Never use print for debugging again
PySnooper is a poor man's debugger. If you've used Bash, it's like
set -xfor Python, except it's fancier.
Your story: You're trying to figure out why your Python code isn't doing what you think it should be doing. You'd love to use a full-fledged debugger with breakpoints and watches, but you can't be bothered to set one up right now.
You want to know which lines are running and which aren't, and what the values of the local variables are.
Most people would use
PySnooper lets you do the same, except instead of carefully crafting the right
What makes PySnooper stand out from all other code intelligence tools? You can use it in your shitty, sprawling enterprise codebase without having to do any setup. Just slap the decorator on, as shown below, and redirect the output to a dedicated log file by specifying its path as the first argument.
We're writing a function that converts a number to binary, by returning a list of bits. Let's snoop on it by adding the
@pysnooper.snoop() def number_to_bits(number): if number: bits =  while number: number, remainder = divmod(number, 2) bits.insert(0, remainder) return bits else: return 
The output to stderr is:
Source path:... /my_code/foo.py Starting var:.. number = 6 15:29:11.327032 call 4 def number_to_bits(number): 15:29:11.327032 line 5 if number: 15:29:11.327032 line 6 bits =  New var:....... bits =  15:29:11.327032 line 7 while number: 15:29:11.327032 line 8 number, remainder = divmod(number, 2) New var:....... remainder = 0 Modified var:.. number = 3 15:29:11.327032 line 9 bits.insert(0, remainder) Modified var:.. bits =  15:29:11.327032 line 7 while number: 15:29:11.327032 line 8 number, remainder = divmod(number, 2) Modified var:.. number = 1 Modified var:.. remainder = 1 15:29:11.327032 line 9 bits.insert(0, remainder) Modified var:.. bits = [1, 0] 15:29:11.327032 line 7 while number: 15:29:11.327032 line 8 number, remainder = divmod(number, 2) Modified var:.. number = 0 15:29:11.327032 line 9 bits.insert(0, remainder) Modified var:.. bits = [1, 1, 0] 15:29:11.327032 line 7 while number: 15:29:11.327032 line 10 return bits 15:29:11.327032 return 10 return bits Return value:.. [1, 1, 0] Elapsed time: 00:00:00.000001
Or if you don't want to trace an entire function, you can wrap the relevant part in a
import pysnooper import random
def foo(): lst =  for i in range(10): lst.append(random.randrange(1, 1000))
with pysnooper.snoop(): lower = min(lst) upper = max(lst) mid = (lower + upper) / 2 print(lower, mid, upper)
which outputs something like:
New var:....... i = 9 New var:....... lst = [681, 267, 74, 832, 284, 678, ...] 09:37:35.881721 line 10 lower = min(lst) New var:....... lower = 74 09:37:35.882137 line 11 upper = max(lst) New var:....... upper = 832 09:37:35.882304 line 12 mid = (lower + upper) / 2 74 453.0 832 New var:....... mid = 453.0 09:37:35.882486 line 13 print(lower, mid, upper) Elapsed time: 00:00:00.000344
If stderr is not easily accessible for you, you can redirect the output to a file:
You can also pass a stream or a callable instead, and they'll be used.
See values of some expressions that aren't local variables:
Show snoop lines for functions that your function calls:
See Advanced Usage for more options. <------
The best way to install PySnooper is with Pip:
$ pip install pysnooper
Conda with conda-forge channel:
$ conda install -c conda-forge pysnooper
$ yay -S python-pysnooper
Copyright (c) 2019 Ram Rachum and collaborators, released under the MIT license.