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python-cheatsheet

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Comprehensive Python Cheatsheet

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Comprehensive Python Cheatsheet

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Monty Python

Contents

    1. Collections:  

List
,
Dictionary
,
Set
,
Tuple
,
Range
,
Enumerate
,
Iterator
,
Generator
.
    2. Types:           
Type
,
String
,
Regular_Exp
,
Format
,
Numbers
,
Combinatorics
,
Datetime
.
    3. Syntax:          
Args
,
Inline
,
Closure
,
Decorator
,
Class
,
Duck_Type
,
Enum
,
Exception
.
    4. System:         
Exit
,
Print
,
Input
,
Command_Line_Arguments
,
Open
,
Path
,
OS_Commands
.
    5. Data:              
JSON
,
Pickle
,
CSV
,
SQLite
,
Bytes
,
Struct
,
Array
,
Memory_View
,
Deque
.
    6. Advanced:    
Threading
,
Operator
,
Introspection
,
Metaprograming
,
Eval
,
Coroutines
.
    7. Libraries:       
Progress_Bar
,
Plot
,
Table
,
Curses
,
Logging
,
Scraping
,
Web
,
Profile
,
                                 
NumPy
,
Image
,
Audio
,
Games
,
Data
,
Cython
.

Main

if __name__ == '__main__':     # Runs main() if file wasn't imported.
    main()

List

 = [from_inclusive : to_exclusive : ±step_size]
.append()            # Or:  += []
.extend()    # Or:  += 
.sort()
.reverse()
 = sorted()
 = reversed()
sum_of_elements  = sum()
elementwise_sum  = [sum(pair) for pair in zip(list_a, list_b)]
sorted_by_second = sorted(, key=lambda el: el[1])
sorted_by_both   = sorted(, key=lambda el: (el[1], el[0]))
flatter_list     = list(itertools.chain.from_iterable())
product_of_elems = functools.reduce(lambda out, el: out * el, )
list_of_chars    = list()
  • Module operator provides functions itemgetter() and mul() that offer the same functionality as lambda expressions above.
 = .count()     # Returns number of occurrences. Also works on strings.
index = .index()     # Returns index of first occurrence or raises ValueError.
.insert(index, )     # Inserts item at index and moves the rest to the right.
 = .pop([index])     # Removes and returns item at index or from the end.
.remove()            # Removes first occurrence of item or raises ValueError.
.clear()                 # Removes all items. Also works on dictionary and set.

Dictionary

 = .keys()                          # Coll. of keys that reflects changes.
 = .values()                        # Coll. of values that reflects changes.
 = .items()                         # Coll. of key-value tuples that reflects chgs.
value  = .get(key, default=None)          # Returns default if key is missing.
value  = .setdefault(key, default=None)   # Returns and writes default if key is missing.
 = collections.defaultdict()        # Creates a dict with default value of type.
 = collections.defaultdict(lambda: 1)     # Creates a dict with default value 1.
 = dict()                     # Creates a dict from coll. of key-value pairs.
 = dict(zip(keys, values))                # Creates a dict from two collections.
 = dict.fromkeys(keys [, value])          # Creates a dict from collection of keys.
.update()                           # Adds items. Replaces ones with matching keys.
value = .pop(key)                         # Removes item or raises KeyError.
{k for k, v in .items() if v == value}    # Returns set of keys that point to the value.
{k: v for k, v in .items() if k in keys}  # Returns a dictionary, filtered by keys.

Counter

>>> from collections import Counter
>>> colors = ['blue', 'blue', 'blue', 'red', 'red']
>>> counter = Counter(colors)
>>> counter['yellow'] += 1
Counter({'blue': 3, 'red': 2, 'yellow': 1})
>>> counter.most_common()[0]
('blue', 3)

Set

 = set()
.add()                                 # Or:  |= {}
.update()                      # Or:  |= 
  = .union()                   # Or:  | 
  = .intersection()            # Or:  & 
  = .difference()              # Or:  - 
  = .symmetric_difference()    # Or:  ^ 
 = .issubset()                # Or:  <= 
 = .issuperset()              # Or:  >= 
 = .pop()                              # Raises KeyError if empty.
.remove()                              # Raises KeyError if missing.
.discard()                             # Doesn't raise an error.

Frozen Set

  • Is immutable and hashable.
  • That means it can be used as a key in a dictionary or as an element in a set.
    python
     = frozenset()
    

Tuple

Tuple is an immutable and hashable list.

python
 = ()
 = (, )
 = (,  [, ...])

Named Tuple

Tuple's subclass with named elements.

>>> from collections import namedtuple
>>> Point = namedtuple('Point', 'x y')
>>> p = Point(1, y=2)
Point(x=1, y=2)
>>> p[0]
1
>>> p.x
1
>>> getattr(p, 'y')
2
>>> p._fields  # Or: Point._fields
('x', 'y')

Range

 = range(to_exclusive)
 = range(from_inclusive, to_exclusive)
 = range(from_inclusive, to_exclusive, ±step_size)
from_inclusive = .start
to_exclusive   = .stop

Enumerate

for i, el in enumerate( [, i_start]):
    ...

Iterator

 = iter()                 # `iter()` returns unmodified iterator.
 = iter(, to_exclusive)     # A sequence of return values until 'to_exclusive'.
   = next( [, default])           # Raises StopIteration or returns 'default' on end.
 = list()                       # Returns a list of iterator's remaining elements.

Itertools

from itertools import count, repeat, cycle, chain, islice
 = count(start=0, step=1)             # Returns updated value endlessly. Accepts floats.
 = repeat( [, times])             # Returns element endlessly or 'times' times.
 = cycle()                # Repeats the sequence endlessly.
 = chain(,  [, ...])  # Empties collections in order.
 = chain.from_iterable()  # Empties collections inside a collection in order.
 = islice(, to_exclusive)
 = islice(, from_inclusive, to_exclusive [, +step_size])

Generator

  • Any function that contains a yield statement returns a generator.
  • Generators and iterators are interchangeable.
def count(start, step):
    while True:
        yield start
        start += step
>>> counter = count(10, 2)
>>> next(counter), next(counter), next(counter)
(10, 12, 14)

Type

  • Everything is an object.
  • Every object has a type.
  • Type and class are synonymous.
 = type()                          # Or: .__class__
 = isinstance(, )            # Or: issubclass(type(), )
>>> type('a'), 'a'.__class__, str
(, , )

Some types do not have built-in names, so they must be imported:

from types import FunctionType, MethodType, LambdaType, GeneratorType

Abstract Base Classes

Each abstract base class specifies a set of virtual subclasses. These classes are then recognized by isinstance() and issubclass() as subclasses of the ABC, although they are really not.

>>> from collections.abc import Sequence, Collection, Iterable
>>> isinstance([1, 2, 3], Iterable)
True
+------------------+------------+------------+------------+
|                  |  Sequence  | Collection |  Iterable  |
+------------------+------------+------------+------------+
| list, range, str |    yes     |    yes     |    yes     |
| dict, set        |            |    yes     |    yes     |
| iter             |            |            |    yes     |
+------------------+------------+------------+------------+
>>> from numbers import Integral, Rational, Real, Complex, Number
>>> isinstance(123, Number)
True
+--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
|                    | Integral | Rational |   Real   | Complex  |  Number  |
+--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
| int                |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |
| fractions.Fraction |          |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |
| float              |          |          |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |
| complex            |          |          |          |   yes    |   yes    |
| decimal.Decimal    |          |          |          |          |   yes    |
+--------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+

String

  = .strip()                       # Strips all whitespace characters from both ends.
  = .strip('')              # Strips all passed characters from both ends.
 = .split()                       # Splits on one or more whitespace characters.
 = .split(sep=None, maxsplit=-1)  # Splits on 'sep' str at most 'maxsplit' times.
 = .splitlines(keepends=False)    # Splits on \n,\r,\r\n. Keeps them if 'keepends'.
  = .join()       # Joins elements using string as separator.
 =  in                   # Checks if string contains a substring.
 = .startswith()         # Pass tuple of strings for multiple options.
 = .endswith()           # Pass tuple of strings for multiple options.
  = .find()               # Returns start index of first match or -1.
  = .index()              # Same but raises ValueError if missing.
  = .replace(old, new [, count])   # Replaces 'old' with 'new' at most 'count' times.
  = .translate()            # Use `str.maketrans()` to generate table.
  = chr()                          # Converts int to Unicode char.
  = ord()                          # Converts Unicode char to int.
  • Also:
    'lstrip()'
    ,
    'rstrip()'
    .
  • Also:
    'lower()'
    ,
    'upper()'
    ,
    'capitalize()'
    and
    'title()'
    .

Property Methods

+---------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
|               | [ !#$%…] | [a-zA-Z] |  [¼½¾]   |  [²³¹]   |  [0-9]   |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
| isprintable() |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |
| isalnum()     |          |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |
| isnumeric()   |          |          |   yes    |   yes    |   yes    |
| isdigit()     |          |          |          |   yes    |   yes    |
| isdecimal()   |          |          |          |          |   yes    |
+---------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
  • Also:
    'isspace()'
    checks for
    '[ \t\n\r\f\v…]'
    .

Regex

import re
   = re.sub(, new, text, count=0)  # Substitutes all occurrences with 'new'.
  = re.findall(, text)            # Returns all occurrences as strings.
  = re.split(, text, maxsplit=0)  # Use brackets in regex to include the matches.
 = re.search(, text)             # Searches for first occurrence of the pattern.
 = re.match(, text)              # Searches only at the beginning of the text.
  = re.finditer(, text)           # Returns all occurrences as match objects.
  • Search() and match() return None if they can't find a match.
  • Argument
    'flags=re.IGNORECASE'
    can be used with all functions.
  • Argument
    'flags=re.MULTILINE'
    makes
    '^'
    and
    '$'
    match the start/end of each line.
  • Argument
    'flags=re.DOTALL'
    makes dot also accept the
    '\n'
    .
  • Use
    r'\1'
    or
    '\\1'
    for backreference.
  • Add
    '?'
    after an operator to make it non-greedy.

Match Object

   = .group()                      # Returns the whole match. Also group(0).
   = .group(1)                     # Returns part in the first bracket.
 = .groups()                     # Returns all bracketed parts.
   = .start()                      # Returns start index of the match.
   = .end()                        # Returns exclusive end index of the match.

Special Sequences

  • By default digits, alphanumerics and whitespaces from all alphabets are matched, unless
    'flags=re.ASCII'
    argument is used.
  • Use a capital letter for negation.
    python
    '\d' == '[0-9]'                                # Matches any digit.
    '\w' == '[a-zA-Z0-9_]'                         # Matches any alphanumeric.
    '\s' == '[ \t\n\r\f\v]'                        # Matches any whitespace.
    

Format

 = f'{}, {}'
 = '{}, {}'.format(, )

Attributes

>>> from collections import namedtuple
>>> Person = namedtuple('Person', 'name height')
>>> person = Person('Jean-Luc', 187)
>>> f'{person.height}'
'187'
>>> '{p.height}'.format(p=person)
'187'

General Options

{:<10}                                     # '      '
{:^10}                                     # '      '
{:>10}                                     # '      '
{:.<10}                                    # '......'
{:<0}                                      # ''

Strings

'!r'
calls object's repr() method, instead of str(), to get a string.

python
{'abcde'!r:10}                                 # "'abcde'   "
{'abcde':10.3}                                 # 'abc       '
{'abcde':.3}                                   # 'abc'

Numbers

{ 123456:10,}                                  # '   123,456'
{ 123456:10_}                                  # '   123_456'
{ 123456:+10}                                  # '   +123456'
{-123456:=10}                                  # '-   123456'
{ 123456: }                                    # ' 123456'
{-123456: }                                    # '-123456'

Floats

{1.23456:10.3}                                 # '      1.23'
{1.23456:10.3f}                                # '     1.235'
{1.23456:10.3e}                                # ' 1.235e+00'
{1.23456:10.3%}                                # '  123.456%'

Comparison of presentation types:

+---------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
|               |    {}    |   {:f}   |   {:e}   |   {:%}   |
+---------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
|   0.000056789 |    '5.6789e-05' |     '0.000057'  |  '5.678900e-05' |     '0.005679%' |
|   0.00056789  |    '0.00056789' |     '0.000568'  |  '5.678900e-04' |     '0.056789%' |
|   0.0056789   |    '0.0056789'  |     '0.005679'  |  '5.678900e-03' |     '0.567890%' |
|   0.056789    |    '0.056789'   |     '0.056789'  |  '5.678900e-02' |     '5.678900%' |
|   0.56789     |    '0.56789'    |     '0.567890'  |  '5.678900e-01' |    '56.789000%' |
|   5.6789      |    '5.6789'     |     '5.678900'  |  '5.678900e+00' |   '567.890000%' |
|  56.789       |   '56.789'      |    '56.789000'  |  '5.678900e+01' |  '5678.900000%' |
| 567.89        |  '567.89'       |   '567.890000'  |  '5.678900e+02' | '56789.000000%' |
+---------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
+---------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
|               |   {:.2}  |  {:.2f}  |  {:.2e}  |  {:.2%}  |
+---------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
|   0.000056789 |    '5.7e-05'    |       '0.00'    |    '5.68e-05'   |       '0.01%'   |
|   0.00056789  |    '0.00057'    |       '0.00'    |    '5.68e-04'   |       '0.06%'   |
|   0.0056789   |    '0.0057'     |       '0.01'    |    '5.68e-03'   |       '0.57%'   |
|   0.056789    |    '0.057'      |       '0.06'    |    '5.68e-02'   |       '5.68%'   |
|   0.56789     |    '0.57'       |       '0.57'    |    '5.68e-01'   |      '56.79%'   |
|   5.6789      |    '5.7'        |       '5.68'    |    '5.68e+00'   |     '567.89%'   |
|  56.789       |    '5.7e+01'    |      '56.79'    |    '5.68e+01'   |    '5678.90%'   |
| 567.89        |    '5.7e+02'    |     '567.89'    |    '5.68e+02'   |   '56789.00%'   |
+---------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+

Ints

{90:c}                                   # 'Z'
{90:b}                                   # '1011010'
{90:X}                                   # '5A'

Numbers

Types

      = int()       # Or: math.floor()
    = float()       # Or: e±
  = complex(real=0, imag=0)     # Or:  ± j
 = fractions.Fraction(0, 1)    # Or: Fraction(numerator=0, denominator=1)
  = decimal.Decimal()  # Or: Decimal((sign, digits, exponent))
  • 'int()'
    and
    'float()'
    raise ValueError on malformed strings.
  • Decimal numbers can be represented exactly, unlike floats where
    '1.1 + 2.2 != 3.3'
    .
  • Precision of decimal operations is set with:
    'decimal.getcontext().prec = '
    .

Basic Functions

 = pow(, )                # Or:  ** 
 = abs()                       #  = abs()
 = round( [, ±ndigits])        # `round(126, -1) == 130`

Math

from math import e, pi, inf, nan, isinf, isnan
from math import cos, acos, sin, asin, tan, atan, degrees, radians
from math import log, log10, log2

Statistics

from statistics import mean, median, variance, stdev, pvariance, pstdev

Random

from random import random, randint, choice, shuffle
 = random()
   = randint(from_inclusive, to_inclusive)
    = choice()
shuffle()

Bin, Hex

        = ±0b                  # Or: ±0x
        = int('±', 2)          # Or: int('±', 16)
        = int('±0b', 0)        # Or: int('±0x', 0)
'[-]0b' = bin()                # Or: hex()

Bitwise Operators

        =  &              # And
        =  |              # Or
        =  ^              # Xor (0 if both bits equal)
        =  << n_bits           # Shift left (>> for right)
        = ~                    # Not (also: - - 1)

Combinatorics

  • Every function returns an iterator.
  • If you want to print the iterator, you need to pass it to the list() function first!
from itertools import product, combinations, combinations_with_replacement, permutations
>>> product([0, 1], repeat=3)
[(0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1), (0, 1, 0), (0, 1, 1),
 (1, 0, 0), (1, 0, 1), (1, 1, 0), (1, 1, 1)]
>>> product('ab', '12')
[('a', '1'), ('a', '2'),
 ('b', '1'), ('b', '2')]
>>> combinations('abc', 2)
[('a', 'b'), ('a', 'c'),
 ('b', 'c')]
>>> combinations_with_replacement('abc', 2)
[('a', 'a'), ('a', 'b'), ('a', 'c'),
 ('b', 'b'), ('b', 'c'),
 ('c', 'c')]
>>> permutations('abc', 2)
[('a', 'b'), ('a', 'c'),
 ('b', 'a'), ('b', 'c'),
 ('c', 'a'), ('c', 'b')]

Datetime

  • Module 'datetime' provides 'date'
    , 'time' 
    , 'datetime' 
    
    
    and 'timedelta'
classes. All are immutable and hashable.
  • Time and datetime objects can be 'aware'
    , meaning they have defined timezone, or 'naive'
    , meaning they don't.
  • If object is naive, it is presumed to be in the system's timezone.
  • from datetime import date, time, datetime, timedelta
    from dateutil.tz import UTC, tzlocal, gettz, resolve_imaginary
    

    Constructors

      = date(year, month, day)
      = time(hour=0, minute=0, second=0, microsecond=0, tzinfo=None, fold=0)
    
    = datetime(year, month, day, hour=0, minute=0, second=0, ...)
    = timedelta(days=0, seconds=0, microseconds=0, milliseconds=0, minutes=0, hours=0, weeks=0)
    • Use
      '.weekday()'
      to get the day of the week (Mon == 0).
    • 'fold=1'
      means the second pass in case of time jumping back for one hour.
    • ' = resolve_imaginary()'
      fixes DTs that fall into the missing hour.

    Now

      = D/DT.today()                     # Current local date or naive datetime.
        = DT.utcnow()                      # Naive datetime from current UTC time.
        = DT.now()                 # Aware datetime from current tz time.
    
    • To extract time use
      '.time()'
      ,
      '.time()'
      or
      '.timetz()'
      .

    Timezone

     = UTC                              # UTC timezone. London without DST.
     = tzlocal()                        # Local timezone. Also gettz().
     = gettz('/')      # 'Continent/City_Name' timezone or None.
        = 
    .astimezone() # Datetime, converted to passed timezone. = .replace(tzinfo=) # Unconverted object with new timezone.

    Encode

     = D/T/DT.fromisoformat('')    # Object from ISO string. Raises ValueError.
    
    = DT.strptime(, '') # Datetime from str, according to format. = D/DT.fromordinal() # D/DTn from days since Christ, at midnight. = DT.fromtimestamp() # Local time DTn from seconds since Epoch. = DT.fromtimestamp(, ) # Aware datetime from seconds since Epoch.
    • ISO strings come in following forms:
      'YYYY-MM-DD'
      ,
      'HH:MM:SS.ffffff[±]'
      , or both separated by an arbitrary character. Offset is formatted as:
      'HH:MM'
      .
    • Epoch on Unix systems is:
      '1970-01-01 00:00 UTC'
      ,
      '1970-01-01 01:00 CET'
      , ...

    Decode

        = .isoformat(sep='T')      # Also timespec='auto/hours/minutes/seconds'.
        = .strftime('')    # Custom string representation.
        = .toordinal()               # Days since Christ, ignoring time and tz.
      = .timestamp()                # Seconds since Epoch, from DTn in local tz.
      = .timestamp()                # Seconds since Epoch, from DTa.
    

    Format

    >>> from datetime import datetime
    >>> dt = datetime.strptime('2015-05-14 23:39:00.00 +0200', '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%f %z')
    >>> dt.strftime("%A, %dth of %B '%y, %I:%M%p %Z")
    "Thursday, 14th of May '15, 11:39PM UTC+02:00"
    
    • When parsing,
      '%z'
      also accepts
      '±HH:MM'
      .
    • For abbreviated weekday and month use
      '%a'
      and
      '%b'
      .

    Arithmetics

       =    ± 
    # Returned datetime can fall into missing hour. = - # Returns the difference, ignoring time jumps. = - # Ignores time jumps if they share tzinfo object. = - # Convert DTs to UTC to get the actual delta.

    Arguments

    Inside Function Call

    ()                  # f(0, 0)
    ()                     # f(x=0, y=0)
    (, )  # f(0, y=0)
    

    Inside Function Definition

    def f():                      # def f(x, y):
    def f():                         # def f(x=0, y=0):
    def f(, ):      # def f(x, y=0):
    

    Splat Operator

    Inside Function Call

    Splat expands a collection into positional arguments, while splatty-splat expands a dictionary into keyword arguments.

    python
    args   = (1, 2)
    kwargs = {'x': 3, 'y': 4, 'z': 5}
    func(*args, **kwargs)
    

    Is the same as:

    func(1, 2, x=3, y=4, z=5)
    

    Inside Function Definition

    Splat combines zero or more positional arguments into a tuple, while splatty-splat combines zero or more keyword arguments into a dictionary.

    python
    def add(*a):
        return sum(a)
    
    >>> add(1, 2, 3)
    6
    

    Legal argument combinations:

    def f(x, y, z):                # f(x=1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, 2, z=3) | f(1, 2, 3)
    def f(*, x, y, z):             # f(x=1, y=2, z=3)
    def f(x, *, y, z):             # f(x=1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, y=2, z=3)
    def f(x, y, *, z):             # f(x=1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, 2, z=3)
    
    def f(*args):                  # f(1, 2, 3)
    def f(x, *args):               # f(1, 2, 3)
    def f(*args, z):               # f(1, 2, z=3)
    def f(x, *args, z):            # f(1, 2, z=3)
    
    def f(**kwargs):               # f(x=1, y=2, z=3)
    def f(x, **kwargs):            # f(x=1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, y=2, z=3)
    def f(*, x, **kwargs):         # f(x=1, y=2, z=3)
    
    def f(*args, **kwargs):        # f(x=1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, 2, z=3) | f(1, 2, 3)
    def f(x, *args, **kwargs):     # f(x=1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, 2, z=3) | f(1, 2, 3)
    def f(*args, y, **kwargs):     # f(x=1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, y=2, z=3)
    def f(x, *args, z, **kwargs):  # f(x=1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, y=2, z=3) | f(1, 2, z=3)
    

    Other Uses

      = [* [, ...]]
       = {* [, ...]}
     = (*, [...])
      = {** [, ...]}
    
    head, *body, tail = 
    

    Inline

    Lambda

     = lambda: 
     = lambda , : 
    

    Comprehensions

     = [i+1 for i in range(10)]                   # [1, 2, ..., 10]
      = {i for i in range(10) if i > 5}            # {6, 7, 8, 9}
     = (i+5 for i in range(10))                   # (5, 6, ..., 14)
     = {i: i*2 for i in range(10)}                # {0: 0, 1: 2, ..., 9: 18}
    
    out = [i+j for i in range(10) for j in range(10)]
    

    Is the same as:

    out = []
    for i in range(10):
        for j in range(10):
            out.append(i+j)
    

    Map, Filter, Reduce

    from functools import reduce
     = map(lambda x: x + 1, range(10))            # (1, 2, ..., 10)
     = filter(lambda x: x > 5, range(10))         # (6, 7, 8, 9)
      = reduce(lambda out, x: out + x, range(10))  # 45
    

    Any, All

     = any()                          # False if empty.
     = all(el[1] for el in )          # True if empty.
    

    If - Else

     =  if  else 
    
    >>> [a if a else 'zero' for a in (0, 1, 2, 3)]
    ['zero', 1, 2, 3]
    

    Namedtuple, Enum, Dataclass

    from collections import namedtuple
    Point     = namedtuple('Point', 'x y')
    point     = Point(0, 0)
    
    from enum import Enum
    Direction = Enum('Direction', 'n e s w')
    direction = Direction.n
    
    from dataclasses import make_dataclass
    Creature  = make_dataclass('Creature', ['location', 'direction'])
    creature  = Creature(Point(0, 0), Direction.n)
    

    Closure

    We have a closure in Python when: * A nested function references a value of its enclosing function and then * the enclosing function returns the nested function.

    def get_multiplier(a):
        def out(b):
            return a * b
        return out
    
    >>> multiply_by_3 = get_multiplier(3)
    >>> multiply_by_3(10)
    30
    
    • If multiple nested functions within enclosing function reference the same value, that value gets shared.
    • To dynamically access function's first free variable use
      '.__closure__[0].cell_contents'
      .

    Partial

    from functools import partial
     = partial( [, , , ...])
    
    >>> import operator as op
    >>> multiply_by_3 = partial(op.mul, 3)
    >>> multiply_by_3(10)
    30
    
    • Partial is also useful in cases when function needs to be passed as an argument, because it enables us to set its arguments beforehand.
    • A few examples being:
      'defaultdict()'
      ,
      'iter(, to_exclusive)'
      and dataclass's
      'field(default_factory=)'
      .

    Non-Local

    If variable is being assigned to anywhere in the scope, it is regarded as a local variable, unless it is declared as a 'global' or a 'nonlocal'.

    def get_counter():
        i = 0
        def out():
            nonlocal i
            i += 1
            return i
        return out
    
    >>> counter = get_counter()
    >>> counter(), counter(), counter()
    (1, 2, 3)
    

    Decorator

    A decorator takes a function, adds some functionality and returns it.

    @decorator_name
    def function_that_gets_passed_to_decorator():
        ...
    

    Debugger Example

    Decorator that prints function's name every time it gets called.

    from functools import wraps
    
    

    def debug(func): @wraps(func) def out(args, **kwargs): print(func.name) return func(*args, *kwargs) return out

    @debug def add(x, y): return x + y

    • Wraps is a helper decorator that copies the metadata of the passed function (func) to the function it is wrapping (out).
    • Without it
      'add.__name__'
      would return
      'out'
      .

    LRU Cache

    Decorator that caches function's return values. All function's arguments must be hashable.

    from functools import lru_cache
    
    

    @lru_cache(maxsize=None) def fib(n): return n if n < 2 else fib(n-2) + fib(n-1)

    • CPython interpreter limits recursion depth to 1000 by default. To increase it use
      'sys.setrecursionlimit()'
      .

    Parametrized Decorator

    A decorator that accepts arguments and returns a normal decorator that accepts a function. ```python from functools import wraps

    def debug(printresult=False): def decorator(func): @wraps(func) def out(args, *kwargs): result = func(args, *kwargs) print(func.name, result if printresult else '') return result return out return decorator

    @debug(print_result=True) def add(x, y): return x + y ```

    Class

    class :
        def __init__(self, a):
            self.a = a
        def __repr__(self):
            class_name = self.__class__.__name__
            return f'{class_name}({self.a!r})'
        def __str__(self):
            return str(self.a)
    
    
    @classmethod
    def get_class_name(cls):
        return cls.__name__

    • Return value of repr() should be unambiguous and of str() readable.
    • If only repr() is defined, it will also be used for str().

    Str() use cases:

    print()
    print(f'{}')
    raise Exception()
    loguru.logger.debug()
    csv.writer().writerow([])
    

    Repr() use cases:

    print([])
    print(f'{!r}')
    >>> 
    loguru.logger.exception()
    Z = dataclasses.make_dataclass('Z', ['a']); print(Z())
    

    Constructor Overloading

    class :
        def __init__(self, a=None):
            self.a = a
    

    Inheritance

    class Person:
        def __init__(self, name, age):
            self.name = name
            self.age  = age
    
    

    class Employee(Person): def init(self, name, age, staff_num): super().init(name, age) self.staff_num = staff_num

    Multiple Inheritance

    class A: pass
    class B: pass
    class C(A, B): pass
    

    MRO determines the order in which parent classes are traversed when searching for a method: ```python

    C.mro() [, , , ] ```

    Property

    Pythonic way of implementing getters and setters. ```python class MyClass: @property def a(self): return self._a

    @a.setter
    def a(self, value):
        self._a = value
    
    ```python
    >>> el = MyClass()
    >>> el.a = 123
    >>> el.a
    123
    

    Dataclass

    Decorator that automatically generates init(), repr() and eq() special methods. ```python from dataclasses import dataclass, field

    @dataclass(order=False, frozen=False) class : : : = : list/dict/set = field(defaultfactory=list/dict/set) ``

    * **Objects can be made sortable with
    'order=True'
    and/or immutable and hashable with
    'frozen=True'
    .**
    * **Function field() is needed because
    '<attr
    name>: list = []'` would make a list that is shared among all instances.** * Default_factory can be any callable.

    Inline:

    from dataclasses import make_dataclass
     = make_dataclass('', )
     = make_dataclass('', )
     = ('',  [, ])
    

    Slots

    Mechanism that restricts objects to attributes listed in 'slots' and significantly reduces their memory footprint.

    class MyClassWithSlots:
        __slots__ = ['a']
        def __init__(self):
            self.a = 1
    

    Copy

    from copy import copy, deepcopy
     = copy()
     = deepcopy()
    

    Duck Types

    A duck type is an implicit type that prescribes a set of special methods. Any object that has those methods defined is considered a member of that duck type.

    Comparable

    • If eq() method is not overridden, it returns
      'id(self) == id(other)'
      , which is the same as
      'self is other'
      .
    • That means all objects compare not equal by default.
    • Only the left side object has eq() method called, unless it returns NotImplemented, in which case the right object is consulted.
    class MyComparable:
        def __init__(self, a):
            self.a = a
        def __eq__(self, other):
            if isinstance(other, type(self)):
                return self.a == other.a
            return NotImplemented
    

    Hashable

    • Hashable object needs both hash() and eq() methods and its hash value should never change.
    • Hashable objects that compare equal must have the same hash value, meaning default hash() that returns
      'id(self)'
      will not do.
    • That is why Python automatically makes classes unhashable if you only implement eq().
    class MyHashable:
        def __init__(self, a):
            self._a = a
        @property
        def a(self):
            return self._a
        def __eq__(self, other):
            if isinstance(other, type(self)):
                return self.a == other.a
            return NotImplemented
        def __hash__(self):
            return hash(self.a)
    

    Sortable

    • With total_ordering decorator, you only need to provide eq() and one of lt(), gt(), le() or ge() special methods. ```python from functools import total_ordering

    @totalordering class MySortable: def _init(self, a): self.a = a def __eq(self, other): if isinstance(other, type(self)): return self.a == other.a return NotImplemented def lt(self, other): if isinstance(other, type(self)): return self.a < other.a return NotImplemented ```

    Iterator

    • Any object that has methods next() and iter() is an iterator.
    • Next() should return next item or raise StopIteration.
    • Iter() should return 'self'.
      python
      class Counter:
      def __init__(self):
          self.i = 0
      def __next__(self):
          self.i += 1
          return self.i
      def __iter__(self):
          return self
      
    >>> counter = Counter()
    >>> next(counter), next(counter), next(counter)
    (1, 2, 3)
    

    Python has many different iterator objects:

    Callable

    • All functions and classes have a call() method, hence are callable.
    • When this cheatsheet uses
      ''
      as an argument, it actually means
      ''
      .
      python
      class Counter:
      def __init__(self):
          self.i = 0
      def __call__(self):
          self.i += 1
          return self.i
      
    >>> counter = Counter()
    >>> counter(), counter(), counter()
    (1, 2, 3)
    

    Context Manager

    • Enter() should lock the resources and optionally return an object.
    • Exit() should release the resources.
    • Any exception that happens inside the with block is passed to the exit() method.
    • If it wishes to suppress the exception it must return a true value.
      python
      class MyOpen:
      def __init__(self, filename):
          self.filename = filename
      def __enter__(self):
          self.file = open(self.filename)
          return self.file
      def __exit__(self, exc_type, exception, traceback):
          self.file.close()
      
    >>> with open('test.txt', 'w') as file:
    ...     file.write('Hello World!')
    >>> with MyOpen('test.txt') as file:
    ...     print(file.read())
    Hello World!
    

    Iterable Duck Types

    Iterable

    • Only required method is iter(). It should return an iterator of object's items.
    • Contains() automatically works on any object that has iter() defined.
      python
      class MyIterable:
      def __init__(self, a):
          self.a = a
      def __iter__(self):
          return iter(self.a)
      def __contains__(self, el):
          return el in self.a
      
    >>> obj = MyIterable([1, 2, 3])
    >>> [el for el in obj]
    [1, 2, 3]
    >>> 1 in obj
    True
    

    Collection

    • Only required methods are iter() and len().
    • This cheatsheet actually means
      ''
      when it uses
      ''
      .
    • I chose not to use the name 'iterable' because it sounds scarier and more vague than 'collection'.
      python
      class MyCollection:
      def __init__(self, a):
          self.a = a
      def __iter__(self):
          return iter(self.a)
      def __contains__(self, el):
          return el in self.a
      def __len__(self):
          return len(self.a)
      

    Sequence

    • Only required methods are len() and getitem().
    • Getitem() should return an item at index or raise IndexError.
    • Iter() and contains() automatically work on any object that has getitem() defined.
    • Reversed() automatically works on any object that has getitem() and len() defined.
      python
      class MySequence:
      def __init__(self, a):
          self.a = a
      def __iter__(self):
          return iter(self.a)
      def __contains__(self, el):
          return el in self.a
      def __len__(self):
          return len(self.a)
      def __getitem__(self, i):
          return self.a[i]
      def __reversed__(self):
          return reversed(self.a)
      

    ABC Sequence

    • It's a richer interface than the basic sequence.
    • Extending it generates iter(), contains(), reversed(), index() and count().
    • Unlike
      'abc.Iterable'
      and
      'abc.Collection'
      , it is not a duck type. That is why
      'issubclass(MySequence, abc.Sequence)'
      would return False even if MySequence had all the methods defined.
      ```python from collections import abc

    class MyAbcSequence(abc.Sequence): def init(self, a): self.a = a def len(self): return len(self.a) def getitem(self, i): return self.a[i] ```

    Table of required and automatically available special methods:

    +------------+------------+------------+------------+--------------+
    |            |  Iterable  | Collection |  Sequence  | abc.Sequence |
    +------------+------------+------------+------------+--------------+
    | iter()     |    REQ     |    REQ     |    Yes     |     Yes      |
    | contains() |    Yes     |    Yes     |    Yes     |     Yes      |
    | len()      |            |    REQ     |    REQ     |     REQ      |
    | getitem()  |            |            |    REQ     |     REQ      |
    | reversed() |            |            |    Yes     |     Yes      |
    | index()    |            |            |            |     Yes      |
    | count()    |            |            |            |     Yes      |
    +------------+------------+------------+------------+--------------+
    
    • Other ABCs that generate missing methods are: MutableSequence, Set, MutableSet, Mapping and MutableMapping.
    • Names of their required methods are stored in
      '.__abstractmethods__'
      .

    Enum

    from enum import Enum, auto
    
    

    class (Enum): = = , = auto()

    • If there are no numeric values before auto(), it returns 1.
    • Otherwise it returns an increment of the last numeric value.
     = .                 # Returns a member.
     = ['']              # Returns a member or raises KeyError.
     = ()                      # Returns a member or raises ValueError.
        = .name                        # Returns member's name.
        = .value                       # Returns member's value.
    
    list_of_members = list()
    member_names    = [a.name for a in ]
    member_values   = [a.value for a in ]
    random_member   = random.choice(list())
    
    def get_next_member(member):
        members = list(member.__class__)
        index   = (members.index(member) + 1) % len(members)
        return members[index]
    

    Inline

    Cutlery = Enum('Cutlery', 'fork knife spoon')
    Cutlery = Enum('Cutlery', ['fork', 'knife', 'spoon'])
    Cutlery = Enum('Cutlery', {'fork': 1, 'knife': 2, 'spoon': 3})
    

    User-defined functions cannot be values, so they must be wrapped:

    from functools import partial
    LogicOp = Enum('LogicOp', {'AND': partial(lambda l, r: l and r),
                               'OR' : partial(lambda l, r: l or r)})
    
    • Another solution in this particular case is to use built-in functions and_() and or_() from the module operator.

    Exceptions

    Basic Example

    try:
        
    except :
        
    

    Complex Example

    try:
        
    except :
        
    except :
        
    else:
        
    finally:
        
    
    • Code inside the
      'else'
      block will only be executed if
      'try'
      block had no exception.
    • Code inside the
      'finally'
      block will always be executed.

    Catching Exceptions

    except :
    except  as :
    except (, ...):
    except (, ...) as :
    
    • Also catches subclasses of the exception.
    • Use
      'traceback.print_exc()'
      to print the error message to stderr.

    Raising Exceptions

    raise 
    raise ()
    raise ( [, ...])
    

    Re-raising caught exception:

    except  as :
        ...
        raise
    

    Exception Object

    arguments = .args
    exc_type  = .__class__
    filename  = .__traceback__.tb_frame.f_code.co_filename
    func_name = .__traceback__.tb_frame.f_code.co_name
    line      = linecache.getline(filename, .__traceback__.tb_lineno)
    error_msg = traceback.format_exception(exc_type, , .__traceback__)
    

    Built-in Exceptions

    BaseException
     +-- SystemExit                   # Raised by the sys.exit() function.
     +-- KeyboardInterrupt            # Raised when the user hits the interrupt key (ctrl-c).
     +-- Exception                    # User-defined exceptions should be derived from this class.
          +-- ArithmeticError         # Base class for arithmetic errors.
          |    +-- ZeroDivisionError  # Raised when dividing by zero.
          +-- AttributeError          # Raised when an attribute is missing.
          +-- EOFError                # Raised by input() when it hits end-of-file condition.
          +-- LookupError             # Raised when a look-up on a collection fails.
          |    +-- IndexError         # Raised when a sequence index is out of range.
          |    +-- KeyError           # Raised when a dictionary key or set element is not found.
          +-- NameError               # Raised when a variable name is not found.
          +-- OSError                 # Failures such as “file not found” or “disk full”.
          |    +-- FileNotFoundError  # When a file or directory is requested but doesn't exist.
          +-- RuntimeError            # Raised by errors that don't fall into other categories.
          |    +-- RecursionError     # Raised when the maximum recursion depth is exceeded.
          +-- StopIteration           # Raised by next() when run on an empty iterator.
          +-- TypeError               # Raised when an argument is of wrong type.
          +-- ValueError              # When an argument is of right type but inappropriate value.
               +-- UnicodeError       # Raised when encoding/decoding strings to/from bytes fails.
    

    Collections and their exceptions:

    +-----------+------------+------------+------------+
    |           |    list    |    dict    |    set     |
    +-----------+------------+------------+------------+
    | getitem() | IndexError |  KeyError  |            |
    | pop()     | IndexError |  KeyError  |  KeyError  |
    | remove()  | ValueError |            |  KeyError  |
    | index()   | ValueError |            |            |
    +-----------+------------+------------+------------+
    

    Useful built-in exceptions:

    raise TypeError('Argument is of wrong type!')
    raise ValueError('Argument is of right type but inappropriate value!')
    raise RuntimeError('None of above!')
    

    User-defined Exceptions

    class MyError(Exception):
        pass
    
    

    class MyInputError(MyError): pass

    Exit

    Exits the interpreter by raising SystemExit exception.

    python
    import sys
    sys.exit()                        # Exits with exit code 0 (success).
    sys.exit()                    # Prints to stderr and exits with 1.
    sys.exit()                   # Exits with passed exit code.
    

    Print

    print(, ..., sep=' ', end='\n', file=sys.stdout, flush=False)
    
    • Use
      'file=sys.stderr'
      for messages about errors.
    • Use
      'flush=True'
      to forcibly flush the stream.

    Pretty Print

    from pprint import pprint
    pprint(, width=80, depth=None, compact=False, sort_dicts=True)
    
    • Levels deeper than 'depth' get replaced by '...'.

    Input

    Reads a line from user input or pipe if present.

     = input(prompt=None)
    
    • Trailing newline gets stripped.
    • Prompt string is printed to the standard output before reading input.
    • Raises EOFError when user hits EOF (ctrl-d/z) or input stream gets exhausted.

    Command Line Arguments

    import sys
    script_name = sys.argv[0]
    arguments   = sys.argv[1:]
    

    Argument Parser

    from argparse import ArgumentParser, FileType
    p = ArgumentParser(description=)
    p.add_argument('-', '--', action='store_true')  # Flag
    p.add_argument('-', '--', type=)          # Option
    p.add_argument('', type=, nargs=1)                    # First argument
    p.add_argument('', type=, nargs='+')                  # Remaining arguments
    p.add_argument('', type=, nargs='*')                  # Optional arguments
    args  = p.parse_args()                                            # Exits on error.
    value = args.
    
    • Use
      'help='
      to set argument description.
    • Use
      'default='
      to set the default value.
    • Use
      'type=FileType()'
      for files.

    Open

    Opens the file and returns a corresponding file object.

     = open('', mode='r', encoding=None, newline=None)
    
    • 'encoding=None'
      means that the default encoding is used, which is platform dependent. Best practice is to use
      'encoding="utf-8"'
      whenever possible.
    • 'newline=None'
      means all different end of line combinations are converted to '\n' on read, while on write all '\n' characters are converted to system's default line separator.
    • 'newline=""'
      means no conversions take place, but input is still broken into chunks by readline() and readlines() on either '\n', '\r' or '\r\n'.

    Modes

    • 'r'
      - Read (default).
    • 'w'
      - Write (truncate).
    • 'x'
      - Write or fail if the file already exists.
    • 'a'
      - Append.
    • 'w+'
      - Read and write (truncate).
    • 'r+'
      - Read and write from the start.
    • 'a+'
      - Read and write from the end.
    • 't'
      - Text mode (default).
    • 'b'
      - Binary mode.

    Exceptions

    • 'FileNotFoundError'
      can be raised when reading with
      'r'
      or
      'r+'
      .
    • 'FileExistsError'
      can be raised when writing with
      'x'
      .
    • 'IsADirectoryError'
      and
      'PermissionError'
      can be raised by any.
    • 'OSError'
      is the parent class of all listed exceptions.

    File Object

    .seek(0)                      # Moves to the start of the file.
    .seek(offset)                 # Moves 'offset' chars/bytes from the start.
    .seek(0, 2)                   # Moves to the end of the file.
    .seek(±offset, )  # Anchor: 0 start, 1 current position, 2 end.
    
     = .read(size=-1)  # Reads 'size' chars/bytes or until EOF.
     = .readline()     # Returns a line or empty string/bytes on EOF.
          = .readlines()    # Returns a list of remaining lines.
     = next()          # Returns a line using buffer. Do not mix.
    
    .write()           # Writes a string or bytes object.
    .writelines()     # Writes a coll. of strings or bytes objects.
    .flush()                      # Flushes write buffer.
    
    • Methods do not add or strip trailing newlines, even writelines().

    Read Text from File

    def read_file(filename):
        with open(filename, encoding='utf-8') as file:
            return file.readlines()
    

    Write Text to File

    def write_to_file(filename, text):
        with open(filename, 'w', encoding='utf-8') as file:
            file.write(text)
    

    Path

    from os import getcwd, path, listdir
    from glob import glob
    
      = getcwd()                   # Returns the current working directory.
      = path.join(, ...)     # Joins two or more pathname components.
      = path.abspath()       # Returns absolute path.
    
      = path.basename()      # Returns final component of the path.
      = path.dirname()       # Returns path without the final component.
     = path.splitext()      # Splits on last period of the final component.
    
     = listdir(path='.')          # Returns filenames located at path.
     = glob('')          # Returns paths matching the wildcard pattern.
    
     = path.exists()        # Or: .exists()
     = path.isfile()        # Or: .is_file()
     = path.isdir()         # Or: .is_dir()
    

    DirEntry

    Using scandir() instead of listdir() can significantly increase the performance of code that also needs file type information.

    from os import scandir
    
     = scandir(path='.')          # Returns DirEntry objects located at path.
      = .path            # Returns path as a string.
      = .name            # Returns final component as a string.
     = open()           # Opens the file and returns file object.
    

    Path Object

    from pathlib import Path
    
     = Path( [, ...])       # Accepts strings, Paths and DirEntry objects.
     =  /  [/ ...]    # One of the paths must be a Path object.
    
     = Path()                     # Returns relative cwd. Also Path('.').
     = Path.cwd()                 # Returns absolute cwd. Also Path().resolve().
     = .resolve()           # Returns absolute Path without symlinks.
    
     = .parent              # Returns Path without final component.
      = .name                # Returns final component as a string.
      = .stem                # Returns final component without extension.
      = .suffix              # Returns final component's extension.
     = .parts               # Returns all components as strings.
    
     = .iterdir()           # Returns dir contents as Path objects.
     = .glob('')   # Returns Paths matching the wildcard pattern.
    
      = str()                # Returns path as a string.
     = open()               # Opens the file and returns file object.
    

    OS Commands

    Files and Directories

    • Paths can be either strings, Paths or DirEntry objects.
    • Functions report OS related errors by raising either OSError or one of its subclasses.
    import os, shutil
    
    os.chdir()                    # Changes the current working directory.
    os.mkdir(, mode=0o777)        # Creates a directory. Mode is in octal.
    
    shutil.copy(from, to)               # Copies the file. 'to' can exist or be a dir.
    shutil.copytree(from, to)           # Copies the directory. 'to' must not exist.
    
    os.rename(from, to)                 # Renames/moves the file or directory.
    os.replace(from, to)                # Same, but overwrites 'to' if it exists.
    
    os.remove()                   # Deletes the file.
    os.rmdir()                    # Deletes the empty directory.
    shutil.rmtree()               # Deletes the directory.
    

    Shell Commands

    import os
     = os.popen('').read()
    

    Sends '1 + 1' to the basic calculator and captures its output:

    >>> from subprocess import run
    >>> run('bc', input='1 + 1\n', capture_output=True, encoding='utf-8')
    CompletedProcess(args='bc', returncode=0, stdout='2\n', stderr='')
    

    Sends test.in to the basic calculator running in standard mode and saves its output to test.out:

    >>> from shlex import split
    >>> os.popen('echo 1 + 1 > test.in')
    >>> run(split('bc -s'), stdin=open('test.in'), stdout=open('test.out', 'w'))
    CompletedProcess(args=['bc', '-s'], returncode=0)
    >>> open('test.out').read()
    '2\n'
    

    JSON

    Text file format for storing collections of strings and numbers.

    import json
        = json.dumps(, ensure_ascii=True, indent=None)
     = json.loads()
    

    Read Object from JSON File

    def read_json_file(filename):
        with open(filename, encoding='utf-8') as file:
            return json.load(file)
    

    Write Object to JSON File

    def write_to_json_file(filename, an_object):
        with open(filename, 'w', encoding='utf-8') as file:
            json.dump(an_object, file, ensure_ascii=False, indent=2)
    

    Pickle

    Binary file format for storing objects.

    import pickle
      = pickle.dumps()
     = pickle.loads()
    

    Read Object from File

    def read_pickle_file(filename):
        with open(filename, 'rb') as file:
            return pickle.load(file)
    

    Write Object to File

    def write_to_pickle_file(filename, an_object):
        with open(filename, 'wb') as file:
            pickle.dump(an_object, file)
    

    CSV

    Text file format for storing spreadsheets.

    import csv
    

    Read

     = csv.reader()       # Also: `dialect='excel', delimiter=','`.
       = next()           # Returns next row as a list of strings.
       = list()           # Returns list of remaining rows.
    
    • File must be opened with
      'newline=""'
      argument, or newlines embedded inside quoted fields will not be interpreted correctly!

    Write

     = csv.writer()       # Also: `dialect='excel', delimiter=','`.
    .writerow()     # Encodes objects using `str()`.
    .writerows()  # Appends multiple rows.
    
    • File must be opened with
      'newline=""'
      argument, or '\r' will be added in front of every '\n' on platforms that use '\r\n' line endings!

    Parameters

    • 'dialect'
      - Master parameter that sets the default values.
    • 'delimiter'
      - A one-character string used to separate fields.
    • 'quotechar'
      - Character for quoting fields that contain special characters.
    • 'doublequote'
      - Whether quotechars inside fields get doubled or escaped.
    • 'skipinitialspace'
      - Whether whitespace after delimiter gets stripped.
    • 'lineterminator'
      - Specifies how writer terminates rows.
    • 'quoting'
      - Controls the amount of quoting: 0 - as necessary, 1 - all.
    • 'escapechar'
      - Character for escaping 'quotechar' if 'doublequote' is False.

    Dialects

    +------------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
    |                  |     excel    |   excel-tab  |     unix     |
    +------------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
    | delimiter        |       ','    |      '\t'    |       ','    |
    | quotechar        |       '"'    |       '"'    |       '"'    |
    | doublequote      |      True    |      True    |      True    |
    | skipinitialspace |     False    |     False    |     False    |
    | lineterminator   |    '\r\n'    |    '\r\n'    |      '\n'    |
    | quoting          |         0    |         0    |         1    |
    | escapechar       |      None    |      None    |      None    |
    +------------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
    

    Read Rows from CSV File

    def read_csv_file(filename):
        with open(filename, encoding='utf-8', newline='') as file:
            return list(csv.reader(file))
    

    Write Rows to CSV File

    def write_to_csv_file(filename, rows):
        with open(filename, 'w', encoding='utf-8', newline='') as file:
            writer = csv.writer(file)
            writer.writerows(rows)
    

    SQLite

    Server-less database engine that stores each database into a separate file.

    Connect

    Opens a connection to the database file. Creates a new file if path doesn't exist.

    python
    import sqlite3
     = sqlite3.connect('')               # Also ':memory:'.
    .close()
    

    Read

    Returned values can be of type str, int, float, bytes or None.

    python
     = .execute('')             # Can raise a subclass of sqlite3.Error.
      = .fetchone()                  # Returns next row. Also next().
       = .fetchall()                  # Returns remaining rows. Also list().
    

    Write

    .execute('')
    .commit()
    

    Or:

    with :
        .execute('')
    

    Placeholders

    • Passed values can be of type str, int, float, bytes, None, bool, datetime.date or datetime.datetme.
    • Bools will be stored and returned as ints and dates as ISO formatted strings.
      python
      .execute('', )          # Replaces '?'s in query with values.
      .execute('', )     # Replaces ':'s with values.
      .executemany('', )   # Runs execute() many times.
      

    Example

    In this example values are not actually saved because

    'con.commit()'
    is omitted!

    >>> con = sqlite3.connect('test.db')
    >>> con.execute('create table person (person_id integer primary key, name, height)')
    >>> con.execute('insert into person values (null, ?, ?)', ('Jean-Luc', 187)).lastrowid
    1
    >>> con.execute('select * from person').fetchall()
    [(1, 'Jean-Luc', 187)]
    

    MySQL

    Has a very similar interface, with differences listed below. ```python

    $ pip3 install mysql-connector

    from mysql import connector = connector.connect(host=, …) #

    user=, password=, database=
    . = .cursor() # Only cursor has execute method. .execute('') # Can raise a subclass of connector.Error. .execute('', ) # Replaces '%s's in query with values. .execute('', ) # Replaces '%()s's with values. ```

    Bytes

    Bytes object is an immutable sequence of single bytes. Mutable version is called bytearray.

     = b''                       # Only accepts ASCII characters and \x00 - \xff.
       = []               # Returns int in range from 0 to 255.
     = []               # Returns bytes even if it has only one element.
     = .join()  # Joins elements using bytes object as separator.
    

    Encode

     = bytes()          # Ints must be in range from 0 to 255.
     = bytes(, 'utf-8')          # Or: .encode('utf-8')
     = .to_bytes(n_bytes, …)     # `byteorder='big/little', signed=False`.
     = bytes.fromhex('')         # Hex numbers can be separated by spaces.
    

    Decode

      = list()                  # Returns ints in range from 0 to 255.
       = str(, 'utf-8')          # Or: .decode('utf-8')
       = int.from_bytes(, …)     # `byteorder='big/little', signed=False`.
    '' = .hex()                  # Returns a string of hexadecimal numbers.
    

    Read Bytes from File

    def read_bytes(filename):
        with open(filename, 'rb') as file:
            return file.read()
    

    Write Bytes to File

    def write_bytes(filename, bytes_obj):
        with open(filename, 'wb') as file:
            file.write(bytes_obj)
    

    Struct

    • Module that performs conversions between a sequence of numbers and a bytes object.
    • Machine’s native type sizes and byte order are used by default.
    from struct import pack, unpack, iter_unpack
      = pack('',  [, , ...])
      = unpack('', )
     = iter_unpack('', )
    

    Example

    >>> pack('>hhl', 1, 2, 3)
    b'\x00\x01\x00\x02\x00\x00\x00\x03'
    >>> unpack('>hhl', b'\x00\x01\x00\x02\x00\x00\x00\x03')
    (1, 2, 3)
    

    Format

    For standard type sizes start format string with:

    • '='
      - native byte order
    • ' - little-endian
    • '>'
      - big-endian (also
      '!'
      )

    Integer types. Use a capital letter for unsigned type. Standard sizes are in brackets:

    • 'x'
      - pad byte
    • 'b'
      - char (1)
    • 'h'
      - short (2)
    • 'i'
      - int (4)
    • 'l'
      - long (4)
    • 'q'
      - long long (8)

    Floating point types:

    • 'f'
      - float (4)
    • 'd'
      - double (8)

    Array

    List that can only hold numbers of a predefined type. Available types and their sizes in bytes are listed above.

    from array import array
     = array('', )    # Array from collection of numbers.
     = array('', )         # Array from bytes object.
     = array('', )         # Treats array as a sequence of numbers.
     = bytes()                       # Or: .tobytes()
    

    Memory View

    • A sequence object that points to the memory of another object.
    • Each element can reference a single or multiple consecutive bytes, depending on format.
    • Order and number of elements can be changed with slicing.
     = memoryview()  # Immutable if bytes, else mutable.
      = []                     # Returns an int or a float.
     = []                     # Mview with rearranged elements.
     = .cast('')           # Casts memoryview to the new format.
    .release()                              # Releases the object's memory buffer.
    

    Decode

    .write()                      # Writes mview to the binary file.
     = bytes()                       # Creates a new bytes object.
     = .join()       # Joins mviews using bytes object as sep.
     = array('', )         # Treats mview as a sequence of numbers.
    
      = list()                        # Returns list of ints or floats.
       = str(, 'utf-8')                # Treats mview as a bytes object.
       = int.from_bytes(, …)           # `byteorder='big/little', signed=False`.
    '' = .hex()                        # Treats mview as a bytes object.
    

    Deque

    A thread-safe list with efficient appends and pops from either side. Pronounced "deck".

    from collections import deque
     = deque(, maxlen=None)
    
    .appendleft()                       # Opposite element is dropped if full.
    .extendleft()               # Collection gets reversed.
     = .popleft()                       # Raises IndexError if empty.
    .rotate(n=1)                            # Rotates elements to the right.
    

    Threading

    • CPython interpreter can only run a single thread at a time.
    • That is why using multiple threads won't result in a faster execution, unless at least one of the threads contains an I/O operation.
      python
      from threading import Thread, RLock, Semaphore, Event, Barrier
      

    Thread

     = Thread(target=)  # Use `args=` to set arguments.
    .start()                      # Starts the thread.
     = .is_alive()          # Checks if thread has finished executing.
    .join()                       # Waits for thread to finish.
    
    • Use
      'kwargs='
      to pass keyword arguments to the function.
    • Use
      'daemon=True'
      , or the program will not be able to exit while the thread is alive.

    Lock

     = RLock()
    .acquire()                      # Waits for lock to be available.
    .release()                      # Makes the lock available again.
    

    Or:

    lock = RLock()
    with lock:
        ...
    

    Semaphore, Event, Barrier

     = Semaphore(value=1)      # Lock that can be acquired 'value' times.
         = Event()                 # Method wait() blocks until set() is called.
       = Barrier(n_times)        # Method wait() blocks until it's called 'n_times'.
    

    Thread Pool Executor

    from concurrent.futures import ThreadPoolExecutor
    with ThreadPoolExecutor(max_workers=None) as executor:         # Does not exit until done.
           = executor.map(lambda x: x + 1, range(3))         # (1, 2, 3)
           = executor.map(lambda x, y: x + y, 'abc', '123')  # ('a1', 'b2', 'c3')
         = executor.submit( [, , ...])    # Also visible outside block.
    

    Future:

     = .done()              # Checks if thread has finished executing.
      = .result()            # Waits for thread to finish and returns result.
    

    Queue

    A thread-safe FIFO queue. For LIFO queue use LifoQueue.

    python
    from queue import Queue
     = Queue(maxsize=0)
    
    .put()                     # Blocks until queue stops being full.
    .put_nowait()              # Raises queue.Full exception if full.
     = .get()                  # Blocks until queue stops being empty.
     = .get_nowait()           # Raises queue.Empty exception if empty.
    

    Operator

    Module of functions that provide the functionality of operators.

    python
    from operator import add, sub, mul, truediv, floordiv, mod, pow, neg, abs
    from operator import eq, ne, lt, le, gt, ge
    from operator import and_, or_, not_
    from operator import itemgetter, attrgetter, methodcaller
    
    import operator as op
    elementwise_sum  = map(op.add, list_a, list_b)
    sorted_by_second = sorted(, key=op.itemgetter(1))
    sorted_by_both   = sorted(, key=op.itemgetter(1, 0))
    product_of_elems = functools.reduce(op.mul, )
    LogicOp          = enum.Enum('LogicOp', {'AND': op.and_, 'OR' : op.or_})
    last_el          = op.methodcaller('pop')()
    

    Introspection

    Inspecting code at runtime.

    Variables

     = dir()                             # Names of local variables (incl. functions).
     = vars()                            # Dict of local variables. Also locals().
     = globals()                         # Dict of global variables.
    

    Attributes

     = dir()                     # Names of object's attributes (incl. methods).
     = vars()                    # Dict of object's fields. Also .__dict__.
     = hasattr(, '')  # Checks if getattr() raises an error.
    value  = getattr(, '')  # Raises AttributeError if attribute is missing.
    setattr(, '', value)    # Only works on objects with __dict__ attribute.
    delattr(, '')           # Equivalent to `del .`.
    

    Parameters

    from inspect import signature
            = signature()
    no_of_params = len(.parameters)
    param_names  = list(.parameters.keys())
    param_kinds  = [a.kind for a in .parameters.values()]
    

    Metaprograming

    Code that generates code.

    Type

    Type is the root class. If only passed an object it returns its type (class). Otherwise it creates a new class.

     = type('', , )
    
    >>> Z = type('Z', (), {'a': 'abcde', 'b': 12345})
    >>> z = Z()
    

    Meta Class

    A class that creates classes.

    def my_meta_class(name, parents, attrs):
        attrs['a'] = 'abcde'
        return type(name, parents, attrs)
    

    Or:

    class MyMetaClass(type):
        def __new__(cls, name, parents, attrs):
            attrs['a'] = 'abcde'
            return type.__new__(cls, name, parents, attrs)
    
    • New() is a class method that gets called before init(). If it returns an instance of its class, then that instance gets passed to init() as a 'self' argument.
    • It receives the same arguments as init(), except for the first one that specifies the desired type of the returned instance (MyMetaClass in our case).
    • Like in our case, new() can also be called directly, usually from a new() method of a child class (
      def __new__(cls): return super().__new__(cls)
      ).
    • The only difference between the examples above is that my_meta_class() returns a class of type type, while MyMetaClass() returns a class of type MyMetaClass.

    Metaclass Attribute

    Right before a class is created it checks if it has the 'metaclass' attribute defined. If not, it recursively checks if any of his parents has it defined and eventually comes to type().

    class MyClass(metaclass=MyMetaClass):
        b = 12345
    
    >>> MyClass.a, MyClass.b
    ('abcde', 12345)
    

    Type Diagram

    type(MyClass)     == MyMetaClass     # MyClass is an instance of MyMetaClass.
    type(MyMetaClass) == type            # MyMetaClass is an instance of type.
    
    +-------------+-------------+
    |   Classes   | Metaclasses |
    +-------------+-------------|
    |   MyClass --> MyMetaClass |
    |             |     v       |
    |    object -----> type 
    

    Inheritance Diagram

    MyClass.__base__     == object       # MyClass is a subclass of object.
    MyMetaClass.__base__ == type         # MyMetaClass is a subclass of type.
    
    +-------------+-------------+
    |   Classes   | Metaclasses |
    +-------------+-------------|
    |   MyClass   | MyMetaClass |
    |      v      |     v       |
    |    object 
    

    Eval

    >>> from ast import literal_eval
    >>> literal_eval('1 + 2')
    3
    >>> literal_eval('[1, 2, 3]')
    [1, 2, 3]
    >>> literal_eval('abs(1)')
    ValueError: malformed node or string
    

    Coroutines

    • Coroutines have a lot in common with threads, but unlike threads, they only give up control when they call another coroutine and they don’t use as much memory.
    • Coroutine definition starts with
      'async'
      and its call with
      'await'
      .
    • 'asyncio.run()'
      is the main entry point for asynchronous programs.
    • Functions wait(), gather() and as_completed() can be used when multiple coroutines need to be started at the same time.
    • Asyncio module also provides its own Queue, Event, Lock and Semaphore classes.

    Runs a terminal game where you control an asterisk that must avoid numbers:

    import asyncio, collections, curses, enum, random
    
    

    P = collections.namedtuple('P', 'x y') # Position D = enum.Enum('D', 'n e s w') # Direction

    def main(screen): curses.curs_set(0) # Makes cursor invisible. screen.nodelay(True) # Makes getch() non-blocking. asyncio.run(main_coroutine(screen)) # Starts running asyncio code.

    async def main_coroutine(screen): state = {'': P(0, 0), **{id_: P(30, 10) for id_ in range(10)}} moves = asyncio.Queue() coros = ((random_controller(id_, moves) for id_ in range(10)), human_controller(screen, moves), model(moves, state, *screen.getmaxyx()), view(state, screen)) await asyncio.wait(coros, return_when=asyncio.FIRST_COMPLETED)

    async def random_controller(id_, moves): while True: moves.put_nowait((id_, random.choice(list(D)))) await asyncio.sleep(random.random() / 2)

    async def human_controller(screen, moves): while True: ch = screen.getch() key_mappings = {259: D.n, 261: D.e, 258: D.s, 260: D.w} if ch in key_mappings: moves.put_nowait(('*', key_mappings[ch])) await asyncio.sleep(0.01)

    async def model(moves, state, height, width): while state[''] not in {p for id_, p in state.items() if id_ != ''}: id_, d = await moves.get() p = state[id_] deltas = {D.n: P(0, -1), D.e: P(1, 0), D.s: P(0, 1), D.w: P(-1, 0)} new_p = P(*[sum(a) for a in zip(p, deltas[d])]) if 0 <= new_p.x < width-1 and 0 <= new_p.y < height: state[id_] = new_p

    async def view(state, screen): while True: screen.clear() for id_, p in state.items(): screen.addstr(p.y, p.x, str(id_)) await asyncio.sleep(0.01)

    curses.wrapper(main)


    Libraries

    Progress Bar

    # $ pip3 install tqdm
    from tqdm import tqdm
    from time import sleep
    for el in tqdm([1, 2, 3]):
        sleep(0.2)
    

    Plot

    # $ pip3 install matplotlib
    from matplotlib import pyplot
    pyplot.plot( [, label=])
    pyplot.plot(, )
    pyplot.legend()                                # Adds a legend.
    pyplot.savefig('')                       # Saves the figure.
    pyplot.show()                                  # Displays the figure.
    pyplot.clf()                                   # Clears the figure.
    

    Table

    Prints a CSV file as an ASCII table:

    # $ pip3 install tabulate
    import csv, tabulate
    with open('test.csv', encoding='utf-8', newline='') as file:
        rows   = csv.reader(file)
        header = [a.title() for a in next(rows)]
        table  = tabulate.tabulate(rows, header)
        print(table)
    

    Curses

    Clears the terminal, prints a message and waits for the ESC key press:

    from curses import wrapper, curs_set, ascii
    from curses import KEY_UP, KEY_RIGHT, KEY_DOWN, KEY_LEFT
    
    

    def main(): wrapper(draw)

    def draw(screen): curs_set(0) # Makes cursor invisible. screen.nodelay(True) # Makes getch() non-blocking. screen.clear() screen.addstr(0, 0, 'Press ESC to quit.') # Coordinates are y, x. while screen.getch() != ascii.ESC: pass

    def get_border(screen): from collections import namedtuple P = namedtuple('P', 'x y') height, width = screen.getmaxyx() return P(width-1, height-1)

    if name == 'main': main()

    Logging

    # $ pip3 install loguru
    from loguru import logger
    
    logger.add('debug_{time}.log', colorize=True)  # Connects a log file.
    logger.add('error_{time}.log', level='ERROR')  # Another file for errors or higher.
    logger.('A logging message.')
    
    • Levels:
      'debug'
      ,
      'info'
      ,
      'success'
      ,
      'warning'
      ,
      'error'
      ,
      'critical'
      .

    Exceptions

    Exception description, stack trace and values of variables are appended automatically.

    try:
        ...
    except :
        logger.exception('An error happened.')
    

    Rotation

    Argument that sets a condition when a new log file is created.

    python
    rotation=|||
    
    *
    ''
    - Max file size in bytes.
    *
    ''
    - Max age of a file.
    *
    '
    - Time of day.
    *
    ''
    - Any of above as a string:
    '100 MB'
    ,
    '1 month'
    ,
    'monday at 12:00'
    , ...

    Retention

    Sets a condition which old log files get deleted.

    python
    retention=||
    
    *
    ''
    - Max number of files.
    *
    ''
    - Max age of a file.
    *
    ''
    - Max age as a string:
    '1 week, 3 days'
    ,
    '2 months'
    , ...

    Scraping

    Scrapes Python's URL, version number and logo from Wikipedia page:

    # $ pip3 install requests beautifulsoup4
    import requests, sys
    from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
    URL = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)'
    try:
        html  = requests.get(URL).text
        doc   = BeautifulSoup(html, 'html.parser')
        table = doc.find('table', class_='infobox vevent')
        rows  = table.find_all('tr')
        link  = rows[11].find('a')['href']
        ver   = rows[6].find('div').text.split()[0]
        url_i = rows[0].find('img')['src']
        image = requests.get(f'https:{url_i}').content
        with open('test.png', 'wb') as file:
            file.write(image)
        print(link, ver)
    except requests.exceptions.ConnectionError:
        print("You've got problems with connection.", file=sys.stderr)
    

    Web

    # $ pip3 install bottle
    from bottle import run, route, static_file, template, post, request, response
    import json
    

    Run

    run(host='localhost', port=8080)        # Runs locally.
    run(host='0.0.0.0', port=80)            # Runs globally.
    

    Static Request

    @route('/img/')
    def send_image(image):
        return static_file(image, 'img_dir/', mimetype='image/png')
    

    Dynamic Request

    @route('/')
    def send_page(sport):
        return template('

    {{title}}

    ', title=sport)

    REST Request

    @post('/odds/')
    def odds_handler(sport):
        team = request.forms.get('team')
        home_odds, away_odds = 2.44, 3.29
        response.headers['Content-Type'] = 'application/json'
        response.headers['Cache-Control'] = 'no-cache'
        return json.dumps([team, home_odds, away_odds])
    

    Test:

    # $ pip3 install requests
    >>> import requests
    >>> url  = 'http://localhost:8080/odds/football'
    >>> data = {'team': 'arsenal f.c.'}
    >>> response = requests.post(url, data=data)
    >>> response.json()
    ['arsenal f.c.', 2.44, 3.29]
    

    Profiling

    Stopwatch

    from time import time
    start_time = time()                     # Seconds since the Epoch.
    ...
    duration = time() - start_time
    

    High performance:

    from time import perf_counter
    start_time = perf_counter()             # Seconds since restart.
    ...
    duration = perf_counter() - start_time
    

    Timing a Snippet

    >>> from timeit import timeit
    >>> timeit('"-".join(str(a) for a in range(100))',
    ...        number=10000, globals=globals(), setup='pass')
    0.34986
    

    Profiling by Line

    # $ pip3 install line_profiler memory_profiler
    @profile
    def main():
        a = [*range(10000)]
        b = {*range(10000)}
    main()
    
    $ kernprof -lv test.py
    Line #   Hits     Time  Per Hit   % Time  Line Contents
    =======================================================
         1                                    @profile
         2                                    def main():
         3      1   1128.0   1128.0     27.4      a = [*range(10000)]
         4      1   2994.0   2994.0     72.6      b = {*range(10000)}
    
    $ python3 -m memory_profiler test.py
    Line #         Mem usage      Increment   Line Contents
    =======================================================
         1        35.387 MiB     35.387 MiB   @profile
         2                                    def main():
         3        35.734 MiB      0.348 MiB       a = [*range(10000)]
         4        36.160 MiB      0.426 MiB       b = {*range(10000)}
    

    Call Graph

    Generates a PNG image of a call graph with highlighted bottlenecks:

    # $ pip3 install pycallgraph
    from pycallgraph import output, PyCallGraph
    from datetime import datetime
    time_str = datetime.now().strftime('%Y%m%d%H%M%S')
    filename = f'profile-{time_str}.png'
    drawer = output.GraphvizOutput(output_file=filename)
    with PyCallGraph(drawer):
        
    

    NumPy

    Array manipulation mini-language. It can run up to one hundred times faster than the equivalent Python code.

    # $ pip3 install numpy
    import numpy as np
    
     = np.array()
     = np.arange(from_inclusive, to_exclusive, ±step_size)
     = np.ones()
     = np.random.randint(from_inclusive, to_exclusive, )
    
    .shape = 
      = .reshape()
      = np.broadcast_to(, )
    
     = .sum(axis)
    indexes = .argmin(axis)
    
    • Shape is a tuple of dimension sizes.
    • Axis is the index of a dimension that gets collapsed. The leftmost dimension has index 0.

    Indexing

           = <2d_array>[0, 0]        # First element.
    <1d_view>  = <2d_array>[0]           # First row.
    <1d_view>  = <2d_array>[:, 0]        # First column. Also [..., 0].
    <3d_view>  = <2d_array>[None, :, :]  # Expanded by dimension of size 1.
    
    <1d_array> = <2d_array>[<1d_row_indexes>, <1d_column_indexes>]
    <2d_array> = <2d_array>[<2d_row_indexes>, <2d_column_indexes>]
    
    <2d_bools> = <2d_array> > 0
    <1d_array> = <2d_array>[<2d_bools>]
    
    • If row and column indexes differ in shape, they are combined with broadcasting.

    Broadcasting

    Broadcasting is a set of rules by which NumPy functions operate on arrays of different sizes and/or dimensions.

    left  = [[0.1], [0.6], [0.8]]        # Shape: (3, 1)
    right = [ 0.1 ,  0.6 ,  0.8 ]        # Shape: (3)
    

    1. If array shapes differ in length, left-pad the shorter shape with ones:

    left  = [[0.1], [0.6], [0.8]]        # Shape: (3, 1)
    right = [[0.1 ,  0.6 ,  0.8]]        # Shape: (1, 3) 
    

    2. If any dimensions differ in size, expand the ones that have size 1 by duplicating their elements:

    left  = [[0.1, 0.1, 0.1], [0.6, 0.6, 0.6], [0.8, 0.8, 0.8]]  # Shape: (3, 3) 
    

    3. If neither non-matching dimension has size 1, raise an error.

    Example

    For each point returns index of its nearest point (
    [0.1, 0.6, 0.8] => [1, 2, 1]
    ):

    >>> points = np.array([0.1, 0.6, 0.8])
     [ 0.1,  0.6,  0.8]
    >>> wrapped_points = points.reshape(3, 1)
    [[ 0.1],
     [ 0.6],
     [ 0.8]]
    >>> distances = wrapped_points - points
    [[ 0. , -0.5, -0.7],
     [ 0.5,  0. , -0.2],
     [ 0.7,  0.2,  0. ]]
    >>> distances = np.abs(distances)
    [[ 0. ,  0.5,  0.7],
     [ 0.5,  0. ,  0.2],
     [ 0.7,  0.2,  0. ]]
    >>> i = np.arange(3)
    [0, 1, 2]
    >>> distances[i, i] = np.inf
    [[ inf,  0.5,  0.7],
     [ 0.5,  inf,  0.2],
     [ 0.7,  0.2,  inf]]
    >>> distances.argmin(1)
    [1, 2, 1]
    

    Image

    # $ pip3 install pillow
    from PIL import Image
    
     = Image.new('', (width, height))
     = Image.open('')
     = .convert('')
    .save('')
    .show()
    
     = .getpixel((x, y))          # Returns a pixel.
    .putpixel((x, y), )           # Writes a pixel to the image.
     = .getdata()               # Returns a sequence of pixels.
    .putdata()             # Writes a sequence of pixels.
    .paste(, (x, y))                  # Writes an image to the image.
    
    <2d_array> = np.array()                  # Creates NumPy array from greyscale image.
    <3d_array> = np.array()                  # Creates NumPy array from color image.
        = Image.fromarray()           # Creates image from NumPy array of floats.
    

    Modes

    • '1'
      - 1-bit pixels, black and white, stored with one pixel per byte.
    • 'L'
      - 8-bit pixels, greyscale.
    • 'RGB'
      - 3x8-bit pixels, true color.
    • 'RGBA'
      - 4x8-bit pixels, true color with transparency mask.
    • 'HSV'
      - 3x8-bit pixels, Hue, Saturation, Value color space.

    Examples

    Creates a PNG image of a rainbow gradient:

    WIDTH, HEIGHT = 100, 100
    size = WIDTH * HEIGHT
    hues = [255 * i/size for i in range(size)]
    img = Image.new('HSV', (WIDTH, HEIGHT))
    img.putdata([(int(h), 255, 255) for h in hues])
    img.convert('RGB').save('test.png')
    

    Adds noise to a PNG image:

    from random import randint
    add_noise = lambda value: max(0, min(255, value + randint(-20, 20)))
    img = Image.open('test.png').convert('HSV')
    img.putdata([(add_noise(h), s, v) for h, s, v in img.getdata()])
    img.convert('RGB').save('test.png')
    

    Drawing

    from PIL import ImageDraw
    
     = ImageDraw.Draw()
    .point((x, y), fill=None)
    .line((x1, y1, x2, y2 [, ...]), fill=None, width=0, joint=None) 
    .arc((x1, y1, x2, y2), from_deg, to_deg, fill=None, width=0)
    .rectangle((x1, y1, x2, y2), fill=None, outline=None, width=0)
    .polygon((x1, y1, x2, y2 [, ...]), fill=None, outline=None)
    .ellipse((x1, y1, x2, y2), fill=None, outline=None, width=0)
    
    • Use
      'fill='
      to set the primary color.
    • Use
      'outline='
      to set the secondary color.
    • Color can be specified as a tuple, int,
      '#rrggbb'
      string or a color name.

    Animation

    Creates a GIF of a bouncing ball:

    # $ pip3 install pillow imageio
    from PIL import Image, ImageDraw
    import imageio
    WIDTH, R = 126, 10
    frames = []
    for velocity in range(15):
        y = sum(range(velocity+1))
        frame = Image.new('L', (WIDTH, WIDTH))
        draw  = ImageDraw.Draw(frame)
        draw.ellipse((WIDTH/2-R, y, WIDTH/2+R, y+R*2), fill='white')
        frames.append(frame)
    frames += reversed(frames[1:-1])
    imageio.mimsave('test.gif', frames, duration=0.03)
    

    Audio

    import wave
    
      = wave.open('', 'rb')        # Opens the WAV file.
    framerate    = .getframerate()       # Number of frames per second.
    nchannels    = .getnchannels()       # Number of samples per frame.
    sampwidth    = .getsampwidth()       # Sample size in bytes.
    nframes      = .getnframes()         # Number of frames.
         = .getparams()          # Immutable collection of above.
          = .readframes(nframes)  # Returns next 'nframes' frames.
    
     = wave.open('', 'wb')        # Truncates existing file.
    .setframerate()                # 44100 for CD, 48000 for video.
    .setnchannels()                # 1 for mono, 2 for stereo.
    .setsampwidth()                # 2 for CD quality sound.
    .setparams()                # Sets all parameters.
    .writeframes()               # Appends frames to the file.
    
    • Bytes object contains a sequence of frames, each consisting of one or more samples.
    • In a stereo signal, the first sample of a frame belongs to the left channel.
    • Each sample consists of one or more bytes that, when converted to an integer, indicate the displacement of a speaker membrane at a given moment.
    • If sample width is one, then the integer should be encoded unsigned.
    • For all other sizes, the integer should be encoded signed with little-endian byte order.

    Sample Values

    +-----------+-------------+------+-------------+
    | sampwidth |     min     | zero |     max     |
    +-----------+-------------+------+-------------+
    |     1     |           0 |  128 |         255 |
    |     2     |      -32768 |    0 |       32767 |
    |     3     |    -8388608 |    0 |     8388607 |
    |     4     | -2147483648 |    0 |  2147483647 |
    +-----------+-------------+------+-------------+
    

    Read Float Samples from WAV File

    def read_wav_file(filename):
        def get_int(a_bytes):
            an_int = int.from_bytes(a_bytes, 'little', signed=width!=1)
            return an_int - 128 * (width == 1)
        with wave.open(filename, 'rb') as file:
            width  = file.getsampwidth()
            frames = file.readframes(-1)
        byte_samples = (frames[i: i + width] for i in range(0, len(frames), width))
        return [get_int(b) / pow(2, width * 8 - 1) for b in byte_samples]
    

    Write Float Samples to WAV File

    def write_to_wav_file(filename, float_samples, nchannels=1, sampwidth=2, framerate=44100):
        def get_bytes(a_float):
            a_float = max(-1, min(1 - 2e-16, a_float))
            a_float += sampwidth == 1
            a_float *= pow(2, sampwidth * 8 - 1)
            return int(a_float).to_bytes(sampwidth, 'little', signed=sampwidth!=1) 
        with wave.open(filename, 'wb') as file:
            file.setnchannels(nchannels)
            file.setsampwidth(sampwidth)
            file.setframerate(framerate)
            file.writeframes(b''.join(get_bytes(f) for f in float_samples))
    

    Examples

    Saves a sine wave to a mono WAV file:

    from math import pi, sin
    samples_f = (sin(i * 2 * pi * 440 / 44100) for i in range(100000))
    write_to_wav_file('test.wav', samples_f)
    

    Adds noise to a mono WAV file:

    from random import random
    add_noise = lambda value: value + (random() - 0.5) * 0.03
    samples_f = (add_noise(f) for f in read_wav_file('test.wav'))
    write_to_wav_file('test.wav', samples_f)
    

    Plays a WAV file:

    # $ pip3 install simpleaudio
    from simpleaudio import play_buffer
    with wave.open('test.wav', 'rb') as file:
        p = file.getparams()
        frames = file.readframes(-1)
        play_buffer(frames, p.nchannels, p.sampwidth, p.framerate)
    

    Text to Speech

    # $ pip3 install pyttsx3
    import pyttsx3
    engine = pyttsx3.init()
    engine.say('Sally sells seashells by the seashore.')
    engine.runAndWait()
    

    Synthesizer

    Plays Popcorn by Gershon Kingsley:

    # $ pip3 install simpleaudio
    import simpleaudio, math, struct
    from itertools import chain, repeat
    F  = 44100
    P1 = '71♪,69,,71♪,66,,62♪,66,,59♪,,,'
    P2 = '71♪,73,,74♪,73,,74,,71,,73♪,71,,73,,69,,71♪,69,,71,,67,,71♪,,,'
    get_pause   = lambda seconds: repeat(0, int(seconds * F))
    sin_f       = lambda i, hz: math.sin(i * 2 * math.pi * hz / F)
    get_wave    = lambda hz, seconds: (sin_f(i, hz) for i in range(int(seconds * F)))
    get_hz      = lambda key: 8.176 * 2 ** (int(key) / 12)
    parse_note  = lambda note: (get_hz(note[:2]), 0.25 if '♪' in note else 0.125)
    get_samples = lambda note: get_wave(*parse_note(note)) if note else get_pause(0.125)
    samples_f   = chain.from_iterable(get_samples(n) for n in f'{P1}{P1}{P2}'.split(','))
    samples_b   = b''.join(struct.pack('
    

    Pygame

    Basic Example

    # $ pip3 install pygame
    import pygame as pg
    pg.init()
    screen = pg.display.set_mode((500, 500))
    rect = pg.Rect(240, 240, 20, 20)
    while all(event.type != pg.QUIT for event in pg.event.get()):
        deltas = {pg.K_UP: (0, -3), pg.K_RIGHT: (3, 0), pg.K_DOWN: (0, 3), pg.K_LEFT: (-3, 0)}
        for delta in (deltas.get(i) for i, on in enumerate(pg.key.get_pressed()) if on):
            rect = rect.move(delta) if delta else rect
        screen.fill((0, 0, 0))
        pg.draw.rect(screen, (255, 255, 255), rect)
        pg.display.flip()
    

    Rectangle

    Object for storing rectangular coordinates.

    python
     = pg.Rect(x, y, width, height)           # X and y are coordinates of topleft corner.
      = .x/y/centerx/centery/…           # Top, right, bottom, left.
     = .topleft/center/…                # Topright, bottomright, bottomleft.
     = .move((x, y))                    # Use move_ip() to move in place.
    
     = .collidepoint((x, y))            # Tests if a point is inside a rectangle.
     = .colliderect()             # Tests if two rectangles overlap.
      = .collidelist()     # Returns index of first colliding Rect or -1.
     = .collidelistall()  # Returns indexes of all colliding Rects.
    

    Surface

    Object for representing images.

    python
     = pg.display.set_mode((width, height))   # Returns the display surface.
     = pg.Surface((width, height))            # Creates a new surface.
     = pg.image.load('')                # Loads the image.
     = .subsurface()              # Returns a subsurface.
    
    .fill(color)                              # Fills the whole surface.
    .set_at((x, y), color)                    # Updates pixel.
    .blit(, (x, y))                  # Draws passed surface to the surface.
    
     = pg.transform.flip(, xbool, ybool)
     = pg.transform.rotate(, degrees)
     = pg.transform.scale(, (width, height))
    
    pg.draw.line(, color, (x1, y1), (x2, y2), width)
    pg.draw.arc(, color, , from_radians, to_radians)
    pg.draw.rect(, color, )
    pg.draw.polygon(, color, points)
    pg.draw.ellipse(, color, )
    

    Font

     = pg.font.SysFont('', size, bold=False, italic=False)
     = pg.font.Font('', size)
     = .render(text, antialias, color [, background])
    

    Sound

     = pg.mixer.Sound('')              # Loads the WAV file.
    .play()                                  # Starts playing the sound.
    

    Basic Mario Brothers Example

    import collections, dataclasses, enum, io, pygame, urllib.request, itertools as it
    from random import randint
    
    

    P = collections.namedtuple('P', 'x y') # Position D = enum.Enum('D', 'n e s w') # Direction SIZE, MAX_SPEED = 50, P(5, 10) # Screen size, Speed limit

    def main(): def get_screen(): pygame.init() return pygame.display.set_mode(2 * [SIZE16]) def get_images(): url = 'https://gto76.github.io/python-cheatsheet/web/mario_bros.png' img = pygame.image.load(io.BytesIO(urllib.request.urlopen(url).read())) return [img.subsurface(get_rect(x, 0)) for x in range(img.get_width() // 16)] def get_mario(): Mario = dataclasses.make_dataclass('Mario', 'rect spd facing_left frame_cycle'.split()) return Mario(get_rect(1, 1), P(0, 0), False, it.cycle(range(3))) def get_tiles(): positions = [p for p in it.product(range(SIZE), repeat=2) if {p} & {0, SIZE-1}] +
    [(randint(1, SIZE-2), randint(2, SIZE-2)) for _ in range(SIZE
    2 // 10)] return [get_rect(p) for p in positions] def get_rect(x, y): return pygame.Rect(x16, y*16, 16, 16) run(get_screen(), get_images(), get_mario(), get_tiles())

    def run(screen, images, mario, tiles): clock = pygame.time.Clock() while all(event.type != pygame.QUIT for event in pygame.event.get()): keys = {pygame.K_UP: D.n, pygame.K_RIGHT: D.e, pygame.K_DOWN: D.s, pygame.K_LEFT: D.w} pressed = {keys.get(i) for i, on in enumerate(pygame.key.get_pressed()) if on} update_speed(mario, tiles, pressed) update_position(mario, tiles) draw(screen, images, mario, tiles, pressed) clock.tick(28)

    def update_speed(mario, tiles, pressed): x, y = mario.spd x += 2 * ((D.e in pressed) - (D.w in pressed)) x -= x // abs(x) if x else 0 y += 1 if D.s not in get_boundaries(mario.rect, tiles) else (D.n in pressed) * -10 mario.spd = P(*[max(-limit, min(limit, s)) for limit, s in zip(MAX_SPEED, P(x, y))])

    def update_position(mario, tiles): new_p = mario.rect.topleft larger_speed = max(abs(s) for s in mario.spd) for _ in range(larger_speed): mario.spd = stop_on_collision(mario.spd, get_boundaries(mario.rect, tiles)) new_p = P(*[a + s/larger_speed for a, s in zip(new_p, mario.spd)]) mario.rect.topleft = new_p

    def get_boundaries(rect, tiles): deltas = {D.n: P(0, -1), D.e: P(1, 0), D.s: P(0, 1), D.w: P(-1, 0)} return {d for d, delta in deltas.items() if rect.move(delta).collidelist(tiles) != -1}

    def stop_on_collision(spd, bounds): return P(x=0 if (D.w in bounds and spd.x < 0) or (D.e in bounds and spd.x > 0) else spd.x, y=0 if (D.n in bounds and spd.y < 0) or (D.s in bounds and spd.y > 0) else spd.y)

    def draw(screen, images, mario, tiles, pressed): def get_frame_index(): if D.s not in get_boundaries(mario.rect, tiles): return 4 return next(mario.frame_cycle) if {D.w, D.e} & pressed else 6 screen.fill((85, 168, 255)) mario.facing_left = (D.w in pressed) if {D.w, D.e} & pressed else mario.facing_left screen.blit(images[get_frame_index() + mario.facing_left * 9], mario.rect) for rect in tiles: screen.blit(images[18 if {*rect.topleft} & {0, (SIZE-1)*16} else 19], rect) pygame.display.flip()

    if name == 'main': main()

    Pandas

    # $ pip3 install pandas
    import pandas as pd
    from pandas import Series, DataFrame
    

    Series

    Ordered dictionary with a name.

    >>> Series([1, 2], index=['x', 'y'], name='a')
    x    1
    y    2
    Name: a, dtype: int64
    
     = Series()                         # Assigns RangeIndex starting at 0.
     = Series()                         # Takes dictionary's keys for index.
     = Series(, index=)    # Only keeps items with keys specified in index.
    
     = .loc[key]                          # Or: .iloc[index]
     = .loc[keys]                         # Or: .iloc[indexes]
     = .loc[from_key : to_key_inclusive]  # Or: .iloc[from_i : to_i_exclusive]
    
     = [key/index]                        # Or: .key
     = [keys/indexes]                     # Or: []
     = [bools]                            # Or: .i/loc[bools]
    
     =  ><==                       # Returns a Series of bools.
     =  +-*/                       # Non-matching keys get value NaN.
    
     = .append()                      # Or: pd.concat()
     = .combine_first()               # Adds items that are not yet present.
    .update()                             # Updates items that are already present.
    

    Aggregate, Transform, Map:

     = .sum/max/mean/idxmax/all()         # Or: .aggregate()
     = .rank/diff/cumsum/ffill/interpl()  # Or: .agg/transform()
     = .fillna()                      # Or: .apply/agg/transform/map()
    
    • The way
      'aggregate()'
      and
      'transform()'
      find out whether a function accepts an element or the whole Series is by passing it a single value at first and if it raises an error, then they pass it the whole Series.
    >>> sr = Series([1, 2], index=['x', 'y'])
    x    1
    y    2
    
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    |             |    'sum'    |   ['sum']   | {'s': 'sum'}  |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    | sr.apply(…) |      3      |    sum  3   |     s  3      |
    | sr.agg(…)   |             |             |               |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    |             |    'rank'   |   ['rank']  | {'r': 'rank'} |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    | sr.apply(…) |             |      rank   |               |
    | sr.agg(…)   |     x  1    |   x     1   |    r  x  1    |
    | sr.trans(…) |     y  2    |   y     2   |       y  2    |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    
    • Last result has a hierarchical index. Use
      '[key_1, key_2]'
      to get its values.

    DataFrame

    Table with labeled rows and columns.

    >>> DataFrame([[1, 2], [3, 4]], index=['a', 'b'], columns=['x', 'y'])
       x  y
    a  1  2
    b  3  4
    
        = DataFrame()           # Rows can be either lists, dicts or series.
        = DataFrame()        # Columns can be either lists, dicts or series.
    
        = .loc[row_key, column_key]       # Or: .iloc[row_index, column_index]
     = .loc[row_key/s]                 # Or: .iloc[row_index/es]
     = .loc[:, column_key/s]           # Or: .iloc[:, column_index/es]
        = .loc[row_bools, column_bools]   # Or: .iloc[row_bools, column_bools]
    
     = [column_key/s]                  # Or: .column_key
        = [row_bools]                     # Keeps rows as specified by bools.
        = []                 # Assigns NaN to False values.
    
        =  ><==                 # Returns DataFrame of bools.
        =  +-*/                 # Non-matching keys get value NaN.
    
        = .set_index(column_key)          # Replaces row keys with values from a column.
        = .reset_index()                  # Moves row keys to their own column.
        = .filter('', axis=1)      # Only keeps columns whose key matches the regex.
        = .melt(id_vars=column_key/s)     # Converts DF from wide to long format.
    

    Merge, Join, Concat:

    >>> l = DataFrame([[1, 2], [3, 4]], index=['a', 'b'], columns=['x', 'y'])
       x  y 
    a  1  2 
    b  3  4 
    >>> r = DataFrame([[4, 5], [6, 7]], index=['b', 'c'], columns=['y', 'z'])
       y  z
    b  4  5
    c  6  7
    
    +------------------------+---------------+------------+------------+--------------------------+
    |        how/join        |    'outer'    |   'inner'  |   'left'   |       description        |
    +------------------------+---------------+------------+------------+--------------------------+
    | l.merge(r, on='y',     |    x   y   z  | x   y   z  | x   y   z  | Joins/merges on column.  |
    |            how=…)      | 0  1   2   .  | 3   4   5  | 1   2   .  | Also accepts left_on and |
    |                        | 1  3   4   5  |            | 3   4   5  | right_on parameters.     |
    |                        | 2  .   6   7  |            |            | Uses 'inner' by default. |
    +------------------------+---------------+------------+------------+--------------------------+
    | l.join(r, lsuffix='l', |    x yl yr  z |            | x yl yr  z | Joins/merges on row keys.|
    |           rsuffix='r', | a  1  2  .  . | x yl yr  z | 1  2  .  . | Uses 'left' by default.  |
    |           how=…)       | b  3  4  4  5 | 3  4  4  5 | 3  4  4  5 |                          |
    |                        | c  .  .  6  7 |            |            |                          |
    +------------------------+---------------+------------+------------+--------------------------+
    | pd.concat([l, r],      |    x   y   z  |     y      |            | Adds rows at the bottom. |
    |           axis=0,      | a  1   2   .  |     2      |            | Uses 'outer' by default. |
    |           join=…)      | b  3   4   .  |     4      |            | By default works the     |
    |                        | b  .   4   5  |     4      |            | same as `l.append(r)`.   |
    |                        | c  .   6   7  |     6      |            |                          |
    +------------------------+---------------+------------+------------+--------------------------+
    | pd.concat([l, r],      |    x  y  y  z |            |            | Adds columns at the      |
    |           axis=1,      | a  1  2  .  . | x  y  y  z |            | right end.               |
    |           join=…)      | b  3  4  4  5 | 3  4  4  5 |            | Uses 'outer' by default. |
    |                        | c  .  .  6  7 |            |            |                          |
    +------------------------+---------------+------------+------------+--------------------------+
    | l.combine_first(r)     |    x   y   z  |            |            | Adds missing rows and    |
    |                        | a  1   2   .  |            |            | columns.                 |
    |                        | b  3   4   5  |            |            |                          |
    |                        | c  .   6   7  |            |            |                          |
    +------------------------+---------------+------------+------------+--------------------------+
    

    Aggregate, Transform, Map:

     = .sum/max/mean/idxmax/all()         # Or: .apply/agg/transform()
     = .rank/diff/cumsum/ffill/interpl()  # Or: .apply/agg/transform()
     = .fillna()                      # Or: .applymap()
    
    • All operations operate on columns by default. Use
      'axis=1'
      parameter to process the rows instead.
    >>> df = DataFrame([[1, 2], [3, 4]], index=['a', 'b'], columns=['x', 'y'])
       x  y
    a  1  2
    b  3  4
    
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    |             |    'sum'    |   ['sum']   | {'x': 'sum'}  |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    | df.apply(…) |             |       x  y  |               |
    | df.agg(…)   |     x  4    |  sum  4  6  |     x  4      |
    |             |     y  6    |             |               |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    |             |    'rank'   |   ['rank']  | {'x': 'rank'} |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    | df.apply(…) |      x  y   |      x    y |        x      |
    | df.agg(…)   |   a  1  1   |   rank rank |     a  1      |
    | df.trans(…) |   b  2  2   | a    1    1 |     b  2      |
    |             |             | b    2    2 |               |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    
    • Use
      '[col_key_1, col_key_2][row_key]'
      to get the fifth result's values.

    Encode, Decode:

     = pd.read_json/html('')
     = pd.read_csv/pickle/excel('')
     = pd.read_sql('', )
     = pd.read_clipboard()
    
     = .to_dict(['d/l/s/sp/r/i'])
      = .to_json/html/csv/markdown/latex([])
    .to_pickle/excel()
    .to_sql('', )
    

    GroupBy

    Object that groups together rows of a dataframe based on the value of the passed column.

    >>> df = DataFrame([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 6]], index=list('abc'), columns=list('xyz'))
    >>> df.groupby('z').get_group(3)
       x  y
    a  1  2
    >>> df.groupby('z').get_group(6)
       x  y
    b  4  5
    c  7  8
    
     = .groupby(column_key/s)             # DF is split into groups based on passed column.
     = .get_group(group_key)              # Selects a group by value of grouping column.
    

    Aggregate, Transform, Map:

     = .sum/max/mean/idxmax/all()         # Or: .apply/agg()
     = .rank/diff/cumsum/ffill()          # Or: .aggregate()  
     = .fillna()                      # Or: .transform()
    
    >>> gb = df.groupby('z')
          x  y  z
    3: a  1  2  3
    6: b  4  5  6
       c  7  8  6
    
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    |             |    'sum'    |    'rank'   |   ['rank']  | {'x': 'rank'} |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    | gb.agg(…)   |      x   y  |      x  y   |      x    y |        x      |
    |             |  z          |   a  1  1   |   rank rank |     a  1      |
    |             |  3   1   2  |   b  1  1   | a    1    1 |     b  1      |
    |             |  6  11  13  |   c  2  2   | b    1    1 |     c  2      |
    |             |             |             | c    2    2 |               |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    | gb.trans(…) |      x   y  |      x  y   |             |               |
    |             |  a   1   2  |   a  1  1   |             |               |
    |             |  b  11  13  |   b  1  1   |             |               |
    |             |  c  11  13  |   c  1  1   |             |               |
    +-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
    

    Rolling

    Object for rolling window calculations.

     = .rolling(window_size)  # Also: `min_periods=None, center=False`.
          = [column_key/s]        # Or: .column_key
           = .sum/max/mean()  # Or: .apply/agg()
    

    Plotly

    Covid Deaths by Continent

    Covid Deaths

    # $ pip3 install pandas plotly
    import pandas as pd
    import plotly.express
    
    

    covid = pd.read_csv('https://covid.ourworldindata.org/data/owid-covid-data.csv', usecols=['iso_code', 'date', 'total_deaths', 'population']) continents = pd.read_csv('https://datahub.io/JohnSnowLabs/country-and-continent-codes-' +
    'list/r/country-and-continent-codes-list-csv.csv', usecols=['Three_Letter_Country_Code', 'Continent_Name']) df = pd.merge(covid, continents, left_on='iso_code', right_on='Three_Letter_Country_Code') df = df.groupby(['Continent_Name', 'date']).sum().reset_index() df['Total Deaths per Million'] = df.total_deaths * 1e6 / df.population df = df[('2020-03-14' < df.date) & (df.date < '2020-06-25')] df = df.rename({'date': 'Date', 'Continent_Name': 'Continent'}, axis='columns') plotly.express.line(df, x='Date', y='Total Deaths per Million', color='Continent').show()

    Confirmed Covid Cases, Dow Jones, Gold, and Bitcoin Price

    Covid Cases

    # $ pip3 install pandas plotly
    import pandas, datetime
    import plotly.graph_objects as go
    
    

    def main(): display_data(wrangle_data(*scrape_data()))

    def scrape_data(): def scrape_yahoo(id_): BASE_URL = 'https://query1.finance.yahoo.com/v7/finance/download/' now = int(datetime.datetime.now().timestamp()) url = f'{BASE_URL}{id_}?period1=1579651200&period2={now}&interval=1d&events=history' return pandas.read_csv(url, usecols=['Date', 'Close']).set_index('Date').Close covid = pd.read_csv('https://covid.ourworldindata.org/data/owid-covid-data.csv', usecols=['date', 'total_cases']) covid = covid.groupby('date').sum() dow, gold, bitcoin = [scrape_yahoo(id_) for id_ in ('^DJI', 'GC=F', 'BTC-USD')] dow.name, gold.name, bitcoin.name = 'Dow Jones', 'Gold', 'Bitcoin' return covid, dow, gold, bitcoin

    def wrangle_data(covid, dow, gold, bitcoin): df = pandas.concat([covid, dow, gold, bitcoin], axis=1) df = df.loc['2020-02-23':].iloc[:-2] df = df.interpolate() df.iloc[:, 1:] = df.rolling(10, min_periods=1, center=True).mean().iloc[:, 1:] df.iloc[:, 1:] = df.iloc[:, 1:] / df.iloc[0, 1:] * 100 return df

    def display_data(df): def get_trace(col_name): return go.Scatter(x=df.index, y=df[col_name], name=col_name, yaxis='y2') traces = [get_trace(col_name) for col_name in df.columns[1:]] traces.append(go.Scatter(x=df.index, y=df.total_cases, name='Total Cases', yaxis='y1')) figure = go.Figure() figure.add_traces(traces) figure.update_layout( yaxis1=dict(title='Total Cases', rangemode='tozero'), yaxis2=dict(title='%', rangemode='tozero', overlaying='y', side='right'), legend=dict(x=1.1) ).show()

    if name == 'main': main()

    Cython

    Library that compiles Python code into C.

    # $ pip3 install cython
    import pyximport; pyximport.install()
    import 
    .main()
    

    Definitions

    • All
      'cdef'
      definitions are optional, but they contribute to the speed-up.
    • Script needs to be saved with a
      'pyx'
      extension.
    cdef   = 
    cdef [n_elements]  = [, , ...]
    cdef  ( , ...):
    
    cdef class :
        cdef public  
        def __init__(self,  ):
            self. = 
    
    cdef enum : , , ...
    

    Appendix

    PyInstaller

    $ pip3 install pyinstaller
    $ pyinstaller script.py                        # Compiles into './dist/script' directory.
    $ pyinstaller script.py --onefile              # Compiles into './dist/script' console app.
    $ pyinstaller script.py --windowed             # Compiles into './dist/script' windowed app.
    $ pyinstaller script.py --add-data ':.'  # Adds file to the root of the executable.
    
    • File paths need to be updated to
      'os.path.join(sys._MEIPASS, )'
      .

    Basic Script Template

    #!/usr/bin/env python3
    #
    # Usage: .py
    #
    
    

    from collections import namedtuple from dataclasses import make_dataclass from enum import Enum from sys import argv import re

    def main(): pass

    ###

    UTIL

    #

    def read_file(filename): with open(filename, encoding='utf-8') as file: return file.readlines()

    if name == 'main': main()

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