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Use your macOS terminal shell to do awesome things.

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Awesome macOS Command Line

A curated list of shell commands and tools specific to OS X.

“You don’t have to know everything. You simply need to know where to find it when necessary.” (John Brunner)

Awesome

If you want to contribute, you are highly encouraged to do so. Please read the contribution guidelines.

For more terminal shell goodness, please also see this list's sister list Awesome Command Line Apps.

Women Empowerment in Zanzibar

Send a little karma down the way and support women empowerment in Zanzibar by helping to fund the local production of reusable female hygiene products. A very dear friend of mine runs the project. They were already able to buy hundreds of educational books. Sometimes, it takes so little to make a huge impact. If you'd like to thank me or support this work, donate. Additionally, any current and future sponsoring of my work via GitHub or other channels will flow one hundred percent to the NGO.

Foreword

There's really only one thing I'd like to note here: man pages. Man pages. Man pages. Okay, three things. But this one thing seemed so important, I had to mention it multiple times. If you're not doing it already, you should get into the habit of consulting man pages before searching anywhere else. Unix-style man pages are an excellent source of documentation. There's even a man page for the

man
command itself:
man man

It also explains what the numbers in the man pages refer to --- like

man(1)
.

Contents

Appearance

Subpixel Anti-Aliasing (Font Smoothing)

Setting present since macOS 10.14 (Mojave).

# Enable
defaults write -g CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled -bool false

Disable (Default)

defaults write -g CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled -bool true

Per Application

defaults write com.apple.textedit CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled -bool false

Revert for Application

defaults delete com.apple.textedit CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled

Transparency

Transparency in Menu and Windows

# Reduce Transparency
defaults write com.apple.universalaccess reduceTransparency -bool true

Restore Default Transparency

defaults write com.apple.universalaccess reduceTransparency -bool false

Wallpaper

Set Wallpaper

# Up to OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion)
osascript -e 'tell application "Finder" to set desktop picture to POSIX file "/path/to/picture.jpg"'

Since OS X 10.9 (Mavericks)

sqlite3 ~/Library/Application\ Support/Dock/desktoppicture.db "update data set value = '/path/to/picture.jpg'" && killall Dock

Applications

App Store

List All Apps Downloaded from App Store

# Via find
find /Applications -path '*Contents/_MASReceipt/receipt' -maxdepth 4 -print |\sed 's#.app/Contents/_MASReceipt/receipt#.app#g; s#/Applications/##'

Via Spotlight

mdfind kMDItemAppStoreHasReceipt=1

Show Debug Menu

Works up to OS X 10.10 (Yosemite). ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.apple.appstore ShowDebugMenu -bool true

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.appstore ShowDebugMenu -bool false ```

Apple Remote Desktop

Kickstart Manual Pages

sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Resources/kickstart -help

Activate And Deactivate the ARD Agent and Helper

# Activate And Restart the ARD Agent and Helper
sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Resources/kickstart -activate -restart -agent -console

Deactivate and Stop the Remote Management Service

sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Resources/kickstart -deactivate -stop

Remote Desktop Sharing

# Allow Access for All Users and Give All Users Full Access
sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Resources/kickstart -configure -allowAccessFor -allUsers -privs -all

Disable ARD Agent and Remove Access Privileges for All Users (Default)

sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Resources/kickstart -deactivate -configure -access -off

Remove Apple Remote Desktop Settings

sudo rm -rf /var/db/RemoteManagement ; \
sudo defaults delete /Library/Preferences/com.apple.RemoteDesktop.plist ; \
defaults delete ~/Library/Preferences/com.apple.RemoteDesktop.plist ; \
sudo rm -r /Library/Application\ Support/Apple/Remote\ Desktop/ ; \
rm -r ~/Library/Application\ Support/Remote\ Desktop/ ; \
rm -r ~/Library/Containers/com.apple.RemoteDesktop

Contacts

Debug Mode

# Enable
defaults write com.apple.addressbook ABShowDebugMenu -bool true

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.addressbook ABShowDebugMenu -bool false

Google

Uninstall Google Update

~/Library/Google/GoogleSoftwareUpdate/GoogleSoftwareUpdate.bundle/Contents/Resources/ksinstall --nuke

iTunes

Keyboard Media Keys

Works up to OS X 10.10 (Yosemite). System Integrity Protection was introduced in OS X 10.11 (El Capitan) which prevents system Launch Agents from being unloaded. ```sh

Stop Responding to Key Presses

launchctl unload -w /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.rcd.plist

Respond to Key Presses (Default)

launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.rcd.plist ```

From OS X 10.11 (El Capitan) on, you can either disable SIP or resort to a kind of hack, which will make iTunes inaccessible to any user, effectively preventing it from starting itself or its helpers. Be aware that for all intents and purposes this will trash your iTunes installation and may conflict with OS updates down the road.

sh
sudo chmod 0000 /Applications/iTunes.app

Mail

Show Attachments as Icons

defaults write com.apple.mail DisableInlineAttachmentViewing -bool yes

Vacuum Mail Index

The AppleScript code below will quit Mail, vacuum the SQLite index, then re-open Mail. On a large email database that hasn't been optimized for a while, this can provide significant improvements in responsiveness and speed. ```applescript (* Speed up Mail.app by vacuuming the Envelope Index Code from: http://web.archive.org/web/20071008123746/http://www.hawkwings.net/2007/03/03/scripts-to-automate-the-mailapp-envelope-speed-trick/ Originally by "pmbuko" with modifications by Romulo Updated by Brett Terpstra 2012 Updated by Mathias Törnblom 2015 to support V3 in El Capitan and still keep backwards compatibility Updated by Andrei Miclaus 2017 to support V4 in Sierra *)

tell application "Mail" to quit set osversion to do shell script "swvers -productVersion" set mailversion to "V2" considering numeric strings if "10.10" <= osversion then set mailversion to "V3" if "10.12" <= osversion then set mailversion to "V4" if "10.13" <= osversion then set mailversion to "V5" if "10.14" <= osversion then set mail_version to "V6" end considering

set sizeBefore to do shell script "ls -lnah ~/Library/Mail/" & mailversion & "/MailData | grep -E 'Envelope Index$' | awk {'print $5'}" do shell script "/usr/bin/sqlite3 ~/Library/Mail/" & mailversion & "/MailData/Envelope\ Index vacuum"

set sizeAfter to do shell script "ls -lnah ~/Library/Mail/" & mail_version & "/MailData | grep -E 'Envelope Index$' | awk {'print $5'}"

display dialog ("Mail index before: " & sizeBefore & return & "Mail index after: " & sizeAfter & return & return & "Enjoy the new speed!")

tell application "Mail" to activate ```

Safari

Change Default Fonts

defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2StandardFontFamily Georgia
defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2DefaultFontSize 16
defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2FixedFontFamily Menlo
defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2DefaultFixedFontSize 14

Develop Menu and Web Inspector

# Enable
defaults write com.apple.Safari IncludeInternalDebugMenu -bool true && \
defaults write com.apple.Safari IncludeDevelopMenu -bool true && \
defaults write com.apple.Safari WebKitDeveloperExtrasEnabledPreferenceKey -bool true && \
defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2DeveloperExtrasEnabled -bool true && \
defaults write -g WebKitDeveloperExtras -bool true

Disable (Default)

defaults delete com.apple.Safari IncludeInternalDebugMenu &&
defaults delete com.apple.Safari IncludeDevelopMenu &&
defaults delete com.apple.Safari WebKitDeveloperExtrasEnabledPreferenceKey &&
defaults delete com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2DeveloperExtrasEnabled &&
defaults delete -g WebKitDeveloperExtras

Get Current Page Data

Other options:

get source
,
get text
.
sh
osascript -e 'tell application "Safari" to get URL of current tab of front window'

Use Backspace/Delete to Go Back a Page

# Enable
defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2BackspaceKeyNavigationEnabled -bool YES

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2BackspaceKeyNavigationEnabled -bool NO

Sketch

Export Compact SVGs

defaults write com.bohemiancoding.sketch3 exportCompactSVG -bool yes

Skim

Turn Off Auto Reload Dialog

Removes the dialog and defaults to auto reload.

sh
defaults write -app Skim SKAutoReloadFileUpdate -boolean true

Terminal

Focus Follows Mouse

# Enable
defaults write com.apple.Terminal FocusFollowsMouse -string YES

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.Terminal FocusFollowsMouse -string NO

TextEdit

Use Plain Text Mode as Default

defaults write com.apple.TextEdit RichText -int 0

Visual Studio Code

VSCodeVim Key Repeat

# Enable
defaults write com.microsoft.VSCode ApplePressAndHoldEnabled -bool false

Disable (Default)

defaults delete com.microsoft.VSCode ApplePressAndHoldEnabled

Subpixel Anti-Aliasing

Setting present since macOS 10.14 (Mojave). See also system-wide setting: Subpixel Anti-Aliasing ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.microsoft.VSCode CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled -bool false && \ defaults write com.microsoft.VSCode.helper CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled -bool false && \ defaults write com.microsoft.VSCode.helper.EH CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled -bool false && \ defaults write com.microsoft.VSCode.helper.NP CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled -bool false

Disable (Default)

defaults delete com.microsoft.VSCode CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled && \ defaults delete com.microsoft.VSCode.helper CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled && \ defaults delete com.microsoft.VSCode.helper.EH CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled && \ defaults delete com.microsoft.VSCode.helper.NP CGFontRenderingFontSmoothingDisabled ```

Backup

Time Machine

Change Backup Interval

This changes the interval to 30 minutes. The integer value is the time in seconds.

sh
sudo defaults write /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.backupd-auto StartInterval -int 1800

Local Backups

Whether Time Machine performs local backups while the Time Machine backup volume is not available. ```sh

Status

defaults read /Library/Preferences/com.apple.TimeMachine MobileBackups

Enable (Default)

sudo tmutil enablelocal

Disable

sudo tmutil disablelocal ```

Since macOS 10.13 (High Sierra), you cannot disable local snapshots. Time Machine now always creates a local APFS snapshot and uses that snapshot as the data source to create a regular backup, rather than using the live disk as the source, as is the case with HFS formatted disks.

Prevent Time Machine from Prompting to Use New Hard Drives as Backup Volume

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.TimeMachine DoNotOfferNewDisksForBackup -bool true

Show Time Machine Logs

This little script will output the last 12 hours of Time Machine activity followed by live activity. ```sh

!/bin/sh

filter='processImagePath contains "backupd" and subsystem beginswith "com.apple.TimeMachine"'

show the last 12 hours

start="$(date -j -v-12H +'%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')"

echo "" echo "[History (from $start)]" echo ""

log show --style syslog --info --start "$start" --predicate "$filter"

echo "" echo "[Following]" echo ""

log stream --style syslog --info --predicate "$filter" ```

Toggle Backup While on Battery

# Status
sudo defaults read /Library/Preferences/com.apple.TimeMachine RequiresACPower

Enable (Default)

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.TimeMachine RequiresACPower -bool true

Disable

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.TimeMachine RequiresACPower -bool false

Verify Backup

Beginning in OS X 10.11, Time Machine records checksums of files copied into snapshots. Checksums are not retroactively computed for files that were copied by earlier releases of OS X.

sh
sudo tmutil verifychecksums /path/to/backup

Developer

Vim

Compile Sane Vim

Compiling MacVim via Homebrew with all bells and whistles, including overriding system Vim.

sh
brew install macvim --HEAD

Neovim

Install the modern Vim drop-in alternative via Homebrew.

sh
brew install neovim

Xcode

Install Command Line Tools without Xcode

xcode-select --install

Remove All Unavailable Simulators

xcrun simctl delete unavailable

Dock

Add a Stack with Recent Applications

Obsolete since macOS 10.14 (Mojave). See Show Recent Apps.

sh
defaults write com.apple.dock persistent-others -array-add '{ "tile-data" = { "list-type" = 1; }; "tile-type" = "recents-tile"; }' && \
killall Dock

Add a Nameless Stack Folder and Small Spacer

defaults write com.apple.dock persistent-others -array-add '{ "tile-data" = {}; "tile-type"="small-spacer-tile"; }' && \
killall Dock

Add a Space

defaults write com.apple.dock persistent-apps -array-add '{"tile-type"="spacer-tile";}' && \
killall Dock

Add a Small Space

defaults write com.apple.dock persistent-apps -array-add '{"tile-type"="small-spacer-tile";}' && \
killall Dock

Auto Rearrange Spaces Based on Most Recent Use

# Enable (Default)
defaults write com.apple.dock mru-spaces -bool true && \
killall Dock

Disable

defaults write com.apple.dock mru-spaces -bool false &&
killall Dock

Automatically Hide

# Enable
defaults write com.apple.dock autohide -bool true && \
killall Dock

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock autohide -bool false &&
killall Dock

Icon Bounce

Global setting whether Dock icons should bounce when the respective application demands your attention. ```sh

Enable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock no-bouncing -bool true && \ killall Dock

Disable

defaults write com.apple.dock no-bouncing -bool false && \ killall Dock ```

Lock the Dock Size

# Enable
defaults write com.apple.Dock size-immutable -bool yes && \
killall Dock

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.Dock size-immutable -bool no &&
killall Dock

Reset Dock

defaults delete com.apple.dock && \
killall Dock

Resize

Fully resize your Dock's body. To resize change the

0
value as an integer.
sh
defaults write com.apple.dock tilesize -int 0 && \
killall Dock

Scroll Gestures

Use your touchpad or mouse scroll wheel to interact with Dock items. Allows you to use an upward scrolling gesture to open stacks. Using the same gesture on applications that are running invokes Exposé/Mission Control. ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.apple.dock scroll-to-open -bool true && \ killall Dock

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock scroll-to-open -bool false && \ killall Dock ```

Set Auto Show/Hide Delay

The float number defines the show/hide delay in ms.

sh
defaults write com.apple.dock autohide-time-modifier -float 0.4 && \
defaults write com.apple.dock autohide-delay -float 0 && \
killall Dock

Show Hidden App Icons

# Enable
defaults write com.apple.dock showhidden -bool true && \
killall Dock

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock showhidden -bool false &&
killall Dock

Show Only Active Applications

# Enable
defaults write com.apple.dock static-only -bool true && \
killall Dock

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock static-only -bool false &&
killall Dock

Show Recent Apps

Setting present since macOS 10.14 (Mojave). ```sh

Disable

defaults write com.apple.dock show-recents -bool false && \ killall Dock

Enable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock show-recents -bool true && \ killall Dock ```

Single App Mode

When clicking an application icon in the Dock, the respective windows will come to the front, but all other application windows will be hidden. ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.apple.dock single-app -bool true && \ killall Dock

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock single-app -bool false && \ killall Dock ```

Documents

Convert File to HTML

Supported formats are plain text, rich text (rtf) and Microsoft Word (doc/docx).

sh
textutil -convert html file.ext

Files, Disks and Volumes

Create an Empty File

Creates an empty 10 gigabyte test file.

sh
mkfile 10g /path/to/file

Disable Sudden Motion Sensor

Leaving this turned on is useless when you're using SSDs.

sh
sudo pmset -a sms 0

Eject All Mountable Volumes

The only reliable way to do this is by sending an AppleScript command to Finder.

sh
osascript -e 'tell application "Finder" to eject (every disk whose ejectable is true)'

Repair File Permissions

You don't have to use the Disk Utility GUI for this.

sh
sudo diskutil repairPermissions /

Beginning with OS X 10.11 (El Capitan), system file permissions are automatically protected. It's no longer necessary to verify or repair permissions with Disk Utility. (Source)

Set Boot Volume

# Up to OS X 10.10 (Yosemite)
bless --mount "/path/to/mounted/volume" --setBoot

From OS X 10.11 (El Capitan)

sudo systemsetup -setstartupdisk /System/Library/CoreServices

Show All Attached Disks and Partitions

diskutil list

View File System Usage

A continuous stream of file system access info.

sh
sudo fs_usage

APFS

Present since macOS 10.13 (High Sierra). There is no central utility and usage is inconsistent as most functionality is rolled into

tmutil
.

Convert Volume from HFS+ to APFS

/System/Library/Filesystems/apfs.fs/Contents/Resources/hfs_convert /path/to/file/system

Create New APFS Filesystem

/System/Library/Filesystems/apfs.fs/Contents/Resources/newfs_apfs /path/to/device

Create Snapshot

tmutil localsnapshot

Delete Snapshot

tmutil deletelocalsnapshots com.apple.TimeMachine.2018-01-26-044042

List Snapshots

tmutil listlocalsnapshots /

Mount Snapshot

Snapshots are read-only.

sh
mkdir ~/mnt
/System/Library/Filesystems/apfs.fs/Contents/Resources/mount_apfs -s com.apple.TimeMachine.2018-01-26-044042 / ~/mnt

Disk Images

Create Disk Image From Folder Contents

hdiutil create -volname "Volume Name" -srcfolder /path/to/folder -ov diskimage.dmg

If you'd like to encrypt the disk image:

sh
hdiutil create -encryption -stdinpass -volname "Volume Name" -srcfolder /path/to/folder -ov encrypted.dmg

By default, you'll be prompted for a password. You can automate that by piping in a password:

sh
echo -n YourPassword | hdiutil create -encryption -stdinpass -volname "Volume Name" -srcfolder /path/to/folder -ov encrypted.dmg

Burn Disk Images to DVD

This command applies to .iso, .img and .dmg images.

sh
hdiutil burn /path/to/image_file

Create Temporary High-Performance Disk

The disk is backed by physical RAM and will be several times faster than an SSD. The contents of the disk cannot be recovered after it has been ejected. The example below is for a 500 MiB RAM disk, adjust as needed. ```sh

Up to macOS 10.14 (Mojave)

let DISKSIZE=500*2048 && \ diskutil erasevolume HFS+ "RAM Disk"

hdiutil attach -nomount ram://$DISKSIZE

From macOS 10.15 (Catalina) on

let "DISKSIZE = 500*2048" && \ diskutil erasevolume HFS+ "RAM Disk"

hdiutil attach -nomount ram://$DISKSIZE
```

Disable Disk Image Verification

defaults write com.apple.frameworks.diskimages skip-verify -bool true && \
defaults write com.apple.frameworks.diskimages skip-verify-locked -bool true && \
defaults write com.apple.frameworks.diskimages skip-verify-remote -bool true

Make Volume OS X Bootable

bless --folder "/path/to/mounted/volume/System/Library/CoreServices" --bootinfo --bootefi

Mount Disk Image

hdiutil attach /path/to/diskimage.dmg

Unmount Disk Image

hdiutil detach /dev/disk2s1

Write Disk Image to Volume

Like the Disk Utility "Restore" function.

sh
sudo asr -restore -noverify -source /path/to/diskimage.dmg -target /Volumes/VolumeToRestoreTo

Finder

Desktop

Show External Media

External HDs, thumb drives, etc. ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowExternalHardDrivesOnDesktop -bool true && \ killall Finder

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowExternalHardDrivesOnDesktop -bool false && \ killall Finder ```

Show Internal Media

Built-in HDs or SSDs. ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowHardDrivesOnDesktop -bool true && \ killall Finder

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowHardDrivesOnDesktop -bool false && \ killall Finder ```

Show Removable Media

CDs, DVDs, iPods, etc. ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowRemovableMediaOnDesktop -bool true && \ killall Finder

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowRemovableMediaOnDesktop -bool false && \ killall Finder ```

Show Network Volumes

AFP, SMB, NFS, WebDAV, etc. ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowMountedServersOnDesktop -bool true && \ killall Finder

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowMountedServersOnDesktop -bool false && \ killall Finder ```

Files and Folders

Clear All ACLs

sudo chmod -RN /path/to/folder

Increase Number of Recent Places

defaults write -g NSNavRecentPlacesLimit -int 10 && \
killall Finder

Show All File Extensions

defaults write -g AppleShowAllExtensions -bool true

Set Protected Flag

This is equivalent to Finder "Locked" status. ```sh

Disable (Default)

sudo chflags -R nouchg /path/to/file/or/folder

Enable

sudo chflags -R uchg /path/to/file/or/folder ```

Show Hidden Files

# Show All
defaults write com.apple.finder AppleShowAllFiles true

Restore Default File Visibility

defaults write com.apple.finder AppleShowAllFiles false

Show Full Path in Finder Title

defaults write com.apple.finder _FXShowPosixPathInTitle -bool true

Toggle Folder Visibility in Finder

By default, the

~/Library
folder is hidden. You can easily show it again. The same method works with all other folders. ```sh

Hidden (Default)

chflags hidden ~/Library

Visible

chflags nohidden ~/Library ```

Layout

Show "Quit Finder" Menu Item

Makes possible to see Finder menu item "Quit Finder" with default shortcut Cmd + Q ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.apple.finder QuitMenuItem -bool true && \ killall Finder

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder QuitMenuItem -bool false && \ killall Finder ```

Smooth Scrolling

Useful if you’re on an older Mac that messes up the animation. ```sh

Disable

defaults write -g NSScrollAnimationEnabled -bool false

Enable (Default)

defaults write -g NSScrollAnimationEnabled -bool true ```

Rubberband Scrolling

# Disable
defaults write -g NSScrollViewRubberbanding -bool false

Enable (Default)

defaults write -g NSScrollViewRubberbanding -bool true

Expand Save Panel by Default

defaults write -g NSNavPanelExpandedStateForSaveMode -bool true && \
defaults write -g NSNavPanelExpandedStateForSaveMode2 -bool true

Desktop Icon Visibility

# Hide Icons
defaults write com.apple.finder CreateDesktop -bool false && \
killall Finder

Show Icons (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder CreateDesktop -bool true &&
killall Finder

Path Bar

# Show
defaults write com.apple.finder ShowPathbar -bool true

Hide (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowPathbar -bool false

Scrollbar Visibility

Possible values:

WhenScrolling
,
Automatic
and
Always
.
sh
defaults write -g AppleShowScrollBars -string "Always"

Status Bar

# Show
defaults write com.apple.finder ShowStatusBar -bool true

Hide (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowStatusBar -bool false

Save to Disk by Default

Sets default save target to be a local disk, not iCloud.

sh
defaults write -g NSDocumentSaveNewDocumentsToCloud -bool false

Set Current Folder as Default Search Scope

defaults write com.apple.finder FXDefaultSearchScope -string "SCcf"

Set Default Finder Location to Home Folder

defaults write com.apple.finder NewWindowTarget -string "PfLo" && \
defaults write com.apple.finder NewWindowTargetPath -string "file://${HOME}"

Set Sidebar Icon Size

Sets size to 'medium'.

sh
defaults write -g NSTableViewDefaultSizeMode -int 2

Metadata Files

Disable Creation of Metadata Files on Network Volumes

Avoids creation of

.DS_Store
and AppleDouble files.
sh
defaults write com.apple.desktopservices DSDontWriteNetworkStores -bool true

Disable Creation of Metadata Files on USB Volumes

Avoids creation of

.DS_Store
and AppleDouble files.
sh
defaults write com.apple.desktopservices DSDontWriteUSBStores -bool true

Opening Things

Change Working Directory to Finder Path

If multiple windows are open, it chooses the top-most one.

sh
cd "$(osascript -e 'tell app "Finder" to POSIX path of (insertion location as alias)')"

Open URL

open https://github.com

Open File

open README.md

Open Applications

You can open applications using

-a
.
sh
open -a "Google Chrome" https://github.com

Open Folder

open /path/to/folder/

Open Current Folder

open .

Fonts

Clear Font Cache for Current User

To clear font caches for all users, put

sudo
in front of these commands.
sh
atsutil databases -removeUser && \
atsutil server -shutdown && \
atsutil server -ping

Get SF Mono Fonts

Starting in macOS 10.15 (Catalina), the Utilities apps (including Terminal.app) are now found in the

/System
folder.
sh
cp -v /Applications/Xcode-beta.app/Contents/SharedFrameworks/DVTKit.framework/Versions/A/Resources/Fonts/SFMono-* ~/Library/Fonts

From macOS 10.12 (Sierra) on, they are included in Terminal.app.

sh
cp -v /Applications/Utilities/Terminal.app/Contents/Resources/Fonts/SFMono-* ~/Library/Fonts

In older OS versions, you need to download and install Xcode 8 beta for this to work. Afterwards they should be available in all applications.

sh
cp -v /System/Applications/Utilities/Terminal.app/Contents/Resources/Fonts/SFMono-* ~/Library/Fonts

Functions

Please see this file.

Hardware

Bluetooth

Up to OS X 10.12 (Sierra) the Bluetooth daemon is named

blued
instead of
bluetoothd
. You need to adjust the
killall
command accordingly.
# Status
defaults read /Library/Preferences/com.apple.Bluetooth ControllerPowerState

Enable (Default)

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.Bluetooth ControllerPowerState -int 1

Disable

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.Bluetooth ControllerPowerState -int 0 &&
sudo killall -HUP bluetoothd

Harddisks

Force Trim

Enable Trim for non-Apple SSDs. This command is present since OS X 10.10 (Yosemite).

sh
trimforce

Hardware Information

List All Hardware Ports

networksetup -listallhardwareports

Remaining Battery Percentage

pmset -g batt | egrep "([0-9]+\%).*" -o --colour=auto | cut -f1 -d';'

Remaining Battery Time

pmset -g batt | egrep "([0-9]+\%).*" -o --colour=auto | cut -f3 -d';'

Show Connected Device's UDID

system_profiler SPUSBDataType | sed -n -e '/iPad/,/Serial/p' -e '/iPhone/,/Serial/p'

Show Current Screen Resolution

system_profiler SPDisplaysDataType | grep Resolution

Show CPU Brand String

sysctl -n machdep.cpu.brand_string

Infrared Receiver

# Status
defaults read /Library/Preferences/com.apple.driver.AppleIRController DeviceEnabled

Enable (Default)

defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.driver.AppleIRController DeviceEnabled -int 1

Disable

defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.driver.AppleIRController DeviceEnabled -int 0

Power Management

Prevent System Sleep

Prevent sleep for 1 hour:

sh
caffeinate -u -t 3600

Show All Power Management Settings

sudo pmset -g

Put Display to Sleep after 15 Minutes of Inactivity

sudo pmset displaysleep 15

Put Computer to Sleep after 30 Minutes of Inactivity

sudo pmset sleep 30

Check System Sleep Idle Time

sudo systemsetup -getcomputersleep

Set System Sleep Idle Time to 60 Minutes

sudo systemsetup -setcomputersleep 60

Turn Off System Sleep Completely

sudo systemsetup -setcomputersleep Never

Automatic Restart on System Freeze

sudo systemsetup -setrestartfreeze on

Chime When Charging

Play iOS charging sound when MagSafe is connected. ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.apple.PowerChime ChimeOnAllHardware -bool true && \ open /System/Library/CoreServices/PowerChime.app

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.PowerChime ChimeOnAllHardware -bool false && \ killall PowerChime ```

Input Devices

Keyboard

Auto-Correct

# Disable
defaults write -g NSAutomaticSpellingCorrectionEnabled -bool false

Enable (Default)

defaults write -g NSAutomaticSpellingCorrectionEnabled -bool true

Show Status

defaults read -g NSAutomaticSpellingCorrectionEnabled

Full Keyboard Access

Enable Tab in modal dialogs. ```sh

Text boxes and lists only (Default)

defaults write NSGlobalDomain AppleKeyboardUIMode -int 0

All controls

defaults write NSGlobalDomain AppleKeyboardUIMode -int 3 ```

Key Repeat

Change the "press and hold" behavior. ```sh

Enable

defaults write -g ApplePressAndHoldEnabled -bool false

Disable (Default)

defaults write -g ApplePressAndHoldEnabled -bool true ```

Key Repeat Rate

Sets a very fast repeat rate, adjust to taste.

sh
defaults write -g KeyRepeat -int 0.02

Launchpad

Reset Launchpad Layout

You need to restart

Dock
because Launchpad is tied to it. ```sh

Up to OS X 10.10 (Yosemite)

rm ~/Library/Application\ Support/Dock/*.db && \ killall Dock

From OS X 10.11 (El Capitan)

defaults write com.apple.dock ResetLaunchPad -bool true && \ killall Dock ```

Media

Audio

Convert Audio File to iPhone Ringtone

afconvert input.mp3 ringtone.m4r -f m4af

Create Audiobook From Text

Uses "Alex" voice, a plain UTF-8 encoded text file for input and AAC output.

sh
say -v Alex -f file.txt -o "output.m4a"

Disable Sound Effects on Boot

sudo nvram SystemAudioVolume=" "

Mute Audio Output

osascript -e 'set volume output muted true'

Set Audio Volume

osascript -e 'set volume 4'

Play Audio File

You can play all audio formats that are natively supported by QuickTime.

sh
afplay -q 1 filename.mp3

Speak Text with System Default Voice

say 'All your base are belong to us!'

Startup Chime

Older Macs: ```sh

Enable (Default)

sudo nvram BootAudio=%01

Disable

sudo nvram BootAudio=%00 ```

From 2016 models on: ```sh

Enable

sudo nvram StartupMute=%00

Disable (Default)

sudo nvram StartupMute=%01 ```

Video

Auto-Play Videos in QuickTime Player

defaults write com.apple.QuickTimePlayerX MGPlayMovieOnOpen 1

Networking

Bonjour

Bonjour Service

# Disable
sudo defaults write /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.mDNSResponder.plist ProgramArguments -array-add "-NoMulticastAdvertisements"

Enable (Default)

sudo defaults write /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.mDNSResponder.plist ProgramArguments -array "/usr/sbin/mDNSResponder" "-launchd"

DHCP

Renew DHCP Lease

sudo ipconfig set en0 DHCP

Show DHCP Info

ipconfig getpacket en0

DNS

Clear DNS Cache

sudo dscacheutil -flushcache && \
sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder

Hostname

Set Computer Name/Host Name

sudo scutil --set ComputerName "newhostname" && \
sudo scutil --set HostName "newhostname" && \
sudo scutil --set LocalHostName "newhostname" && \
sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.smb.server NetBIOSName -string "newhostname"

Network Preferences

Network Locations

Switch between network locations created in the Network preference pane. ```sh

Status

scselect

Switch Network Location

scselect LocationNameFromStatus ```

Set Static IP Address

networksetup -setmanual "Ethernet" 192.168.2.100 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.1

Networking Tools

Ping a Host to See Whether It’s Available

ping -o github.com

Troubleshoot Routing Problems

traceroute github.com

SSH

Permanently Add Private Key Passphrase to SSH Agent

Prior to macOS 10.12 (Sierra), ssh would present a dialog asking for your passphrase and would offer the option to store it into the keychain. This UI was deprecated some time ago and has been removed.

Instead, a new UseKeychain option was introduced in macOS 10.12 (Sierra) allowing users to specify whether they would like for the passphrase to be stored in the keychain. This option was enabled by default on macOS 10.12 (Sierra), which caused all passphrases to be stored in the keychain.

This was not the intended default behavior, so this has been changed in macOS 10.12.2. (Source)

sh
ssh-add -K /path/to/private_key
Then add to
~/.ssh/config
:
sh
Host server.example.com
    IdentityFile /path/to/private_key
    UseKeychain yes

Remote Login

# Enable
sudo launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/ssh.plist

Disable (Default)

sudo launchctl unload -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/ssh.plist

TCP/IP

Show Application Using a Certain Port

This outputs all applications currently using port 80.

sh
sudo lsof -i :80

Show External IP Address

Works if your ISP doesn't replace DNS requests (which it shouldn't).

sh
dig +short myip.opendns.com @resolver1.opendns.com
Alternative that works on all networks.
sh
curl -s https://api.ipify.org && echo

Show Network Interface Information

Undocumented flag of the

scutil
command.
sh
scutil --nwi

TFTP

Start Native TFTP Daemon

Files will be served from

/private/tftpboot
.
sh
sudo launchctl load -F /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/tftp.plist && \
sudo launchctl start com.apple.tftpd

Wi-Fi

Join a Wi-Fi Network

networksetup -setairportnetwork en0 WIFI_SSID WIFI_PASSWORD

Scan Available Access Points

Create a symbolic link to the airport command for easy access:

sh
sudo ln -s /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/Current/Resources/airport /usr/local/bin/airport
Run a wireless scan:
sh
airport -s

Show Current SSID

/System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/Current/Resources/airport -I | awk '/ SSID/ {print substr($0, index($0, $2))}'

Show Local IP Address

ipconfig getifaddr en0

Show Wi-Fi Connection History

defaults read /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.airport.preferences | grep LastConnected -A 7

Show Wi-Fi Network Passwords

Exchange SSID with the SSID of the access point you wish to query the password from.

sh
security find-generic-password -D "AirPort network password" -a "SSID" -gw

Turn on Wi-Fi Adapter

networksetup -setairportpower en0 on

Package Managers

  • Fink - The full world of Unix Open Source software for Darwin. A little outdated.
  • Homebrew - The missing package manager for OS X. The most popular choice.
  • MacPorts - Compile, install and upgrade either command-line, X11 or Aqua based open-source software.

Homebrew

Full Uninstall

ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/uninstall)"

Printing

Clear Print Queue

cancel -a -

Expand Print Panel by Default

defaults write -g PMPrintingExpandedStateForPrint -bool true && \
defaults write -g PMPrintingExpandedStateForPrint2 -bool true

Quit Printer App After Print Jobs Complete

defaults write com.apple.print.PrintingPrefs "Quit When Finished" -bool true

Security

Application Firewall

Firewall Service

# Show Status
sudo /usr/libexec/ApplicationFirewall/socketfilterfw --getglobalstate

Enable

sudo /usr/libexec/ApplicationFirewall/socketfilterfw --setglobalstate on

Disable (Default)

sudo /usr/libexec/ApplicationFirewall/socketfilterfw --setglobalstate off

Add Application to Firewall

sudo /usr/libexec/ApplicationFirewall/socketfilterfw --add /path/to/file

Gatekeeper

Add Gatekeeper Exception

spctl --add /path/to/Application.app

Remove Gatekeeper Exception

spctl --remove /path/to/Application.app

Manage Gatekeeper

Especially helpful with the annoying macOS 10.15 (Catalina) system popup blocking execution of non-signed apps. ```sh

Status

spctl --status

Enable (Default)

sudo spctl --master-enable

Disable

sudo spctl --master-disable ```

Passwords

Generate Secure Password and Copy to Clipboard

LC_ALL=C tr -dc "[:alnum:]" < /dev/urandom | head -c 20 | pbcopy

Physical Access

Launch Screen Saver

# Up to macOS 10.12 (Sierra)
open /System/Library/Frameworks/ScreenSaver.framework/Versions/A/Resources/ScreenSaverEngine.app

From macOS 10.13 (High Sierra)

/System/Library/CoreServices/ScreenSaverEngine.app/Contents/MacOS/ScreenSaverEngine

Lock Screen

/System/Library/CoreServices/Menu\ Extras/User.menu/Contents/Resources/CGSession -suspend

Screensaver Immediate Lock

# Status
defaults read com.apple.screensaver askForPasswordDelay

Enable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.screensaver askForPasswordDelay -int 0

Disable (Integer = lock delay in seconds)

defaults write com.apple.screensaver askForPasswordDelay -int 10

Screensaver Password

# Status
defaults read com.apple.screensaver askForPassword

Enable

defaults write com.apple.screensaver askForPassword -int 1

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.screensaver askForPassword -int 0

Privacy Database

The

tccutil
command manages the privacy database, which stores decisions the user has made about whether apps may access personal data. You need to close all applications except Terminal before running any of these commands.
# Full Reset for All Applications
sudo tccutil reset All

Reset Adress Book Access

sudo tccutil reset AddressBook

Reset All Permission for Terminal.app

sudo tccutil reset All com.apple.Terminal

Wiping Data

Note: The

srm
command appears to have been removed on MacOS after 10.9. There is a note on an Apple support page hinting as to why:

With an SSD drive, Secure Erase and Erasing Free Space are not available in Disk Utility. These options are not needed for an SSD drive because a standard erase makes it difficult to recover data from an SSD.

Securely Remove File

srm /path/to/file

Securely Remove Folder

srm -r /path/to/folder/

Securely Remove Path (Force)

srm -rf /path/to/complete/destruction

Search

Find

Recursively Delete .DS_Store Files

find . -type f -name '.DS_Store' -ls -delete

Locate

Build Locate Database

sudo launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.locate.plist

Search via Locate

The

-i
modifier makes the search case insensitive.
sh
locate -i *.jpg

System

AirDrop

AirDrop over Ethernet on Unsupported Macs

# Enable
defaults write com.apple.NetworkBrowser BrowseAllInterfaces -bool true && \
defaults remove com.apple.NetworkBrowser DisableAirDrop

Disable (Default)

defaults delete com.apple.NetworkBrowser BrowseAllInterfaces &&
defaults write com.apple.NetworkBrowser DisableAirDrop -bool YES

AppleScript

Execute AppleScript

osascript /path/to/script.scpt

Basics

Compare Two Folders

diff -qr /path/to/folder1 /path/to/folder2

Copy Large File with Progress

Make sure you have

pv
installed and replace
/dev/rdisk2
with the appropriate write device or file.
sh
FILE=/path/to/file.iso pv -s $(du -h $FILE | awk '/.*/ {print $1}') $FILE | sudo dd of=/dev/rdisk2 bs=1m

Restore Sane Shell

In case your shell session went insane (some script or application turned it into a garbled mess).

sh
stty sane

Restart

sudo reboot

Shutdown

sudo poweroff

Show Build Number of OS

sw_vers

Uptime

How long since your last restart.

sh
uptime

Clipboard

Copy data to Clipboard

cat whatever.txt | pbcopy

Convert Clipboard to Plain Text

pbpaste | textutil -convert txt -stdin -stdout -encoding 30 | pbcopy

Convert Tabs to Spaces for Clipboard Content

pbpaste | expand | pbcopy

Copy data from Clipboard

pbpaste > whatever.txt

Sort and Strip Duplicate Lines from Clipboard Content

pbpaste | sort | uniq | pbcopy

FileVault

Automatically Unlock FileVault on Restart

If FileVault is enabled on the current volume, it restarts the system, bypassing the initial unlock. The command may not work on all systems.

sh
sudo fdesetup authrestart

FileVault Service

# Status
sudo fdesetup status

Enable

sudo fdesetup enable

Disable (Default)

sudo fdesetup disable

Information/Reports

Generate Advanced System and Performance Report

sudo sysdiagnose -f ~/Desktop/

Installation

Create Bootable Installer

# macOS 10.15 (Catalina)
sudo /Applications/Install\ macOS\ Catalina.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/USB --nointeraction --downloadassets

macOS 10.14 (Mojave)

sudo /Applications/Install\ macOS\ Mojave.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/USB --nointeraction --downloadassets

macOS 10.13 (High Sierra)

sudo /Applications/Install\ macOS\ High\ Sierra.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/USB --applicationpath /Applications/Install\ macOS\ High\ Sierra.app

macOS 10.12 (Sierra)

sudo /Applications/Install\ macOS\ Sierra.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/USB --applicationpath /Applications/Install\ macOS\ Sierra.app

OS X 10.11 (El Capitan)

sudo /Applications/Install\ OS\ X\ El\ Capitan.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/USB --applicationpath /Applications/Install\ OS\ X\ El\ Capitan.app

OS X 10.10 (Yosemite)

sudo /Applications/Install\ OS\ X\ Yosemite.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/USB --applicationpath /Applications/Install\ OS\ X\ Yosemite.app

  • For confirmation before erasing the drive, remove
    –-nointeraction
    from the command.
  • The optional
    –-downloadassets
    flag is new in macOS 10.14 (Mojave). It downloads assets which may be required during installation, like updates.
  • The
    –-applicationpath
    flag is deprecated since macOS 10.14 (Mojave) and will throw an error if used.

Download Older OS Versions

Version

Codename Download
Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah n/a
Mac OS X 10.1 Puma n/a
Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar n/a
Mac OS X 10.3 Panther n/a
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger n/a
Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard n/a
Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard n/a
Mac OS X 10.7 Lion n/a
OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion n/a
OS X 10.9 Mavericks n/a
OS X 10.10 Yosemite Direct Download
OS X 10.11 El Capitan Direct Download
macOS 10.12 Sierra Direct Download
macOS 10.13 High Sierra App Store
macOS 10.14 Mojave App Store
macOS 10.15 Catalina App Store

Kernel Extensions

Display Status of Loaded Kernel Extensions

sudo kextstat -l

Load Kernel Extension

sudo kextload -b com.apple.driver.ExampleBundle

Unload Kernel Extensions

sudo kextunload -b com.apple.driver.ExampleBundle

LaunchAgents

Please see this file.

LaunchServices

Rebuild LaunchServices Database

To be independent of OS X version, this relies on

locate
to find
lsregister
. If you do not have your
locate
database built yet, do it.
sh
sudo $(locate lsregister) -kill -seed -r

Login Window

Set Login Window Text

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.loginwindow LoginwindowText "Your text"

Memory Management

Purge memory cache

sudo purge

Show Memory Statistics

# One time
vm_stat

Table of data, repeat 10 times total, 1 second wait between each poll

vm_stat -c 10 1

Notification Center

Notification Center Service

# Disable
launchctl unload -w /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.notificationcenterui.plist && \
killall -9 NotificationCenter

Enable (Default)

launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.notificationcenterui.plist

QuickLook

Preview via QuickLook

qlmanage -p /path/to/file

Remote Management

See also: Apple Remote Desktop.

Prevent Double Password Entry

When logging into a Mac remotely via Apple Remote Desktop or VNC, you are sometimes required to enter your password a second time after connecting to the Mac. While you can disable this behavior, it is explicitly not recommend to turn this functionality off unless you are certain that no one else will be able to access your Mac physically when you are away. ```sh

Disable

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.RemoteManagement.plist RestoreMachineState -bool no

Enable (Default)

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.RemoteManagement.plist RestoreMachineState -bool yes ```

Remote Apple Events

# Status
sudo systemsetup -getremoteappleevents

Enable

sudo systemsetup -setremoteappleevents on

Disable (Default)

sudo systemsetup -setremoteappleevents off

Root User

# Enable
dsenableroot

Disable (Default)

dsenableroot -d

Safe Mode Boot

# Status
nvram boot-args

Enable

sudo nvram boot-args="-x"

Disable (Default)

sudo nvram boot-args=""

Save Dialogs

Significantly improve the now rather slow animation in save dialogs.

defaults write NSGlobalDomain NSWindowResizeTime .001

Screenshots

Take Delayed Screenshot

Takes a screenshot as JPEG after 3 seconds and displays in Preview.

sh
screencapture -T 3 -t jpg -P delayedpic.jpg

Save Screenshots to Given Location

Sets location to

~/Desktop
.
sh
defaults write com.apple.screencapture location ~/Desktop && \
killall SystemUIServer

Save Screenshots in Given Format

Sets format to

png
. Other options are
bmp
,
gif
,
jpg
,
jpeg
,
pdf
,
tiff
.
sh
defaults write com.apple.screencapture type -string "png"

Disable Shadow in Screenshots

defaults write com.apple.screencapture disable-shadow -bool true && \
killall SystemUIServer

Set Default Screenshot Name

Date and time remain unchanged.

sh
defaults write com.apple.screencapture name "Example name" && \
killall SystemUIServer

Software Installation

Install PKG

installer -pkg /path/to/installer.pkg -target /

Sidecar

Use on Incompatible Macs

This may or may not work, depending on the age of the machine. ```sh

Enable

defaults write com.apple.sidecar.display AllowAllDevices -bool true && \ defaults write com.apple.sidecar.display hasShownPref -bool true

Disable (Default)

defaults delete com.apple.sidecar.display ```

Software Update

Ignore Specific Software Update

The identifier can be found via

softwareupdate --list
. In the example below, being on macOS 10.14 (Mojave), will ignore all update prompts to macOS 10.15 (Catalina), since the latter removes 32-bit support.
sh
sudo /usr/sbin/softwareupdate --ignore "macOS Catalina"

Install All Available Software Updates

sudo softwareupdate -ia

Set Software Update Check Interval

Set to check daily instead of weekly.

sh
defaults write com.apple.SoftwareUpdate ScheduleFrequency -int 1

Show Available Software Updates

sudo softwareupdate --list

Set Software Update Server

This should only be done for testing purposes or unmanaged clients. To use network-wide, either correctly set up DNS along with Apple SUS service and bind your clients via OpenDirectory. Alternatively, use Reposado together with correct network DNS settings to make resolution transparent. Margarita looks nice to have as well. ```sh

Use own SUS

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.SoftwareUpdate CatalogURL http://su.example.com:8088/index.sucatalog

Reset to Apple SUS

sudo defaults delete /Library/Preferences/com.apple.SoftwareUpdate CatalogURL ```

Software Version

Show System Software Version

There are several ways to obtain different levels of detail.

sh
sw_vers -productVersion
sh
system_profiler SPSoftwareDataType
sh
defaults read loginwindow SystemVersionStampAsString

Spotlight

Spotlight Indexing

# Disable
mdutil -i off -d /path/to/volume

Enable (Default)

mdutil -i on /path/to/volume

Erase Spotlight Index and Rebuild

mdutil -E /path/to/volume

Search via Spotlight

mdfind -name 'searchterm'

Show Spotlight Indexed Metadata

mdls /path/to/file

System Integrity Protection

Reboot while holding Cmd + R and open the Terminal application. You will need to

reboot
for the commands to take effect.
# Status
csrutil status

Enable (Default)

csrutil enable

Disable

csrutil disable

Date and Time

List Available Timezones

sudo systemsetup -listtimezones

Set Timezone

sudo systemsetup -settimezone Europe/Berlin

Set Clock Using Network Time

# Status
sudo systemsetup getusingnetworktime

Enable (Default)

sudo systemsetup setusingnetworktime on

Disable

sudo systemsetup setusingnetworktime off

Set Menu Bar Clock Output Format

# System Preferences > Date & Time > Time options
# Analogue
sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock IsAnalog -bool true
# Digital (Default)
sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock IsAnalog -bool false

System Preferences > Date & Time > Flash the time separators

Enable

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock FlashDateSeparators -bool true

Disable (Default)

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock FlashDateSeparators -bool false

Thu 18 Aug 23:46:18

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Checked [HH:mm]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE d MMM HH:mm:ss"

Thu 23:46:18

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Checked [HH:mm]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE HH:mm:ss"

18 Aug 23:46:18

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Checked [HH:mm]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "d MMM HH:mm:ss"

23:46:18

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Checked [HH:mm]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "HH:mm:ss"

Thu 18 Aug 11:46:18 pm

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Checked [a]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE d MMM h:mm:ss a"

Thu 11:46:18 pm

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Checked [a]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE h:mm:ss a"

18 Aug 11:46:18 pm

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Checked [a]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "d MMM h:mm:ss a"

11:46:18 pm

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Checked [a]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "h:mm:ss a"

Thu 18 Aug 11:46:18

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE d MMM h:mm:ss"

Thu 11:46:18

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE h:mm:ss"

18 Aug 11:46:18

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "d MMM h:mm:ss"

11:46:18

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Checked [:ss]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "h:mm:ss"

Thu 18 Aug 23:46

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Checked [HH:mm]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE d MMM HH:mm"

Thu 23:46

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Checked [HH:mm]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE HH:mm"

18 Aug 23:46

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Checked [HH:mm]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "d MMM HH:mm"

23:46

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Checked [HH:mm]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "HH:mm"

Thu 18 Aug 11:46 pm

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Checked [a]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE d MMM h:mm a"

Thu 11:46 pm

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Checked [a]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE h:mm a"

18 Aug 11:46 pm

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Checked [a]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "d MMM h:mm a"

11:46 pm

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Checked [a]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "h:mm a"

Thu 18 Aug 11:46

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE d MMM h:mm"

Thu 11:46

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Checked [EEE]

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "EEE h:mm"

18 Aug 11:46

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Checked [d MMM]

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "d MMM h:mm"

11:46

System Preferences > Date & Time > Display time with seconds - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Use a 24-hour clock - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show AM/PM - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show the day of the week - Unchecked

System Preferences > Date & Time > Show date - Unchecked

sudo defaults write com.apple.menuextra.clock DateFormat -string "h:mm"

Apply changes immediately

sudo killall SystemUIServer

(Source)

Terminal

Ring Terminal Bell

Rings the terminal bell (if enabled) and puts a badge on it.

sh
tput bel

Alternative Terminals

  • Alacritty - Cross-platform, GPU-accelerated terminal emulator.
  • iTerm2 - A better Terminal.app.
  • kitty - Modern, GPU-accelerated terminal emulator.

Shells

Bash

Install the latest version and set as current user's default shell:

sh
brew install bash && \
echo $(brew --prefix)/bin/bash | sudo tee -a /etc/shells && \
chsh -s $(brew --prefix)/bin/bash
  • Homepage - The default shell for OS X and most other Unix-based operating systems.
  • Bash-it - Community Bash framework, like Oh My Zsh for Bash.

fish

Install the latest version and set as current user's default shell:

sh
brew install fish && \
echo $(brew --prefix)/bin/fish | sudo tee -a /etc/shells && \
chsh -s $(brew --prefix)/bin/fish
  • Homepage - A smart and user-friendly command line shell for OS X, Linux, and the rest of the family.
  • The Fishshell Framework - Provides core infrastructure to allow you to install packages which extend or modify the look of your shell.
  • Installation & Configuration Tutorial - How to Setup Fish Shell with Fisherman, Powerline Fonts, iTerm2 and Budspencer Theme on OS X.

Zsh

Install the latest version and set as current user's default shell:

sh
brew install zsh && \
sudo sh -c 'echo $(brew --prefix)/bin/zsh >> /etc/shells' && \
chsh -s $(brew --prefix)/bin/zsh
  • Homepage - Zsh is a shell designed for interactive use, although it is also a powerful scripting language.
  • Oh My Zsh - An open source, community-driven framework for managing your Zsh configuration.
  • Prezto - A speedy Zsh framework. Enriches the command line interface environment with sane defaults, aliases, functions, auto completion, and prompt themes.
  • zgen - Another open source framework for managing your zsh configuration. Zgen will load oh-my-zsh compatible plugins and themes and has the advantage of both being faster and automatically cloning any plugins used in your configuration for you.

Terminal Fonts

  • Anonymous Pro - A family of four fixed-width fonts designed with coding in mind.
  • Codeface - A gallery and repository of monospaced fonts for developers.
  • DejaVu Sans Mono - A font family based on the Vera Fonts.
  • Fantasque Sans Mono - Designed with functionality in mind, and with some wibbly-wobbly handwriting-like fuzziness that makes it unassumingly cool.
  • Hack - Hack is hand groomed and optically balanced to be your go-to code face.
  • Inconsolata - A monospace font, designed for code listings and the like.
  • Input - A flexible system of fonts designed specifically for code.
  • Meslo - Customized version of Apple's Menlo font.
  • Operator Mono - A surprisingly usable alternative take on a monospace font (commercial).
  • Powerline Fonts - Repo of patched fonts for the Powerline plugin.
  • Source Code Pro - A monospaced font family for user interfaces and coding environments.

Glossary

Mac OS X, OS X, and macOS Version Information

Version

Codename Release Date Most Recent Version
Rhapsody Developer Release Grail1Z4 / Titan1U August 31, 1997 DR2 (May 14, 1998)
Mac OS X Server 1.0 Hera March 16, 1999 1.2v3 (October 27, 2000)
Mac OS X Developer Preview n/a March 16, 1999 DP4 (April 5, 2000)
Mac OS X Public Beta Kodiak September 13, 2000 n/a
Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah March 24, 2001 10.0.4 (June 22, 2001)
Mac OS X 10.1 Puma September 25, 2001 10.1.5 (June 6, 2002)
Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar August 24, 2002 10.2.8 (October 3, 2003)
Mac OS X 10.3 Panther October 24, 2003 10.3.9 (April 15, 2005)
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger April 29, 2005 10.4.11 (November 14, 2007)
Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard October 26, 2007 10.5.8 (August 5, 2009)
Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard August 28, 2009 10.6.8 v1.1 (July 25, 2011)
Mac OS X 10.7 Lion July 20, 2011 10.7.5 (September 19, 2012)
OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion July 25, 2012 10.8.5 (12F45) (October 3, 2013)
OS X 10.9 Mavericks October 22, 2013 10.9.5 (13F1112) (September 18, 2014)
OS X 10.10 Yosemite October 16, 2014 10.10.5 (14F27) (August 13, 2015)
OS X 10.11 El Capitan September 30, 2015 10.11.6 (15G31) (July 18, 2016)
macOS 10.12 Sierra September 20, 2016 10.12.6 (16G29) (July 19, 2017)
macOS 10.13 High Sierra September 25, 2017 10.13.6 (17G65) (July 9, 2018)
macOS 10.14 Mojave September 24, 2018 10.14.6 (18G3020) (January 28, 2020)
macOS 10.15 Catalina October 7, 2019 10.15.5 (19F101) (June 1, 2020)

License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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