A theme for Hugo based on VMware Clarity
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Rich code block functions including:
To put it all in context, here is a preview showing all functionality.
Read the prerequisites above and verify you're using the extended version of Hugo. There are at least two ways of quickly getting started with Hugo and the VMware Clarity theme:
Generate a new Hugo site and add this theme as a Git submodule inside your themes folder:
hugo new site yourSiteName cd yourSiteName git init git submodule add https://github.com/chipzoller/hugo-clarity themes/hugo-clarity cp -a themes/hugo-clarity/exampleSite/* .
You can run your site directly from the
exampleSite. To do so, use the following commands:
git clone https://github.com/chipzoller/hugo-clarity cd hugo-clarity/exampleSite/ hugo server --themesDir ../..
Although, option 2 is great for quick testing, it is somewhat problematic when you want to update your theme. You would need to be careful not to overwrite your changes.
This option enables you to load this theme as a hugo module. It arguably requires the least effort to run and maintain in your website.
Ensure you have
gobinary installed on your machine.
git clone https://github.com/chipzoller/hugo-clarity.git clarity cd clarity/exampleSite/ hugo mod init my-site
Open config.toml file in your code editor, replace
theme = "hugo-clarity"with
theme = ["github.com/chipzoller/hugo-clarity"]or just
theme = "github.com/chipzoller/hugo-clarity".
Hurray you can now run
To pull in theme updates, run
hugo mod get -u ./...from the theme folder. If unsure, learn how to update hugo modules
There is more you could do with hugo modules, but this will suffice for our use case here.
If set, jump over to the
config.tomlfile and start configuring your site.
This section will mainly cover settings that are unique to this theme. If something is not covered here (or elsewhere in this file), there's a good chance it is covered in this Hugo docs page.
These options set global values that some pages or all pages in the site use by default.
| Parameter | Value Type | Overridable on Page | |:---- | ---- | ---- | | author | string | no | | twitter | string | no | | largeTwitterCard | boolean | no | | gaanalytics | string | no | | baiduanalytics | string | no | | description | string | yes | | introDescription | string | no | | introURL | string/false | no | | numberOfTagsShown | integer | no | | fallBackOgImage | file path (string) | no | | codeMaxLines | integer | yes | | codeLineNumbers | boolean | yes | | mainSections | array/string | no | | centerLogo | boolean | no | | logo | file path (string) | no | | mobileNavigation | string | no | | figurePositionShow | boolean | yes | | figurePositionLabel | string | no | | customCSS | array of file path (string) | no | | customJS | array of file path (string) | no | | enforceLightMode | boolean | N/A | | enforceDarkMode | boolean | N/A | | titleSeparator| string | no | | showShare | boolean | yes | | comment | boolean | no | | numberOfRecentPosts | integer | no | | numberOfFeaturedPosts | integer | no | | dateFormat | string | no | | enableMathNotation | boolean | yes | | customFonts | boolean | no | | since | integer | N/A | | rsssummary | boolean | N/A | | rsssummaryreadmore_link | boolean | N/A | | footerLogo | string | N/A |
| Parameter | Value Type | Overrides Global | |:---- | ---- | ---- | | title | string | N/A | | date | date | N/A | | description | string | N/A | | draft | boolean | N/A | | featured | boolean | N/A | | tags | array/string | N/A | | categories | array/string | N/A | | toc | boolean | N/A | | thumbnail | file path (string) | N/A | | featureImage | file path (string) | N/A | | shareImage | file path (string) | N/A | | codeMaxLines | integer | yes | | codeLineNumbers | boolean | yes | | figurePositionShow | boolean | yes | | figurePositionLabel | string | no | | comment | boolean | no | | enableMathNotation | boolean | yes | | showDate | boolean | N/A | | showShare | boolean | N/A | | sidebar | boolean | N/A | | singleColumn | boolean | N/A |
To add, remove, or reorganize top menu items, edit the files here. Specifically look for items with
If you prefer the more traditional approach, delete
content\configfolder and enter a main menu entry inside the
To edit your social media profile links, edit the files referenced above. Specifically, look for items with
If you wish to globally use a large Twitter summary card when sharing posts, set the global parameter
If using Google Analytics, configure the
ga_analyticsglobal parameter in your site with your ID.
If using Baidu Analytics, configure the
baidu_analyticsglobal parameter in your site with your ID.
config.tomland change the
mainSectionskey. Values will be directories where the blogs reside.
[params] ... mainSections = ["posts", "docs", "blogs"] ...
For more info, see the Hugo docs.
The navigation menu when mobile browsing can be configured in
config.tomlto open right or left depending on preference. The "hamburger" menu icon will always display in the upper right hand corner regardless.
[params] ... mobileNavigation = "left" # Mobile nav menu will open to the left of the screen. ...
The number of tags and taxonomies (including categories) that should be shown can be configured so that any more than this value will only be accessible when clicking the All Tags button. This is to ensure a large number of tags or categories can be easily managed without consuming excess screen real estate. Edit the
numberOfTagsShownparameter and set accordingly.
[params] ... numberOfTagsShown = 14 # Applies for all other default & custom taxonomies. e.g categories, brands see https://gohugo.io/content-management/taxonomies#what-is-a-taxonomy ...
You have the option of adding captions to images in blog posts and automatically prepending a desired string such as "Figure N" to the alt text. This is controlled via two global settings.
figurePositionLabelis a string which will be prepended to any alt text of an article image. By default, this is set to "Figure." And
figurePositionShowcontrols, globally, whether to show this label. It does not affect whether to show the image alt text, only the prefix figure caption. For more granular control,
figurePositionShowcan be overridden at the article level if desired.
The number will be automatically calculated and assigned after the
figurePositionLabeltext starting from the top of the article and counting down. Featured images will be excluded from this figuration.
In this example,
figurePositionLabelis set to "Figure" in
config.tomland this is the first image in a given article.
![Antrea Kubernetes nodes prepared](./images/image-figure.png)
NOTE: Alt text with double quotes will produce broken HTML per limitations with Markdown. It is recommended to omit any quotations from your alt text.
To make a blog image inline, append
:inlineto its alt text. Typically, inline images will have no alt text associated with them.
To align a blog image to the left, append
:leftto its alt text. Article text will then flow to the right of the image.
To make the image borders round, append
::roundto its alt text. This is a pre-defined image class commonly used to display portrait images. Note that round is just another class and it can be mixed with other classes separated by space.
To add a class image to the left, append
::to its alt text. You can also add multiple classes to an image separated by space.
Blog articles can specify a thumbnail image which will be displayed to the left of the card on the home page. Thumbnails should be square (height:width ratio of
1:1) and a suggested dimension of 150 x 150 pixels. They will be specified using a frontmatter variable as follows:
... thumbnail: "images/2020-04/capv-overview/thumbnail.jpg" ...
The thumbnail image will take precedence on opengraph share tags if the shareImage parameter is not specified.
Each article can specify an image that appears at the top of the content. When sharing the blog article on social media, if a thumbnail is not specified, the featured image will be used as a fallback on opengraph share tags.
... featureImage: "images/2020-04/capv-overview/featured.jpg" ...
Sometimes, you want to explicitly set the image that will be used in the preview when you share an article on social media. You can do so in the front matter.
... shareImage = "images/theImageToBeUsedOnShare.png" ...
Note that if a share image is not specified, the order of precedence that will be used to determine which image applies is
fallbackOgImage. When sharing a link to the home page address of the site (as opposed to a specific article), the
fallbackOgImagewill be used.
You can left align or center your site's logo.
... centerLogo = true # Change to false to align left ...
If no logo is specified, the title of the site will appear in its place.
Choose whether to display line numbers within a code block globally with the parameter
[params] ... codeLineNumbers = true # Shows line numbers for all code blocks globally. ...
You can globally control the number of lines which are displayed by default for your code blocks. Code which has the number of lines exceed this value will dynamically cause two code block expansion buttons to appear, allowing the user to expand to full length and contract. This is useful when sharing code or scripts with tens or hundreds of lines where you wish to control how many are displayed. Under params in
config.tomlfile, add a value as follows:
[params] ... codeMaxLines = 10 # Maximum number of lines to be shown by default across all articles. ...
If the value already exists, change it to the desired number. This will apply globally.
If you need more granular control, this parameter can be overridden at the blog article level. Add the same value to your article frontmatter as follows:
... codeMaxLines = 15 # Maximum number of lines to be shown in code blocks in this blog post. ...
codeMaxLinesis specified both in
config.tomland in the article frontmatter, the value specified in the article frontmatter will apply to the given article. In the above example, the global default is
10and yet the article value is
15so code blocks in this article will auto-collapse after 15 lines.
codeMaxLinesis not specified anywhere, an internal default value of
100will be assumed.
Each article can optionally have a table of contents (TOC) generated for it based on top-level links. By configuring the
tocparameter in the article frontmatter and setting it to
true, a TOC will be generated only for that article. The TOC will then render under the featured image.
Going by the above 👆🏻 reason, we recommend adding custom CSS and JS via these files:
_override.sass. This file should only be used to override sass & css variables e.g theme colors
_custom.sass. This file should only be used to override everything else except sass & css variables.
Pro Tip: Ensure that your changes are git trackable by creating these files outside the theme directory. That is, at the root level of your site's directory. see tree below
├── yourSite │ ├── archetypes │ │ └── post.md │ ├── assets │ │ ├── js │ │ │ └── custom.js │ │ └── sass │ │ ├── _custom.sass │ │ └── _override.sass ├── config.toml │ ├── configTaxo.toml │ ├── content │ │ ├── _index.md
However, sometimes you may need to load additional style or script files. In such cases, you can add custom
.jsfiles by listing them in the
config.tomlfile (see the snippet below). Similar to images, these paths should be relative to the
[params] ... customCSS = ["css/custom.css"] # Include custom CSS files customJS = ["js/custom.js"] # Include custom JS files ...
By default, sites authored using Clarity will load in the browser with the user's system-wide settings. I.e., if the underlying OS is set to dark mode, the site will automatically load in dark mode. Regardless of the default mode, a UI control switch exists to override the theme mode at the user's discretion.
In order to override this behavior and force one mode or another, add either
config.tomlfile. If neither value is present, add it.
To enforce Light Mode by default, turn
To enforce Dark Mode by default, turn
[params] ... enforceLightMode = true # Force the site to always load in light mode. ...
Please note that you cannot enforce both modes at the same time. It wouldn't make sense, would it?
⚠️ Please also note that the mode toggle UI will remain in place. That way, if a user prefers dark mode, they can have their way. The best of both worlds.
This theme supports Multilingual (i18n / internationalization / translations)
exampleSitegives you some examples already. You may extend the multilingual functionality by following the official documentation.
Things to consider in multilingual:
hugo server --i18n-warnings
note: if you do NOT want any translations (thus removing the translations menu entry), then you must not have any translations. In the exampleSite that's as easy as removing the extra translations from the
config/_default/...or executing this one-liner:
sed '/^\[pt]$/,$d' -i config/_default/languages.toml && rm config/_default/menus/menu.pt.toml
Clarity provides some hooks for adding code on a page.
If you need to add some code (CSS import, HTML meta or similar) to the head section on every page, add a partial to your project:
Similar, if you want to add some code right before the body end (e.g fonts' links), create your own version of the following file:
⚠️disqusShortnameshould be placed at the root level.
You can also create a file named
layouts/partials/comments.htmlfor customizing the comments. Checkout Comments Alternatives for details.
Clarity uses KaTeX for math type setting if
enableMathNotationis set to
truein global or page parameters (the latter takes precedence).
Also see supported TeX commands in KaTeX.
# cd /path/to/site mkdir -p layouts/partials && cp themes/clarity/layouts/partials/math.html layouts/partials/math.html
Then add the corresponding line as its README suggested (without the
The added line should be before
The new version of MathJax has comparable performance to KaTeX and better support for TeX commands.
If you prefer MathJax, create a blank
[site]/layouts/partials/math.htmland add the following two lines:
This file will take precedence over the one Clarity provides and the site will load MathJax instead of KaTeX.