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hhatto
4.0K Stars 263 Forks MIT License 2.7K Commits 92 Opened issues

Description

A tool that automatically formats Python code to conform to the PEP 8 style guide.

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autopep8

.. image:: https://img.shields.io/pypi/v/autopep8.svg :target: https://pypi.org/project/autopep8/ :alt: PyPI Version

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.. image:: https://codecov.io/gh/hhatto/autopep8/branch/master/graph/badge.svg :target: https://codecov.io/gh/hhatto/autopep8 :alt: Code Coverage

autopep8 automatically formats Python code to conform to the

PEP 8
_ style guide. It uses the pycodestyle_ utility to determine what parts of the code needs to be formatted. autopep8 is capable of fixing most of the formatting issues_ that can be reported by pycodestyle.

.. _PEP 8: https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0008/ .. _issues: https://pycodestyle.readthedocs.org/en/latest/intro.html#error-codes

.. contents::

Installation

From pip::

$ pip install --upgrade autopep8

Consider using the

--user
option_.

.. option: https://pip.pypa.io/en/latest/userguide/#user-installs

Requirements

autopep8 requires pycodestyle_.

.. _pycodestyle: https://github.com/PyCQA/pycodestyle

Usage

To modify a file in place (with aggressive level 2)::

$ autopep8 --in-place --aggressive --aggressive 

Before running autopep8.

.. code-block:: python

import math, sys;

def example1(): ####This is a long comment. This should be wrapped to fit within 72 characters. some_tuple=( 1,2, 3,'a' ); some_variable={'long':'Long code lines should be wrapped within 79 characters.', 'other':[math.pi, 100,200,300,9876543210,'This is a long string that goes on'], 'more':{'inner':'This whole logical line should be wrapped.',some_tuple:[1, 20,300,40000,500000000,60000000000000000]}} return (some_tuple, some_variable) def example2(): return {'has_key() is deprecated':True}.has_key({'f':2}.has_key('')); class Example3( object ): def init ( self, bar ): #Comments should have a space after the hash. if bar : bar+=1; bar=bar* bar ; return bar else: some_string = """ Indentation in multiline strings should not be touched. Only actual code should be reindented. """ return (sys.path, some_string)

After running autopep8.

.. code-block:: python

import math
import sys


def example1(): # This is a long comment. This should be wrapped to fit within 72 # characters. some_tuple = (1, 2, 3, 'a') some_variable = { 'long': 'Long code lines should be wrapped within 79 characters.', 'other': [ math.pi, 100, 200, 300, 9876543210, 'This is a long string that goes on'], 'more': { 'inner': 'This whole logical line should be wrapped.', some_tuple: [ 1, 20, 300, 40000, 500000000, 60000000000000000]}} return (some_tuple, some_variable)

def example2(): return ('' in {'f': 2}) in {'has_key() is deprecated': True}

class Example3(object): def init(self, bar): # Comments should have a space after the hash. if bar: bar += 1 bar = bar * bar return bar else: some_string = """ Indentation in multiline strings should not be touched. Only actual code should be reindented. """ return (sys.path, some_string)

Options::

usage: autopep8 [-h] [--version] [-v] [-d] [-i] [--global-config filename]
                [--ignore-local-config] [-r] [-j n] [-p n] [-a]
                [--experimental] [--exclude globs] [--list-fixes]
                [--ignore errors] [--select errors] [--max-line-length n]
                [--line-range line line] [--hang-closing] [--exit-code]
                [files [files ...]]

Automatically formats Python code to conform to the PEP 8 style guide.

positional arguments: files files to format or '-' for standard in

optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit --version show program's version number and exit -v, --verbose print verbose messages; multiple -v result in more verbose messages -d, --diff print the diff for the fixed source -i, --in-place make changes to files in place --global-config filename path to a global pep8 config file; if this file does not exist then this is ignored (default: ~/.config/pep8) --ignore-local-config don't look for and apply local config files; if not passed, defaults are updated with any config files in the project's root directory -r, --recursive run recursively over directories; must be used with --in-place or --diff -j n, --jobs n number of parallel jobs; match CPU count if value is less than 1 -p n, --pep8-passes n maximum number of additional pep8 passes (default: infinite) -a, --aggressive enable non-whitespace changes; multiple -a result in more aggressive changes --experimental enable experimental fixes --exclude globs exclude file/directory names that match these comma- separated globs --list-fixes list codes for fixes; used by --ignore and --select --ignore errors do not fix these errors/warnings (default: E226,E24,W50,W690) --select errors fix only these errors/warnings (e.g. E4,W) --max-line-length n set maximum allowed line length (default: 79) --line-range line line, --range line line only fix errors found within this inclusive range of line numbers (e.g. 1 99); line numbers are indexed at 1 --hang-closing hang-closing option passed to pycodestyle --exit-code change to behavior of exit code. default behavior of return value, 0 is no differences, 1 is error exit. return 2 when add this option. 2 is exists differences.

Features

autopep8 fixes the following issues_ reported by pycodestyle_::

E101 - Reindent all lines.
E11  - Fix indentation.
E121 - Fix indentation to be a multiple of four.
E122 - Add absent indentation for hanging indentation.
E123 - Align closing bracket to match opening bracket.
E124 - Align closing bracket to match visual indentation.
E125 - Indent to distinguish line from next logical line.
E126 - Fix over-indented hanging indentation.
E127 - Fix visual indentation.
E128 - Fix visual indentation.
E129 - Fix visual indentation.
E131 - Fix hanging indent for unaligned continuation line.
E133 - Fix missing indentation for closing bracket.
E20  - Remove extraneous whitespace.
E211 - Remove extraneous whitespace.
E22  - Fix extraneous whitespace around keywords.
E224 - Remove extraneous whitespace around operator.
E225 - Fix missing whitespace around operator.
E226 - Fix missing whitespace around arithmetic operator.
E227 - Fix missing whitespace around bitwise/shift operator.
E228 - Fix missing whitespace around modulo operator.
E231 - Add missing whitespace.
E241 - Fix extraneous whitespace around keywords.
E242 - Remove extraneous whitespace around operator.
E251 - Remove whitespace around parameter '=' sign.
E252 - Missing whitespace around parameter equals.
E26  - Fix spacing after comment hash for inline comments.
E265 - Fix spacing after comment hash for block comments.
E266 - Fix too many leading '#' for block comments.
E27  - Fix extraneous whitespace around keywords.
E301 - Add missing blank line.
E302 - Add missing 2 blank lines.
E303 - Remove extra blank lines.
E304 - Remove blank line following function decorator.
E305 - Expected 2 blank lines after end of function or class.
E306 - Expected 1 blank line before a nested definition.
E401 - Put imports on separate lines.
E402 - Fix module level import not at top of file
E501 - Try to make lines fit within --max-line-length characters.
E502 - Remove extraneous escape of newline.
E701 - Put colon-separated compound statement on separate lines.
E70  - Put semicolon-separated compound statement on separate lines.
E711 - Fix comparison with None.
E712 - Fix comparison with boolean.
E713 - Use 'not in' for test for membership.
E714 - Use 'is not' test for object identity.
E721 - Use "isinstance()" instead of comparing types directly.
E722 - Fix bare except.
E731 - Use a def when use do not assign a lambda expression.
W291 - Remove trailing whitespace.
W292 - Add a single newline at the end of the file.
W293 - Remove trailing whitespace on blank line.
W391 - Remove trailing blank lines.
W503 - Fix line break before binary operator.
W504 - Fix line break after binary operator.
W601 - Use "in" rather than "has_key()".
W602 - Fix deprecated form of raising exception.
W603 - Use "!=" instead of "<>"
W604 - Use "repr()" instead of backticks.
W605 - Fix invalid escape sequence 'x'.
W690 - Fix various deprecated code (via lib2to3).

autopep8 also fixes some issues not found by pycodestyle_.

  • Correct deprecated or non-idiomatic Python code (via
    lib2to3
    ). Use this for making Python 2.7 code more compatible with Python 3. (This is triggered if
    W690
    is enabled.)
  • Normalize files with mixed line endings.
  • Put a blank line between a class docstring and its first method declaration. (Enabled with
    E301
    .)
  • Remove blank lines between a function declaration and its docstring. (Enabled with
    E303
    .)

autopep8 avoids fixing some issues found by pycodestyle_.

  • E112
    /
    E113
    for non comments are reports of bad indentation that break syntax rules. These should not be modified at all.
  • E265
    , which refers to spacing after comment hash, is ignored if the comment looks like code. autopep8 avoids modifying these since they are not real comments. If you really want to get rid of the pycodestyle_ warning, consider just removing the commented-out code. (This can be automated via eradicate_.)

.. _eradicate: https://github.com/myint/eradicate

More advanced usage

By default autopep8 only makes whitespace changes. Thus, by default, it does not fix

E711
and
E712
. (Changing
x == None
to
x is None
may change the meaning of the program if
x
has its
__eq__
method overridden.) Nor does it correct deprecated code
W6
. To enable these more aggressive fixes, use the
--aggressive
option::
$ autopep8 --aggressive 

Use multiple

--aggressive
to increase the aggressiveness level. For example,
E712
requires aggressiveness level 2 (since
x == True
could be changed to either
x
or
x is True
, but autopep8 chooses the former).

--aggressive
will also shorten lines more aggressively. It will also remove trailing whitespace more aggressively. (Usually, we don't touch trailing whitespace in docstrings and other multiline strings. And to do even more aggressive changes to docstrings, use docformatter_.)

.. _docformatter: https://github.com/myint/docformatter

To enable only a subset of the fixes, use the

--select
option. For example, to fix various types of indentation issues::
$ autopep8 --select=E1,W1 

Similarly, to just fix deprecated code::

$ autopep8 --aggressive --select=W6 

The above is useful when trying to port a single code base to work with both Python 2 and Python 3 at the same time.

If the file being fixed is large, you may want to enable verbose progress messages::

$ autopep8 -v 

Passing in

--experimental
enables the following functionality:
  • Shortens code lines by taking its length into account

::

$ autopep8 --experimental

Use as a module

The simplest way of using autopep8 as a module is via the

fix_code()
function:
>>> import autopep8
>>> autopep8.fix_code('x=       123\n')
'x = 123\n'

Or with options:

>>> import autopep8
>>> autopep8.fix_code('x.has_key(y)\n',
...                   options={'aggressive': 1})
'y in x\n'
>>> autopep8.fix_code('print( 123 )\n',
...                   options={'ignore': ['E']})
'print( 123 )\n'

Configuration

By default, if

$HOME/.config/pycodestyle
(
~\.pycodestyle
in Windows environment) exists, it will be used as global configuration file. Alternatively, you can specify the global configuration file with the
--global-config
option.

Also, if

setup.cfg
,
tox.ini
,
.pep8
and
.flake8
files exist in the directory where the target file exists, it will be used as the configuration file.

pep8
,
pycodestyle
, and
flake8
can be used as a section.

configuration file example::

[pycodestyle]
max_line_length = 120
ignore = E501

pyproject.toml

autopep8 can also use

pyproject.toml
. The section must be
[tool.autopep8]
, and
pyproject.toml
takes precedence over any other configuration files.

configuration file example::

[tool.autopep8]
max_line_length = 120
ignore = "E501,W6"  # or ["E501", "W6"]
in-place = true
recursive = true
aggressive = 3

Testing

Test cases are in

test/test_autopep8.py
. They can be run directly via
python test/test_autopep8.py
or via tox_. The latter is useful for testing against multiple Python interpreters. (We currently test against CPython versions 2.7, 3.6 3.7 and 3.8. We also test against PyPy.)

.. _

tox
: https://pypi.org/project/tox/

Broad spectrum testing is available via

test/acid.py
. This script runs autopep8 against Python code and checks for correctness and completeness of the code fixes. It can check that the bytecode remains identical.
test/acid_pypi.py
makes use of
acid.py
to test against the latest released packages on PyPI.

Troubleshooting

pkg_resources.DistributionNotFound

If you are using an ancient version of

setuptools
, you might encounter
pkg_resources.DistributionNotFound
when trying to run
autopep8
. Try upgrading
setuptools
to workaround this
setuptools
problem::
$ pip install --upgrade setuptools

Use

sudo
if you are installing to the system.

Links

  • PyPI_
  • GitHub_
  • Travis CI
    _
  • Coveralls_

.. _PyPI: https://pypi.org/project/autopep8/ .. _GitHub: https://github.com/hhatto/autopep8 .. _

Travis CI
: https://travis-ci.org/hhatto/autopep8 .. _
Coveralls
: https://coveralls.io/r/hhatto/autopep8

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