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c3lang
166 Stars 10 Forks GNU Lesser General Public License v3.0 170 Commits 24 Opened issues

Description

Compiler for the C3 language

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C3 Language

C3 is a C-like language trying to be "an incremental improvement over C" rather than a whole new language. C3 owes a lot to the ideas of the C2 language: to iterate on top of C without trying to be a whole new language.

C3 tries to be an alternative in the the C/C++ niche: fast and close to the metal.

Design Principles

  • Procedural "get things done"-type of language.
  • Try to stay close to C - only change where truly needed.
  • C ABI compatibility and excellent C integration.
  • Learning C3 should be easy for a C programmer.
  • Data is inert.
  • Avoid "big ideas" & the "more is better" fallacy.
  • Introduce some higher level conveniences where the value is great.

Example code

module hello_world;
import std::io;

func void main() { io::printf("Hello, world!\n"); }

In what ways do C3 differ from C?

  • No mandatory header files
  • New semantic macro system
  • Generic modules
  • Module based
  • Subarrays (slices) and vararrays built in
  • Compile time reflection
  • Enhanced compile time execution
  • "Result" based zero overhead error handling
  • Defer
  • Value methods
  • Associated enum data
  • Built in strings
  • No preprocessor
  • Undefined behaviour trapped on debug by default
  • Optional pre and post conditions

Current status

It's possible to try out the current C3 compiler in the browser: https://ide.judge0.com/?1EFo – this is courtesy of the developer of Judge0.

Design work is still being done in the design draft here: https://c3lang.github.io/c3docs/. If you have any suggestions, send a mail to [email protected], file an issue or discuss C3 on its dedicated Discord: https://discord.gg/qN76R87 you are also welcome to discuss in the C3 channel on the r/ProgrammingLanguages Discord: https://discord.gg/cfu4wdk

Todo / done

  • [x] For/while/do
  • [x]
    if
    /ternary
  • [x] Structs
  • [x] Union
  • [x] Enums
  • [x] Value methods
  • [x] Compound literals
  • [x] Designated initalizers
  • [x] Slicing syntax
  • [x] Arrays and subarrays
  • [x] Modules
  • [x]
    $unreachable
  • [x] Compile time assert with
    $assert
  • [x] Compiler guiding
    assert
  • [x] C code calling by declaring methods
    extern
  • [x] Compile time variables
  • [x] Basic macros
  • [x] 4cc, 8cc, 2cc
  • [x] Enum type inference in switch/assignment
  • [x] Integer type inference
  • [x] Error type
  • [x] Failable error handling
  • [x]
    try
    for conditional execution
  • [x]
    catch
    for error handling
  • [x] Implicit unwrap after
    catch
  • [x]
    sizeof
  • [x]
    typeof
  • [x] 2s complement wrapping operators
  • [x] Labelled break / continue
  • [x]
    next
    statement
  • [x] Expression blocks
  • [x] Do-without-while
  • [x] Foreach statement
  • [ ] All attributes
  • [ ] Associative array literals
  • [ ] CT type constants
  • [ ] Reflection methods
  • [ ] Anonymous structs
  • [x] Distinct types
  • [ ] LTO/ThinLTO setup
  • [ ] Built-in linking
  • [ ]
    global
    /
    shared
    for globals
  • [ ] Complex macros
  • [x] CT only macros evaluating to constants
  • [ ] Escape macros
  • [ ] Implicit capturing macros
  • [ ] Trailing body macros
  • [ ] Subarray initializers
  • [x] range initializers e.g.
    { [1..2] = 2 }
  • [ ] Bitstructs
  • [ ]
    asm
    section
  • [ ]
    $switch
  • [ ]
    $for
  • [ ] Pre-post conditions
  • [ ] Stdlib inclusion
  • [ ] Generic modules
  • [ ] String functions
  • [ ] Vararrays e.g.
    int[*]
  • [ ] Compile time incremental arrays
  • [ ] Complete C ABI conformance in progress
  • [ ] Generic functions
  • [ ] Debug info in progress
  • [ ] Simd vector types
  • [ ] Complex types

What can you help with?

  • If you wish to contribute with ideas, please file issues on the c3docs: https://github.com/c3lang/c3docs instead of the compiler.
  • Discuss the language on discord to help iron out syntax.
  • Stdlib work will soon start, do you want to help out building the C3 std lib?
  • Do you want to do real compiler work? Everyone is welcome to contribute.

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