Need help with python-benedict?
Click the “chat” button below for chat support from the developer who created it, or find similar developers for support.

About the developer

fabiocaccamo
296 Stars 20 Forks MIT License 397 Commits 5 Opened issues

Description

dict subclass with keylist/keypath support, normalized I/O operations (base64, csv, ini, json, pickle, plist, query-string, toml, xml, yaml) and many utilities. :blue_book:

Services available

!
?

Need anything else?

Contributors list

# 23,670
Objecti...
iOS
icloud
directo...
395 commits
# 87,024
Shell
finite-...
pandas
subset
1 commit

Code style: black

python-benedict

python-benedict is a dict subclass with keylist/keypath support, I/O shortcuts (

base64
,
csv
,
ini
,
json
,
pickle
,
plist
,
query-string
,
toml
,
xml
,
yaml
) and many utilities... for humans, obviously.

Features

  • 100% backward-compatible, you can safely wrap existing dictionaries.
  • Keylist support using list of keys as key.
  • Keypath support using keypath-separator (dot syntax by default).
  • Keypath list-index support (also negative) using the standard
    [n]
    suffix.
  • Normalized I/O operations with most common formats:
    base64
    ,
    csv
    ,
    ini
    ,
    json
    ,
    pickle
    ,
    plist
    ,
    query-string
    ,
    toml
    ,
    xml
    ,
    yaml
    .
  • Many utility and parse methods to retrieve data as needed (check the API section).
  • Well tested. ;)

Index

Installation

  • Run
    pip install python-benedict

Usage

Basics

benedict
is a
dict
subclass, so it is possible to use it as a normal dictionary (you can just cast an existing dict).
from benedict import benedict

create a new empty instance

d = benedict()

or cast an existing dict

d = benedict(existing_dict)

or create from data source (filepath, url or data-string) in a supported format:

Base64, CSV, JSON, TOML, XML, YAML, query-string

d = benedict('https://localhost:8000/data.json', format='json')

or in a Django view

params = benedict(request.GET.items()) page = params.get_int('page', 1)

Keylist

Wherever a key is used, it is possible to use also a list (or a tuple) of keys.

d = benedict()

set values by keys list

d['profile', 'firstname'] = 'Fabio' d['profile', 'lastname'] = 'Caccamo' print(d) # -> { 'profile':{ 'firstname':'Fabio', 'lastname':'Caccamo' } } print(d['profile']) # -> { 'firstname':'Fabio', 'lastname':'Caccamo' }

check if keypath exists in dict

print(['profile', 'lastname'] in d) # -> True

delete value by keys list

del d['profile', 'lastname'] print(d['profile']) # -> { 'firstname':'Fabio' }

Keypath

.
is the default keypath separator.

If you cast an existing dict and its keys contain the keypath separator a

ValueError
will be raised.

In this case you should use a custom keypath separator or disable keypath functionality.

d = benedict()

set values by keypath

d['profile.firstname'] = 'Fabio' d['profile.lastname'] = 'Caccamo' print(d) # -> { 'profile':{ 'firstname':'Fabio', 'lastname':'Caccamo' } } print(d['profile']) # -> { 'firstname':'Fabio', 'lastname':'Caccamo' }

check if keypath exists in dict

print('profile.lastname' in d) # -> True

delete value by keypath

del d['profile.lastname']

Custom keypath separator

You can customize the keypath separator passing the

keypath_separator
argument in the constructor.

If you pass an existing dict to the constructor and its keys contain the keypath separator an

Exception
will be raised.
d = benedict(existing_dict, keypath_separator='/')

Change keypath separator

You can change the

keypath_separator
at any time using the
getter/setter
property.

If any existing key contains the new

keypath_separator
an
Exception
will be raised.
d.keypath_separator = '/'

Disable keypath functionality

You can disable the keypath functionality passing

keypath_separator=None
in the constructor.
d = benedict(existing_dict, keypath_separator=None)

You can disable the keypath functionality using the

getter/setter
property.
d.keypath_separator = None

List index support

List index are supported, keypaths can include indexes (also negative) using

[n]
, to perform any operation very fast:
# Eg. get last location cordinates of the first result:
loc = d['results[0].locations[-1].coordinates']
lat = loc.get_decimal('latitude')
lng = loc.get_decimal('longitude')

API

Utility methods

These methods are common utilities that will speed up your everyday work.

Utilities that accept key argument(s) also support keypath(s).

Utilities that return a dictionary always return a new

benedict
instance.
  • #### clean
# Clean the current dict instance removing all empty values: None, '', {}, [], ().
# If strings or collections (dict, list, set, tuple) flags are False,
# related empty values will not be deleted.
d.clean(strings=True, collections=True)
  • #### clone
# Return a clone (deepcopy) of the dict.
c = d.clone()
  • #### dump
# Return a readable representation of any dict/list.
# This method can be used both as static method or instance method.
s = benedict.dump(d.keypaths())
print(s)
# or
d = benedict()
print(d.dump())
  • #### filter
# Return a filtered dict using the given predicate function.
# Predicate function receives key, value arguments and should return a bool value.
predicate = lambda k, v: v is not None
f = d.filter(predicate)
  • #### find
# Return the first match searching for the given keys/keypaths.
# If no result found, default value is returned.
keys = ['a.b.c', 'm.n.o', 'x.y.z']
f = d.find(keys, default=0)
  • #### flatten
# Return a new flattened dict using the given separator to join nested dict keys to flatten keypaths.
f = d.flatten(separator='_')
  • #### groupby
# Group a list of dicts at key by the value of the given by_key and return a new dict.
g = d.groupby('cities', by_key='country_code')
  • #### invert
# Return an inverted dict where values become keys and keys become values.
# Since multiple keys could have the same value, each value will be a list of keys.
# If flat is True each value will be a single value (use this only if values are unique).
i = d.invert(flat=False)
  • #### itemssortedby_keys
# Return items (key/value list) sorted by keys.
# If reverse is True, the list will be reversed.
items = d.items_sorted_by_keys(reverse=False)
  • #### itemssortedby_values
# Return items (key/value list) sorted by values.
# If reverse is True, the list will be reversed.
items = d.items_sorted_by_values(reverse=False)
  • #### keypaths
# Return a list of all keypaths in the dict.
# If indexes is True, the output will include list values indexes.
k = d.keypaths(indexes=False)
  • #### match
# Return a list of all values whose keypath matches the given pattern (a regex or string).
# If pattern is string, wildcard can be used (eg. [*] can be used to match all list indexes).
# If indexes is True, the pattern will be matched also against list values.
m = d.match(pattern, indexes=True)
  • #### merge
# Merge one or more dictionary objects into current instance (deepupdate).
# Sub-dictionaries keys will be merged toghether.
# If overwrite is False, existing values will not be overwritten.
# If concat is True, list values will be concatenated toghether.
d.merge(a, b, c, overwrite=True, concat=False)
  • #### move
# Move an item from key_src to key_dst.
# It can be used to rename a key.
# If key_dst exists, its value will be overwritten.
d.move('a', 'b', overwrite=True)
  • #### nest
# Nest a list of dicts at the given key and return a new nested list
# using the specified keys to establish the correct items hierarchy.
d.nest('values', id_key='id', parent_id_key='parent_id', children_key='children')
  • #### remove
# Remove multiple keys from the dict.
# It is possible to pass a single key or more keys (as list or *args).
d.remove(['firstname', 'lastname', 'email'])
  • #### rename
# Rename a dict item key from 'key' to 'key_new'.
# If key_new exists, a KeyError will be raised.
d.rename('first_name', 'firstname')
  • #### search
# Search and return a list of items (dict, key, value, ) matching the given query.
r = d.search('hello', in_keys=True, in_values=True, exact=False, case_sensitive=False)
  • #### standardize
# Standardize all dict keys, e.g. "Location Latitude" -> "location_latitude".
d.standardize()
  • #### subset
# Return a dict subset for the given keys.
# It is possible to pass a single key or more keys (as list or *args).
s = d.subset(['firstname', 'lastname', 'email'])
  • #### swap
# Swap items values at the given keys.
d.swap('firstname', 'lastname')
  • #### traverse
# Traverse a dict passing each item (dict, key, value) to the given callback function.
def f(d, key, value):
    print('dict: {} - key: {} - value: {}'.format(d, key, value))
d.traverse(f)
  • #### unflatten
# Return a new unflattened dict using the given separator to split dict keys to nested keypaths.
u = d.unflatten(separator='_')
  • #### unique
# Remove duplicated values from the dict.
d.unique()

I/O methods

It is possible to create a

benedict
instance directly from data source (filepath, url or data-string) by passing the data source and the data format (default 'json') in the constructor.
# filepath
d = benedict('/root/data.yml', format='yaml')

url

d = benedict('https://localhost:8000/data.xml', format='xml')

data-string

d = benedict('{"a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 3, "x": 7, "y": 8, "z": 9}')

These methods simplify I/O operations with most common formats:

base64
,
csv
,
json
,
pickle
,
plist
,
query-string
,
toml
,
xml
,
yaml
.

In all

from_*
methods, the first argument can be: url, filepath or data-string.

In all

to_*
methods, if
filepath='...'
kwarg is specified, the output will be also saved at the specified filepath.
  • #### from_base64
# Try to load/decode a base64 encoded data and return it as benedict instance.
# Accept as first argument: url, filepath or data-string.
# It's possible to choose the subformat used under the hood:
# (`csv`, `json`, `query-string`, `toml`, `xml`, `yaml`), default: 'json'.
# It's possible to choose the encoding, default 'utf-8'.
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
d = benedict.from_base64(s, subformat='json', encoding='utf-8', **kwargs)
  • #### from_csv
# Try to load/decode a csv encoded data and return it as benedict instance.
# Accept as first argument: url, filepath or data-string.
# It's possible to specify the columns list, default: None (in this case the first row values will be used as keys).
# It's possible to pass decoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://docs.python.org/3/library/csv.html
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
d = benedict.from_csv(s, columns=None, columns_row=True, **kwargs)
  • #### from_ini
# Try to load/decode a ini encoded data and return it as benedict instance.
# Accept as first argument: url, filepath or data-string.
# It's possible to pass decoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://docs.python.org/3/library/configparser.html
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
d = benedict.from_ini(s, **kwargs)
  • #### from_json
# Try to load/decode a json encoded data and return it as benedict instance.
# Accept as first argument: url, filepath or data-string.
# It's possible to pass decoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://docs.python.org/3/library/json.html
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
d = benedict.from_json(s, **kwargs)
  • #### from_pickle
# Try to load/decode a pickle encoded in Base64 format and return it as benedict instance.
# Accept as first argument: url, filepath or data-string.
# It's possible to pass decoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://docs.python.org/3/library/pickle.html
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
d = benedict.from_pickle(s, **kwargs)
  • #### from_plist
# Try to load/decode a p-list encoded data and return it as benedict instance.
# Accept as first argument: url, filepath or data-string.
# It's possible to pass decoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://docs.python.org/3/library/plistlib.html
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
d = benedict.from_plist(s, **kwargs)
  • #### fromquerystring
# Try to load/decode a query-string and return it as benedict instance.
# Accept as first argument: url, filepath or data-string.
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
d = benedict.from_query_string(s, **kwargs)
  • #### from_toml
# Try to load/decode a toml encoded data and return it as benedict instance.
# Accept as first argument: url, filepath or data-string.
# It's possible to pass decoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://pypi.org/project/toml/
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
d = benedict.from_toml(s, **kwargs)
  • #### from_xml
# Try to load/decode a xml encoded data and return it as benedict instance.
# Accept as first argument: url, filepath or data-string.
# It's possible to pass decoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://github.com/martinblech/xmltodict
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
d = benedict.from_xml(s, **kwargs)
  • #### from_yaml
# Try to load/decode a yaml encoded data and return it as benedict instance.
# Accept as first argument: url, filepath or data-string.
# It's possible to pass decoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://pyyaml.org/wiki/PyYAMLDocumentation
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
d = benedict.from_yaml(s, **kwargs)
  • #### to_base64
# Return the dict instance encoded in base64 format and optionally save it at the specified 'filepath'.
# It's possible to choose the subformat used under the hood:
# ('csv', json', `query-string`, 'toml', 'xml', 'yaml'), default: 'json'.
# It's possible to choose the encoding, default 'utf-8'.
# It's possible to pass decoder specific options using kwargs.
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
s = d.to_base64(subformat='json', encoding='utf-8', **kwargs)
  • #### to_csv
# Return a list of dicts in the current dict encoded in csv format and optionally save it at the specified filepath.
# It's possible to specify the key of the item (list of dicts) to encode, default: 'values'.
# It's possible to specify the columns list, default: None (in this case the keys of the first item will be used).
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
s = d.to_csv(key='values', columns=None, columns_row=True, **kwargs)
  • #### to_ini
# Return the dict instance encoded in ini format and optionally save it at the specified filepath.
# It's possible to pass encoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://docs.python.org/3/library/configparser.html
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
s = d.to_ini(**kwargs)
  • #### to_json
# Return the dict instance encoded in json format and optionally save it at the specified filepath.
# It's possible to pass encoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://docs.python.org/3/library/json.html
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
s = d.to_json(**kwargs)
  • #### to_pickle
# Return the dict instance as pickle encoded in Base64 format and optionally save it at the specified filepath.
# The pickle protocol used by default is 2.
# It's possible to pass encoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://docs.python.org/3/library/pickle.html
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
s = d.to_pickle(**kwargs)
  • #### to_plist
# Return the dict instance encoded in p-list format and optionally save it at the specified filepath.
# It's possible to pass encoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://docs.python.org/3/library/plistlib.html
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
s = d.to_plist(**kwargs)
  • #### toquerystring
# Return the dict instance as query-string and optionally save it at the specified filepath.
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
s = d.to_query_string(**kwargs)
  • #### to_toml
# Return the dict instance encoded in toml format and optionally save it at the specified filepath.
# It's possible to pass encoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://pypi.org/project/toml/
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
s = d.to_toml(**kwargs)
  • #### to_xml
# Return the dict instance encoded in xml format and optionally save it at the specified filepath.
# It's possible to pass encoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://github.com/martinblech/xmltodict
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
s = d.to_xml(**kwargs)
  • #### to_yaml
# Return the dict instance encoded in yaml format.
# If filepath option is passed the output will be saved ath
# It's possible to pass encoder specific options using kwargs:
# https://pyyaml.org/wiki/PyYAMLDocumentation
# A ValueError is raised in case of failure.
s = d.to_yaml(**kwargs)

Parse methods

These methods are wrappers of the

get
method, they parse data trying to return it in the expected type.
  • #### get_bool
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as bool.
# Values like `1`, `true`, `yes`, `on`, `ok` will be returned as `True`.
d.get_bool(key, default=False)
  • #### getboollist
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as list of bool values.
# If separator is specified and value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_bool_list(key, default=[], separator=',')
  • #### get_date
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as date.
# If format is not specified it will be autodetected.
# If choices and value is in choices return value otherwise default.
d.get_date(key, default=None, format=None, choices=[])
  • #### getdatelist
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as list of date values.
# If separator is specified and value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_date_list(key, default=[], format=None, separator=',')
  • #### get_datetime
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as datetime.
# If format is not specified it will be autodetected.
# If choices and value is in choices return value otherwise default.
d.get_datetime(key, default=None, format=None, choices=[])
  • #### getdatetimelist
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as list of datetime values.
# If separator is specified and value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_datetime_list(key, default=[], format=None, separator=',')
  • #### get_decimal
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as Decimal.
# If choices and value is in choices return value otherwise default.
d.get_decimal(key, default=Decimal('0.0'), choices=[])
  • #### getdecimallist
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as list of Decimal values.
# If separator is specified and value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_decimal_list(key, default=[], separator=',')
  • #### get_dict
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as dict.
# If value is a json string it will be automatically decoded.
d.get_dict(key, default={})
  • #### get_email
# Get email by key or keypath and return it.
# If value is blacklisted it will be automatically ignored.
# If check_blacklist is False, it will be not ignored even if blacklisted.
d.get_email(key, default='', choices=None, check_blacklist=True)
  • #### get_float
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as float.
# If choices and value is in choices return value otherwise default.
d.get_float(key, default=0.0, choices=[])
  • #### getfloatlist
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as list of float values.
# If separator is specified and value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_float_list(key, default=[], separator=',')
  • #### get_int
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as int.
# If choices and value is in choices return value otherwise default.
d.get_int(key, default=0, choices=[])
  • #### getintlist
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as list of int values.
# If separator is specified and value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_int_list(key, default=[], separator=',')
  • #### get_list
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as list.
# If separator is specified and value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_list(key, default=[], separator=',')
  • #### getlistitem
# Get list by key or keypath and return value at the specified index.
# If separator is specified and list value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_list_item(key, index=0, default=None, separator=',')
  • #### get_phonenumber
# Get phone number by key or keypath and return a dict with different formats (e164, international, national).
# If country code is specified (alpha 2 code), it will be used to parse phone number correctly.
d.get_phonenumber(key, country_code=None, default=None)
  • #### get_slug
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as slug.
# If choices and value is in choices return value otherwise default.
d.get_slug(key, default='', choices=[])
  • #### getsluglist
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as list of slug values.
# If separator is specified and value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_slug_list(key, default=[], separator=',')
  • #### get_str
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as string.
# Encoding issues will be automatically fixed.
# If choices and value is in choices return value otherwise default.
d.get_str(key, default='', choices=[])
  • #### getstrlist
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as list of str values.
# If separator is specified and value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_str_list(key, default=[], separator=',')
  • #### get_uuid
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as valid uuid.
# If choices and value is in choices return value otherwise default.
d.get_uuid(key, default='', choices=[])
  • #### getuuidlist
# Get value by key or keypath trying to return it as list of valid uuid values.
# If separator is specified and value is a string it will be splitted.
d.get_uuid_list(key, default=[], separator=',')

Testing

# create python virtual environment
virtualenv testing_benedict

activate virtualenv

cd testing_benedict && . bin/activate

clone repo

git clone https://github.com/fabiocaccamo/python-benedict.git src && cd src

install requirements

pip install --upgrade pip pip install -r requirements.txt

run tests using tox

tox

or run tests using unittest

python -m unittest

or run tests using setuptools

python setup.py test

License

Released under MIT License.


See also

  • python-fsutil
    - file-system utilities for lazy devs. 🧟‍♂️

We use cookies. If you continue to browse the site, you agree to the use of cookies. For more information on our use of cookies please see our Privacy Policy.