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A finite-state morphological analyzer for Turkish

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TRmorph (

This is the README file for the new version of TRmorph (updated 2015-11)

TRmorph is a open source/free morphological analyzer for Turkish. The current version is a complete rewrite of the (earlier) SFST version of TRmorph using xfst/lexc. This version is in active development, which may cause some problem and incompatibilities between updates. However, the status is a lot better than the older SFST version, and you are recommended to use the new version. The SFST version is still available through the web page above, but it is not developed any further.

TRmorph is being developed with foma. It should also be trivial to compile it using HFST tools as well (since HFST uses foma as back end). Compiling with Xerox tools should also be possible (if you have to) with minor modifications regarding limited reduplication implemented using foma's


What is new in this version:

  • This is a complete rewrite using more-familiar Xerox languages lexc/xfst.
  • A completely new lexicon, semi-automatically constructed using web corpora and online dictionaries. (more work is needed, though)
  • A revised tag set.
  • A few more utilities: stemmer, unknown word guesser, segmenter, and a hyphenation tool.
  • A manual, in progress, but it is already usable.
  • New license: this version of TRmorph is distributed under MIT License (see the file LICENSE).

If you use this analyzer in your research, and want to cite it, please cite the appropriate papers from the following list:

Getting started

You can get the latest version of TRmorph from GitHub here: The best is to clone the repository using git, and pull often since this version is changed relatively frequently, but GitHub also allows you to download the as a


The compilation requires foma and a C preprocessor (gcc preprocessor is used by default), and make, and a few more UNIX tools. Assuming you have foma[1] installed, type

to compile the analyzer. If all goes well, you should have a binary automaton in foma format called
. After that you can use interactive
, or
for batch processing (both are part of foma). Here are some examples:
$ foma
foma[0]: regex @"trmorph.fst";
2.3 MB. 53564 states, 149484 arcs, Cyclic.
foma[1]: up okudum
foma[1]: down oku<2s>
foma[1]: exit
$ echo "okudum" |flookup trmorph.fst 
okudu   oku<1s>

There are also separate automata for segmentation, stemming (or lemmatization) and hyphenation that you can compile and use.

See doc/trmorph-manual.pdf for more information.

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