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ddimaria
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Example Actix 2.x REST application implementing many features

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Rust/Actix Example

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An Actix 2.0 REST server using the Rust language.

Motivation

Actix Web is a fast, powerful web framework for building web applications in Rust. This project aims to create ergonomic abstractions comparable to frameworks in other languages while attempting to maintain the performance benefits of Actix.

Features

  • Actix 2.x HTTP Server
  • Multi-Database Support (CockroachDB, Postgres, MySQL, Sqlite)
  • JWT Support
  • Async Caching Layer with a Simple API
  • Public and Secure Static File Service
  • Diesel Database Operations are Non-Blocking
  • Filesystem Organized for Scale
  • .env for Local Development
  • Integrated Application State with a Simple API
  • Lazy Static Config struct
  • Built-in Healthcheck (includes cargo version info)
  • Listeners configured for TDD
  • Custom Errors and HTTP Payload/Json Validation
  • Secure Argon2i Password Hashing
  • CORS Support
  • Unit and Integration Tests
  • Test Coverage Reports
  • Dockerfile for Running the Server in a Container
  • TravisCI Integration

Featured Packages

  • Argon2i
    : Argon2i Password Hasning
  • actix-cors
    : CORS Support
  • actix-identity
    : User Authentication
  • actix-redis
    and
    redis-async
    : Async Caching Layer
  • actix-web
    : Actix Web Server
  • derive_more
    : Error Formatting
  • diesel
    : ORM that Operates on Several Databases
  • dotenv
    : Configuration Loader (.env)
  • envy
    : Deserializes Environment Variables into a Config Struct
  • jsonwebtoken
    : JWT encoding/decoding
  • kcov
    : Coverage Analysis
  • listenfd
    : Listens for Filesystem Changes
  • rayon
    : Parallelize
  • r2d2
    : Database Connection Pooling
  • validator
    : Validates incoming Json

Installation

Clone the repo and cd into the repo:

git clone https://github.com/ddimaria/rust-actix-example.git
cd rust-actix-example

Copy over the example .env file:

cp .env.example .env

IMPORTANT: Change .env values for your setup, paying special attention to the salt and various keys.

After you set the

DATABASE
value in .env, you'll need it to match the
default
value in the
features
section in
Cargo.toml
with the
DATABASE
value in .env:
[features]
cockroach = []
mysql = []
postgres = []
sqlite = []
default = ["mysql"]

note: Only supply a SINGLE database in the

default
array.

Next, you'll need to install the Diesel CLI:

cargo install diesel_cli

If you run into errors, see http://diesel.rs/guides/getting-started/

Now run the migrations via the Diesel CLI:

diesel migration run

Running the Server

To startup the server:

cargo run

Autoreloading

To startup the server and autoreload on code changes:

systemfd --no-pid -s http::3000 -- cargo watch -x run

Tests

Integration tests are in the

/src/tests
folder. There are helper functions to make testing the API straightforward. For example, if we want to test the
GET /api/v1/user
route:
  use crate::tests::helpers::tests::assert_get;

#[test] async fn test_get_users() { assert_get("/api/v1/user").await; }

Using the Actix test server, the request is sent and the response is asserted for a successful response:

assert!(response.status().is_success());

Similarly, to test a POST route:

use crate::handlers::user::CreateUserRequest;
use crate::tests::helpers::tests::assert_post;

#[test] async fn test_create_user() { let params = CreateUserRequest { first_name: "Satoshi".into(), last_name: "Nakamoto".into(), email: "[email protected]".into(), }; assert_post("/api/v1/user", params).await; }

Running Tests

To run all of the tests:

cargo test

Test Covearage

I created a repo on DockerHub that I'll update with each Rust version (starting at 1.37), whose tags will match the Rust version.

In the root of the project:

docker run -it --rm --security-opt seccomp=unconfined --volume "${PWD}":/volume --workdir /volume ddimaria/rust-kcov:1.37 --exclude-pattern=/.cargo,/usr/lib,/src/main.rs,src/server.rs

note: coverage takes a long time to run (up to 30 mins).

You can view the HTML output of the report at

target/cov/index.html

Docker

To build a Docker image of the application:

docker build -t rust_actix_example .

Once the image is built, you can run the container in port 3000:

docker run -it --rm --env-file=.env.docker -p 3000:3000 --name rust_actix_example rust_actix_example

Public Static Files

Static files are served up from the

/static
folder. Directory listing is turned off. Index files are supported (
index.html
).

Example:

curl -X GET http://127.0.0.1:3000/test.html

Secure Static Files

To serve static files to authenticated users only, place them in the

/static-secure
folder. These files are referenced using the root-level
/secure
path.

Example:

curl -X GET http://127.0.0.1:3000/secure/test.html

Application State

A shared, mutable hashmap is automatically added to the server. To invoke this data in a handler, simply add

data: AppState
to the function signature.

Helper Functions

get<T>(data: AppState<T>, key: &str) -> Option<T>

Retrieves a copy of the entry in application state by key.

Example:

use create::state::get;

pub async fn handle(data: AppState) -> impl Responder { let key = "SOME_KEY"; let value = get(data, key); assert_eq!(value, Some("123".to_string())); }

set<T>(data: AppState<T>, key: &str, value: T) -> Option<T>

Inserts or updates an entry in application state.

Example:

use create::state::set;

pub async fn handle(data: AppState) -> impl Responder { let key = "SOME_KEY"; let value = set(data, key, "123".into()); assert_eq!(value, None)); // if this is an insert assert_eq!(value, Some("123".to_string())); // if this is an update }

delete<T>(data: AppState<T>, key: &str) -> Option<T>

Deletes an entry in application state by key.

Example:

use create::state::get;

pub async fn handle(data: AppState) -> impl Responder { let key = "SOME_KEY"; let value = delete(data, key); assert_eq!(value, None); }

Application Cache

Asynchronous access to redis is automatically added to the server if a value is provided for the

REDIS_URL
environment variable. To invoke this data in a handler, simply add
cache: Cache
to the function signature.

Helper Functions

get(cache: Cache, key: &str) -> Result

Retrieves a copy of the entry in the application cache by key.

Example:

use crate::cache::{get, Cache};

pub async fn handle(cache: Cache) -> impl Responder { let key = "SOME_KEY"; let value = get(cache, key).await?; assert_eq!(value, "123"); }

set(cache: Cache, key: &str, value: &str) -> Result

Inserts or updates an entry in the application cache.

Example:

use crate::cache::{set, Cache};

pub async fn handle(cache: Cache) -> impl Responder { let key = "SOME_KEY"; set(cache, key, "123").await?; }

delete(cache: Cache, key: &str) -> Result

Deletes an entry in the application cache by key.

Example:

use crate::cache::{delete, Cache};

pub async fn handle(cache: Cache) -> impl Responder { let key = "SOME_KEY"; delete(cache, key).await?; }

Non-Blocking Diesel Database Operations

When accessing a database via Diesel, operations block the main server thread. This blocking can be mitigated by running the blocking code in a thread pool from within the handler.

Example:

pub async fn get_user(
    user_id: Path,
    pool: Data,
) -> Result, ApiError> {
    let user = block(move || find(&pool, *user_id)).await?;
    respond_json(user)
}

Blocking errors are automatically converted into ApiErrors to keep the api simple:

impl From> for ApiError {
    fn from(error: BlockingError) -> ApiError {
        match error {
            BlockingError::Error(api_error) => api_error,
            BlockingError::Canceled => ApiError::BlockingError("Thread blocking error".into()),
        }
    }
}

Endpoints

Healthcheck

Determine if the system is healthy.

GET /health

Response

{
  "status": "ok",
  "version": "0.1.0"
}

Example:

curl -X GET http://127.0.0.1:3000/health

Login

POST /api/v1/auth/login

Request

| Param | Type | Description | Required | Validations | | -------- | ------ | ------------------------ | :------: | --------------------- | | email | String | The user's email address | yes | valid email address | | password | String | The user's password | yes | at least 6 characters |

{
  "email": "[email protected]",
  "password": "123456"
}

Response

Header

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
content-length: 118
content-type: application/json
set-cookie: auth=COOKIE_VALUE_HERE; HttpOnly; Path=/; Max-Age=1200
date: Tue, 15 Oct 2019 02:04:54 GMT

Json Body

{
  "id": "0c419802-d1ef-47d6-b8fa-c886a23d61a7",
  "first_name": "Linus",
  "last_name": "Torvalds",
  "email": "[email protected]"
}

When sending subsequent requests, create a header variable

cookie
with the value
auth=COOKIE_VALUE_HERE

Logout

GET /api/v1/auth/logout

Response

200 OK

Example:

curl -X GET http://127.0.0.1:3000/api/v1/auth/logout

Get All Users

GET /api/v1/user

Response

[
  {
    "id": "a421a56e-8652-4da6-90ee-59dfebb9d1b4",
    "first_name": "Satoshi",
    "last_name": "Nakamoto",
    "email": "[email protected]"
  },
  {
    "id": "c63d285b-7794-4419-bfb7-86d7bb3ff17d",
    "first_name": "Barbara",
    "last_name": "Liskov",
    "email": "[email protected]"
  }
]

Example:

curl -X GET http://127.0.0.1:3000/api/v1/user

Get a User

GET /api/v1/user/{id}

Request

| Param | Type | Description | | ----- | ---- | ------------- | | id | Uuid | The user's id |

Response

{
  "id": "a421a56e-8652-4da6-90ee-59dfebb9d1b4",
  "first_name": "Satoshi",
  "last_name": "Nakamoto",
  "email": "[email protected]"
}

Example:

curl -X GET http://127.0.0.1:3000/api/v1/user/a421a56e-8652-4da6-90ee-59dfebb9d1b4

Response - Not Found

404 Not Found
{
  "errors": ["User c63d285b-7794-4419-bfb7-86d7bb3ff17a not found"]
}

Create a User

POST /api/v1/user

Request

| Param | Type | Description | Required | Validations | | ---------- | ------ | ------------------------ | :------: | --------------------- | | firstname | String | The user's first name | yes | at least 3 characters | | lastname | String | The user's last name | yes | at least 3 characters | | email | String | The user's email address | yes | valid email address |

{
  "first_name": "Linus",
  "last_name": "Torvalds",
  "email": "[email protected]"
}

Response

{
  "id": "0c419802-d1ef-47d6-b8fa-c886a23d61a7",
  "first_name": "Linus",
  "last_name": "Torvalds",
  "email": "[email protected]"
}

Example:

curl -X POST \
  http://127.0.0.1:3000/api/v1/user \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -d '{
    "first_name": "Linus",
    "last_name": "Torvalds",
    "email": "[email protected]"
}'

Response - Validation Errors

422 Unprocessable Entity
{
  "errors": [
    "first_name is required and must be at least 3 characters",
    "last_name is required and must be at least 3 characters",
    "email must be a valid email"
  ]
}

Update a User

PUT /api/v1/{id}

Request

Path

| Param | Type | Description | | ----- | ---- | ------------- | | id | Uuid | The user's id |

Body

| Param | Type | Description | Required | Validations | | ---------- | ------ | ------------------------ | :------: | --------------------- | | firstname | String | The user's first name | yes | at least 3 characters | | lastname | String | The user's last name | yes | at least 3 characters | | email | String | The user's email address | yes | valid email address |

{
  "first_name": "Linus",
  "last_name": "Torvalds",
  "email": "[email protected]"
}

Response

{
  "id": "0c419802-d1ef-47d6-b8fa-c886a23d61a7",
  "first_name": "Linus",
  "last_name": "Torvalds",
  "email": "[email protected]"
}

Example:

curl -X PUT \
  http://127.0.0.1:3000/api/v1/user/0c419802-d1ef-47d6-b8fa-c886a23d61a7 \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -d '{
    "first_name": "Linus",
    "last_name": "Torvalds",
    "email": "[email protected]"
}'

Response - Validation Errors

422 Unprocessable Entity
{
  "errors": [
    "first_name is required and must be at least 3 characters",
    "last_name is required and must be at least 3 characters",
    "email must be a valid email"
  ]
}

Response - Not Found

404 Not Found
{
  "errors": ["User 0c419802-d1ef-47d6-b8fa-c886a23d61a7 not found"]
}

Delete a User

DELETE /api/v1/user/{id}

Request

| Param | Type | Description | | ----- | ---- | ------------- | | id | Uuid | The user's id |

Response

{
  "id": "a421a56e-8652-4da6-90ee-59dfebb9d1b4",
  "first_name": "Satoshi",
  "last_name": "Nakamoto",
  "email": "[email protected]"
}

Response

200 OK

Example:

curl -X DELETE http://127.0.0.1:3000/api/v1/user/a421a56e-8652-4da6-90ee-59dfebb9d1b4

Response - Not Found

404 Not Found
{
  "errors": ["User c63d285b-7794-4419-bfb7-86d7bb3ff17a not found"]
}

License

This project is licensed under:

  • MIT license (LICENSE-MIT or http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT)

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