:0:12}-net1 --no-pci --socket-mem=1024,1024 -- -p 0x1 -P --config "(0,0,4)" --eth-dest=0, --parse-ptype

The l3fwd app should start up. Among the information printed to the screen will be the

Address
. This is the MAC address of the l3fwd port, make note of it.

Back on the pktgen pod, set the destination MAC address to that of the l3fwd port:

bash
Pktgen:/> set 0 dst mac 

Start traffic generation:

bash
Pktgen:/> start 0

You should see the packet counts for Tx and Rx increase, verifying that packets are being transmitted by pktgen and are being sent back via l3fwd running in the other pod.

To exit:

bash
Pktgen:/> stop 0
Pktgen:/> quit

Unit Testing

Unit Tests Overview

The Userspace CNI networking plugin is written in GO and it uses GO Testing package for unit testing. In order to simplify unit test code, a testify toolkit is also used for assertions. Unit test files have suffix _test.go and they are located at the same directory as the production code.

For example userspace package have one source file and one file with unit tests:

   userspace/userspace.go
   userspace/userspace_test.go

In the file

userspace_test.go
you can find a set of test functions with the same name as functions from
userspace.go
with prefix
Test
. Each test function implements a set of tests to test production code thoroughly with different input data, etc.

Testing binary is built and tests executed by

go test
command at directory with test files.

For example, unit tests for userspace package with verbose output can be executed as follows:

cd userspace
go test -v

An example of verbose output of userspace unit tests:

=== RUN   TestPrintVersionString
=== RUN   TestPrintVersionString/verify_version_string
--- PASS: TestPrintVersionString (0.00s)
    --- PASS: TestPrintVersionString/verify_version_string (0.00s)
=== RUN   TestLoadNetConf
=== RUN   TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_1
=== RUN   TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_2
=== RUN   TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_3
=== RUN   TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_4
=== RUN   TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_5
=== RUN   TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_6
=== RUN   TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_set_default_logging_level
=== RUN   TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_set_log_file
=== RUN   TestLoadNetConf/load_correct_netConf
--- PASS: TestLoadNetConf (0.00s)
    --- PASS: TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_1 (0.00s)
    --- PASS: TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_2 (0.00s)
    --- PASS: TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_3 (0.00s)
    --- PASS: TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_4 (0.00s)
    --- PASS: TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_5 (0.00s)
    --- PASS: TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_parse_netConf_6 (0.00s)
    --- PASS: TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_set_default_logging_level (0.00s)
    --- PASS: TestLoadNetConf/fail_to_set_log_file (0.00s)
    --- PASS: TestLoadNetConf/load_correct_netConf (0.00s)
...

It is possible to execute unit tests directly from the host where the code is being developed. However it is strongly recommended to execute them from within a container. It will assure that unit tests will be isolated from the host and thus avoid any collision with the host environment (e.g. k8s or OVS). Another advantage is a possibility to easily execute unit tests at various Linux OS distributions. Support of unit test execution inside containers is implemented by project Makefile and described in following paragraphs.

Unit Tests Inside Container

Project

Makefile
defines a set of targets suitable for unit testing inside containers. In order to build and use testing containers, both
docker
and
gcc
(C preprocessor is used to assemble Dockerfiles) have to be installed at the host.

Example of tools installation at Ubuntu:

   apt install docker.io gcc

After the installation is completed, then any of unit test specific targets can be executed in order to:

  • build test containers and update them in case that new commit is detected
  • execute unit tests
  • calculate code coverage
  • cleanup unit test container images and generated docker files

Targets for container building, unit testing and code coverage calculation are prepared in three different versions to be executed at:

  • Linux OS distribution defined by
    UT_OS
    environment variable

e.g. execute build of container image for CentOS8

     export UT_OS=centos8
     make test-build
  • Linux OS distribution specified by target suffix

e.g. calculate code coverage at Ubuntu 20.04

     make coverage-ubuntu20.04
  • all supported OS distributions

e.g. execute unit tests at all supported OS distros:

     make test-all

The list of supported

make
targets is also documented as part of
make help
as follows:
Make Targets for unit testing inside containers:
 make test-clean      - Remove test container images and generated Dockerfiles.
 make test-build      - Build container image for unit tests with OS defined by UT_OS: UT_OS=ubuntu20.04
 make test            - Run unit tests inside container with OS defined by UT_OS: UT_OS=ubuntu20.04
 make coverage        - Calculate code coverage in container with OS defined by UT_OS: UT_OS=ubuntu20.04
 make test-build- - Build container image for unit tests with , e.g. make test-build-centos8
 make test-       - Run unit tests inside container with , e.g. make test-centos8
 make coverage-   - Calculate code coverage inside container with , e.g. make coverage-centos8
 make test-build-all  - Build container images for unit tests for all supported OS distributions
                        e.g. make -j 5 test-build-all
 make test-all        - Run unit tests inside container for all supported OS distributions
                        e.g. make -j 5 test-all
 make coverage-all    - Calculate code coverage inside container for all supported OS distributions.
                        e.g. make -j 5 coverage-all

Following Linux OS distributions are supported for unit testing inside containers:

  • CentOS 7, 8
  • Fedora 31, 32
  • Ubuntu 16.04, 18.04, 20.04

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