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Hibernate's core Object/Relational Mapping functionality

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Hibernate ORM is a library providing Object/Relational Mapping (ORM) support to applications, libraries, and frameworks.

It also provides an implementation of the JPA specification, which is the standard Java specification for ORM.

This is the repository of its source code: see for additional information.

Build Status Language grade: Java

Building from sources

The build requires a Java 8 JDK as JAVA_HOME.

You will need Git to obtain the source.

Hibernate uses Gradle as its build tool. See the Gradle Primer section below if you are new to Gradle.

Contributors should read the Contributing Guide.

See the guides for setting up IntelliJ or Eclipse as your development environment.

Check out the Getting Started section in for getting started working on Hibernate source.

Continuous Integration

Hibernate makes use of Jenkins for its CI needs. The project is built continuous on each push to the upstream repository. Overall there are a few different jobs, all of which can be seen at

Gradle primer

This section describes some of the basics developers and contributors new to Gradle might need to know to get productive quickly. The Gradle documentation is very well done; 2 in particular that are indispensable:

  • Gradle User Guide is a typical user guide in that it follows a topical approach to describing all of the capabilities of Gradle.
  • Gradle DSL Guide is unique and excellent in quickly getting up to speed on certain aspects of Gradle.

Using the Gradle Wrapper

For contributors who do not otherwise use Gradle and do not want to install it, Gradle offers a very cool feature called the wrapper. It lets you run Gradle builds without a previously installed Gradle distro in a zero-conf manner. Hibernate configures the Gradle wrapper for you. If you would rather use the wrapper and not install Gradle (or to make sure you use the version of Gradle intended for older builds) you would just use the command

) rather than
) in the following discussions. Note that
is only available in the project's root dir, so depending on your working directory you may need to adjust the path to
as well.

Examples use the

syntax, but just swap
(properly relative) for
if you wish to use the wrapper.

Another reason to use

is that it uses the exact version of Gradle that the build is defined to work with.

Executing Tasks

Gradle uses the concept of build tasks (equivalent to Ant targets or Maven phases/goals). You can get a list of available tasks via

gradle tasks

To execute a task across all modules, simply perform that task from the root directory. Gradle will visit each sub-project and execute that task if the sub-project defines it. To execute a task in a specific module you can either:

  1. cd
    into that module directory and execute the task
  2. name the "task path". For example, to run the tests for the hibernate-core module from the root directory you could say
    gradle hibernate-core:test

Common Java related tasks

  • build - Assembles (jars) and tests this project
  • buildDependents - Assembles and tests this project and all projects that depend on it. So think of running this in hibernate-core, Gradle would assemble and test hibernate-core as well as hibernate-envers (because envers depends on core)
  • classes - Compiles the main classes
  • testClasses - Compiles the test classes
  • compile (Hibernate addition) - Performs all compilation tasks including staging resources from both main and test
  • jar - Generates a jar archive with all the compiled classes
  • test - Runs the tests
  • publish - Think Maven deploy
  • publishToMavenLocal - Installs the project jar to your local maven cache (aka ~/.m2/repository). Note that Gradle never uses this, but it can be useful for testing your build with other local Maven-based builds.
  • eclipse - Generates an Eclipse project
  • idea - Generates an IntelliJ/IDEA project (although the preferred approach is to use IntelliJ's Gradle import).
  • clean - Cleans the build directory

Testing and databases

Testing against a specific database can be achieved in 2 different ways:

Using the "Matrix Testing Plugin" for Gradle.

Coming soon...

Using "profiles"

The Hibernate build defines several database testing "profiles" in

. These profiles can be activated by name using the
build property which can be passed either as a JVM system prop (
) or as a Gradle project property (
). Examples below use the Gradle project property approach.
gradle clean build -Pdb=pgsql

To run a test from your IDE, you need to ensure the property expansions happen. Use the following command:

gradle clean compile -Pdb=pgsql

NOTE: If you are running tests against a JDBC driver that is not available via Maven central be sure to add these drivers to your local Maven repo cache (~/.m2/repository) or (better) add it to a personal Maven repo server

Running database-specific tests from the IDE using "profiles"

You can run any test on any particular database that is configured in a


All you have to do is run the following command:

gradlew setDataBase -Pdb=pgsql

or you can use the shortcut version:

gradlew sDB -Pdb=pgsql

You can do this from the module which you are interested in testing or from the

root folder.

Afterward, just pick any test from the IDE and run it as usual. Hibernate will pick the database configuration from the
file that was set up by the
Gradle task.

Starting test databases locally as docker containers

You don't have to install all databases locally to be able to test against them in case you have docker available. The script
allows you to start a pre-configured database which can be used for testing.

All you have to do is run the following command:

./ postgresql_9_5

omitting the argument will print a list of possible options.

When the database is properly started, you can run tests with special profiles that are suffixed with

for PostgreSQL. By using the system property
you can configure the IP address of your docker host.

The command for running tests could look like the following:

gradlew test -Pdb=pgsql_ci "-DdbHost="

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