standard-version

by conventional-changelog

conventional-changelog / standard-version

:trophy: Automate versioning and CHANGELOG generation, with semver.org and conventionalcommits.org

4.3K Stars 422 Forks Last release: 2 months ago (v9.0.0) ISC License 295 Commits 31 Releases

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Standard Version

A utility for versioning using semver and CHANGELOG generation powered by Conventional Commits.

ci NPM version Coverage Status Conventional Commits Community slack

Having problems? Want to contribute? Join us on the node-tooling community Slack.

How It Works:

  1. Follow the Conventional Commits Specification in your repository.
  2. When you're ready to release, run
    standard-version
    .

standard-version
will then do the following:
  1. Retrieve the current version of your repository by looking at
    bumpFiles
    [1], falling back to the last
    git tag
    .
  2. bump
    the version in
    bumpFiles
    [1] based on your commits.
  3. Generates a
    changelog
    based on your commits (uses conventional-changelog under the hood).
  4. Creates a new
    commit
    including your
    bumpFiles
    [1] and updated CHANGELOG.
  5. Creates a new
    tag
    with the new version number.

bumpFiles
,
packageFiles
and
updaters

standard-version
uses a few key concepts for handling version bumping in your project.
  • packageFiles
    – User-defined files where versions can be read from and be "bumped".
    • Examples:
      package.json
      ,
      manifest.json
    • In most cases (including the default),
      packageFiles
      are a subset of
      bumpFiles
      .
  • bumpFiles
    – User-defined files where versions should be "bumped", but not explicitly read from.
    • Examples:
      package-lock.json
      ,
      npm-shrinkwrap.json
  • updaters
    – Simple modules used for reading
    packageFiles
    and writing to
    bumpFiles
    .

By default,

standard-version
assumes you're working in a NodeJS based project... because of this, for the majority of projects you might never need to interact with these options.

That said, if you find your self asking How can I use standard-version for additional metadata files, languages or version files? – these configuration options will help!

Installing
standard-version

As a local
npm run
script

Install and add to

devDependencies
:
npm i --save-dev standard-version

Add an

npm run
script to your

package.json
:
{
  "scripts": {
    "release": "standard-version"
  }
}

Now you can use

npm run release
in place of
npm version
.

This has the benefit of making your repo/package more portable, so that other developers can cut releases without having to globally install

standard-version
on their machine.

As global
bin

Install globally (add to your

PATH
):
npm i -g standard-version

Now you can use

standard-version
in place of
npm version
.

This has the benefit of allowing you to use

standard-version
on any repo/package without adding a dev dependency to each one.

Using
npx

As of

[email protected]
,
npx
is installed alongside
npm
. Using
npx
you can use
standard-version
without having to keep a
package.json
file by running:
npx standard-version
.

This method is especially useful when using

standard-version
in non-JavaScript projects.

Configuration

You can configure

standard-version
either by:
  1. Placing a
    standard-version
    stanza in your
    package.json
    (assuming your project is JavaScript).
  2. Creating a
    .versionrc
    ,
    .versionrc.json
    or
    .versionrc.js
    .
    • If you are using a
      .versionrc.js
      your default export must be a configuration object, or a function returning a configuration object.

Any of the command line parameters accepted by

standard-version
can instead be provided via configuration. Please refer to the conventional-changelog-config-spec for details on available configuration options.

Customizing CHANGELOG Generation

By default (as of

6.0.0
),
standard-version
uses the conventionalcommits preset.

This preset:

  • Adheres closely to the conventionalcommits.org specification.
  • Is highly configurable, following the configuration specification maintained here.
    • We've documented these config settings as a recommendation to other tooling makers.

There are a variety of dials and knobs you can turn related to CHANGELOG generation.

As an example, suppose you're using GitLab, rather than GitHub, you might modify the following variables:

  • commitUrlFormat
    : the URL format of commit SHAs detected in commit messages.
  • compareUrlFormat
    : the URL format used to compare two tags.
  • issueUrlFormat
    : the URL format used to link to issues.

Making these URLs match GitLab's format, rather than GitHub's.

CLI Usage

NOTE: To pass nested configurations to the CLI without defining them in the

package.json
use dot notation as the parameters
e.g. --skip.changelog
.

First Release

To generate your changelog for your first release, simply do:

# npm run script
npm run release -- --first-release
# global bin
standard-version --first-release
# npx
npx standard-version --first-release

This will tag a release without bumping the version

bumpFiles
1.

When you are ready, push the git tag and

npm publish
your first release. \o/

Cutting Releases

If you typically use

npm version
to cut a new release, do this instead:
# npm run script
npm run release
# or global bin
standard-version

As long as your git commit messages are conventional and accurate, you no longer need to specify the semver type - and you get CHANGELOG generation for free! \o/

After you cut a release, you can push the new git tag and

npm publish
(or
npm publish --tag next
) when you're ready.

Release as a Pre-Release

Use the flag

--prerelease
to generate pre-releases:

Suppose the last version of your code is

1.0.0
, and your code to be committed has patched changes. Run:
# npm run script
npm run release -- --prerelease

This will tag your version as:

1.0.1-0
.

If you want to name the pre-release, you specify the name via

--prerelease 
.

For example, suppose your pre-release should contain the

alpha
prefix:
# npm run script
npm run release -- --prerelease alpha

This will tag the version as:

1.0.1-alpha.0

Release as a Target Type Imperatively (
npm version
-like)

To forgo the automated version bump use

--release-as
with the argument
major
,
minor
or
patch
.

Suppose the last version of your code is

1.0.0
, you've only landed
fix:
commits, but you would like your next release to be a
minor
. Simply run the following:
# npm run script
npm run release -- --release-as minor
# Or
npm run release -- --release-as 1.1.0

You will get version

1.1.0
rather than what would be the auto-generated version
1.0.1
.

NOTE: you can combine

--release-as
and
--prerelease
to generate a release. This is useful when publishing experimental feature(s).

Prevent Git Hooks

If you use git hooks, like pre-commit, to test your code before committing, you can prevent hooks from being verified during the commit step by passing the

--no-verify
option:
# npm run script
npm run release -- --no-verify
# or global bin
standard-version --no-verify

Signing Commits and Tags

If you have your GPG key set up, add the

--sign
or
-s
flag to your
standard-version
command.

Lifecycle Scripts

standard-version
supports lifecycle scripts. These allow you to execute your own supplementary commands during the release. The following hooks are available and execute in the order documented:
  • prerelease
    : executed before anything happens. If the
    prerelease
    script returns a non-zero exit code, versioning will be aborted, but it has no other effect on the process.
  • prebump
    /
    postbump
    : executed before and after the version is bumped. If the
    prebump
    script returns a version #, it will be used rather than the version calculated by
    standard-version
    .
  • prechangelog
    /
    postchangelog
    : executes before and after the CHANGELOG is generated.
  • precommit
    /
    postcommit
    : called before and after the commit step.
  • pretag
    /
    posttag
    : called before and after the tagging step.

Simply add the following to your package.json to configure lifecycle scripts:

{
  "standard-version": {
    "scripts": {
      "prebump": "echo 9.9.9"
    }
  }
}

As an example to change from using GitHub to track your items to using your projects Jira use a

postchangelog
script to replace the url fragment containing 'https://github.com/
myproject
/issues/' with a link to your Jira - assuming you have already installed replace
json
{
  "standard-version": {
    "scripts": {
      "postchangelog": "replace 'https://github.com/myproject/issues/' 'https://myjira/browse/' CHANGELOG.md"
    }
  }
}

Skipping Lifecycle Steps

You can skip any of the lifecycle steps (

bump
,
changelog
,
commit
,
tag
), by adding the following to your package.json:
{
  "standard-version": {
    "skip": {
      "changelog": true
    }
  }
}

Committing Generated Artifacts in the Release Commit

If you want to commit generated artifacts in the release commit (e.g. #96), you can use the

--commit-all
or
-a
flag. You will need to stage the artifacts you want to commit, so your
release
command could look like this:
"prerelease": "webpack -p --bail",
"release": "git add  && standard-version -a"

Dry Run Mode

running

standard-version
with the flag
--dry-run
allows you to see what commands would be run, without committing to git or updating files.
# npm run script
npm run release -- --dry-run
# or global bin
standard-version --dry-run

Prefix Tags

Tags are prefixed with

v
by default. If you would like to prefix your tags with something else, you can do so with the
-t
flag.
standard-version -t @scope/package\@

This will prefix your tags to look something like

@scope/[email protected]

If you do not want to have any tag prefix you can use the

-t
flag without value.

CLI Help

# npm run script
npm run release -- --help
# or global bin
standard-version --help

Code Usage

const standardVersion = require('standard-version')

// Options are the same as command line, except camelCase // standardVersion returns a Promise standardVersion({ noVerify: true, infile: 'docs/CHANGELOG.md', silent: true }).then(() => { // standard-version is done }).catch(err => { console.error(standard-version failed with message: ${err.message}) })

TIP: Use the

silent
option to prevent
standard-version
from printing to the
console
.

FAQ

How is
standard-version
different from
semantic-release
?

semantic-release
is described as:

semantic-release automates the whole package release workflow including: determining the next version number, generating the release notes and publishing the package.

While both are based on the same foundation of structured commit messages,

standard-version
takes a different approach by handling versioning, changelog generation, and git tagging for you without automatic pushing (to GitHub) or publishing (to an npm registry). Use of
standard-version
only affects your local git repo - it doesn't affect remote resources at all. After you run
standard-version
, you can review your release state, correct mistakes and follow the release strategy that makes the most sense for your codebase.

We think they are both fantastic tools, and we encourage folks to use

semantic-release
instead of
standard-version
if it makes sense for their use-case.

Should I always squash commits when merging PRs?

The instructions to squash commits when merging pull requests assumes that one PR equals, at most, one feature or fix.

If you have multiple features or fixes landing in a single PR and each commit uses a structured message, then you can do a standard merge when accepting the PR. This will preserve the commit history from your branch after the merge.

Although this will allow each commit to be included as separate entries in your CHANGELOG, the entries will not be able to reference the PR that pulled the changes in because the preserved commit messages do not include the PR number.

For this reason, we recommend keeping the scope of each PR to one general feature or fix. In practice, this allows you to use unstructured commit messages when committing each little change and then squash them into a single commit with a structured message (referencing the PR number) once they have been reviewed and accepted.

Can I use
standard-version
for additional metadata files, languages or version files?

As of version

7.1.0
you can configure multiple
bumpFiles
and
packageFiles
.
  1. Specify a custom
    bumpFile
    "
    filename
    ", this is the path to the file you want to "bump"
  2. Specify the

    bumpFile
    "
    updater
    ", this is how the file will be bumped.

    a. If you're using a common type, you can use one of

    standard-version
    's built-in
    updaters
    by specifying a
    type
    .

    b. If your using an less-common version file, you can create your own

    updater
    .
// .versionrc
{
  "bumpFiles": [
    {
      "filename": "MY_VERSION_TRACKER.txt",
      // The `plain-text` updater assumes the file contents represents the version.
      "type": "plain-text"
    },
    {
      "filename": "a/deep/package/dot/json/file/package.json",
      // The `json` updater assumes the version is available under a `version` key in the provided JSON document.
      "type": "json"
    },
    {
      "filename": "VERSION_TRACKER.json",
      //  See "Custom `updater`s" for more details.
      "updater": "standard-version-updater.js"
    }
  ]
}

If using

.versionrc.js
as your configuration file, the
updater
may also be set as an object, rather than a path:
// .versionrc.js
const tracker = {
  filename: 'VERSION_TRACKER.json',
  updater: require('./path/to/custom-version-updater')
}

module.exports = { bumpFiles: [tracker], packageFiles: [tracker] }

Custom
updater
s

An

updater
is expected to be a Javascript module with atleast two methods exposed:
readVersion
and
writeVersion
.
readVersion(contents = string): string

This method is used to read the version from the provided file contents.

The return value is expected to be a semantic version string.

writeVersion(contents = string, version: string): string

This method is used to write the version to the provided contents.

The return value will be written directly (overwrite) to the provided file.


Let's assume our

VERSION_TRACKER.json
has the following contents:
{
  "tracker": {
    "package": {
      "version": "1.0.0"
    }
  }
}

An acceptable

standard-version-updater.js
would be:
// standard-version-updater.js
const stringifyPackage = require('stringify-package')
const detectIndent = require('detect-indent')
const detectNewline = require('detect-newline')

module.exports.readVersion = function (contents) { return JSON.parse(contents).tracker.package.version; }

module.exports.writeVersion = function (contents, version) { const json = JSON.parse(contents) let indent = detectIndent(contents).indent let newline = detectNewline(contents) json.tracker.package.version = version return stringifyPackage(json, indent, newline) }

License

ISC

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