bitnami-docker-mariadb

by bitnami

Bitnami MariaDB Docker Image

231 Stars 104 Forks Last release: almost 2 years ago (10.2.19-debian-9-r0) Other 4.9K Commits 4.5K Releases

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What is MariaDB?

MariaDB is a fast, reliable, scalable, and easy to use open-source relational database system. MariaDB Server is intended for mission-critical, heavy-load production systems as well as for embedding into mass-deployed software.

https://mariadb.com/

TL;DR

$ docker run --name mariadb -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes bitnami/mariadb:latest

Docker Compose

$ curl -sSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/bitnami/bitnami-docker-mariadb/master/docker-compose.yml > docker-compose.yml
$ docker-compose up -d

Why use Bitnami Images?

  • Bitnami closely tracks upstream source changes and promptly publishes new versions of this image using our automated systems.
  • With Bitnami images the latest bug fixes and features are available as soon as possible.
  • Bitnami containers, virtual machines and cloud images use the same components and configuration approach - making it easy to switch between formats based on your project needs.
  • All our images are based on minideb a minimalist Debian based container image which gives you a small base container image and the familiarity of a leading Linux distribution.
  • All Bitnami images available in Docker Hub are signed with Docker Content Trust (DCT). You can use
    DOCKER_CONTENT_TRUST=1
    to verify the integrity of the images.
  • Bitnami container images are released daily with the latest distribution packages available.

This CVE scan report contains a security report with all open CVEs. To get the list of actionable security issues, find the "latest" tag, click the vulnerability report link under the corresponding "Security scan" field and then select the "Only show fixable" filter on the next page.

How to deploy MariaDB in Kubernetes?

Deploying Bitnami applications as Helm Charts is the easiest way to get started with our applications on Kubernetes. Read more about the installation in the Bitnami MariaDB Chart GitHub repository.

Bitnami containers can be used with Kubeapps for deployment and management of Helm Charts in clusters.

Why use a non-root container?

Non-root container images add an extra layer of security and are generally recommended for production environments. However, because they run as a non-root user, privileged tasks are typically off-limits. Learn more about non-root containers in our docs.

Supported tags and respective
Dockerfile
links

Learn more about the Bitnami tagging policy and the difference between rolling tags and immutable tags in our documentation page.

Subscribe to project updates by watching the bitnami/mariadb GitHub repo.

Get this image

The recommended way to get the Bitnami MariaDB Docker Image is to pull the prebuilt image from the Docker Hub Registry.

$ docker pull bitnami/mariadb:latest

To use a specific version, you can pull a versioned tag. You can view the list of available versions in the Docker Hub Registry.

$ docker pull bitnami/mariadb:[TAG]

If you wish, you can also build the image yourself by cloning the repository, changing to the directory containing the Dockerfile and executing the

docker build
command. Remember to replace the
VERSION
and
OPERATING-SYSTEM
path placeholders in the example command below with the correct values.
$ git clone https://github.com/bitnami/bitnami-docker-mariadb.git
$ cd bitnami-docker-mariadb/VERSION/OPERATING-SYSTEM
$ docker build -t bitnami/mariadb:latest .

Persisting your database

If you remove the container all your data will be lost, and the next time you run the image the database will be reinitialized. To avoid this loss of data, you should mount a volume that will persist even after the container is removed.

For persistence you should mount a directory at the

/bitnami/mariadb
path. If the mounted directory is empty, it will be initialized on the first run.
$ docker run \
    -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes \
    -v /path/to/mariadb-persistence:/bitnami/mariadb \
    bitnami/mariadb:latest

or by modifying the

docker-compose.yml
file present in this repository:

services:
  mariadb:
  ...
    volumes:
      - /path/to/mariadb-persistence:/bitnami/mariadb
  ...

NOTE: As this is a non-root container, the mounted files and directories must have the proper permissions for the UID

1001
.

Connecting to other containers

Using Docker container networking, a MariaDB server running inside a container can easily be accessed by your application containers.

Containers attached to the same network can communicate with each other using the container name as the hostname.

Using the Command Line

In this example, we will create a MariaDB client instance that will connect to the server instance that is running on the same docker network as the client.

Step 1: Create a network

$ docker network create app-tier --driver bridge

Step 2: Launch the MariaDB server instance

Use the

--network app-tier
argument to the
docker run
command to attach the MariaDB container to the
app-tier
network.
$ docker run -d --name mariadb-server \
    -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes \
    --network app-tier \
    bitnami/mariadb:latest

Step 3: Launch your MariaDB client instance

Finally we create a new container instance to launch the MariaDB client and connect to the server created in the previous step:

$ docker run -it --rm \
    --network app-tier \
    bitnami/mariadb:latest mysql -h mariadb-server -u root

Using Docker Compose

When not specified, Docker Compose automatically sets up a new network and attaches all deployed services to that network. However, we will explicitly define a new

bridge
network named
app-tier
. In this example we assume that you want to connect to the MariaDB server from your own custom application image which is identified in the following snippet by the service name
myapp
.
version: '2'

networks: app-tier: driver: bridge

services: mariadb: image: 'bitnami/mariadb:latest' environment: - ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes networks: - app-tier myapp: image: 'YOUR_APPLICATION_IMAGE' networks: - app-tier

IMPORTANT:

  1. Please update the
    YOUR_APPLICATION_IMAGE
    placeholder in the above snippet with your application image
  2. In your application container, use the hostname
    mariadb
    to connect to the MariaDB server

Launch the containers using:

$ docker-compose up -d

Configuration

Initializing a new instance

When the container is executed for the first time, it will execute the files with extensions

.sh
,
.sql
and
.sql.gz
located at
/docker-entrypoint-initdb.d
.

In order to have your custom files inside the docker image you can mount them as a volume.

Take into account those scripts are treated differently depending on the extension. While the

.sh
scripts are executed in all the nodes; the
.sql
and
.sql.gz
scripts are only executed in the master nodes. The reason behind this differentiation is that the
.sh
scripts allow adding conditions to determine what is the node running the script, while these conditions can't be set using
.sql
nor
sql.gz
files. This way it is possible to cover different use cases depending on their needs.

Passing extra command-line flags to mysqld startup

Passing extra command-line flags to the mysqld service command is possible through the following env var:

  • MARIADB_EXTRA_FLAGS
    : Flags to be appended to the startup command. No defaults
$ docker run --name mariadb -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes -e MARIADB_EXTRA_FLAGS='--max-connect-errors=1000 --max_connections=155' bitnami/mariadb:latest

or by modifying the

docker-compose.yml
file present in this repository:

services:
  mariadb:
  ...
    environment:
      - ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
      - MARIADB_EXTRA_FLAGS=--max-connect-errors=1000 --max_connections=155
  ...

Setting character set and collation

It is possible to configure the character set and collation used by default by the database with the following environment variables:

  • MARIADB_CHARACTER_SET
    : The default character set to use. Default:
    utf8
  • MARIADB_COLLATE
    : The default collation to use. Default:
    utf8_general_ci

Setting the root password on first run

The root user and password can easily be setup with the Bitnami MariaDB Docker image using the following environment variables:

  • MARIADB_ROOT_USER
    : The database admin user. Defaults to
    root
    .
  • MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD
    : The database admin user password. No defaults.
  • MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD_FILE
    : Path to a file that contains the admin user password. This will override the value specified in
    MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD
    . No defaults.

Passing the

MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD
environment variable when running the image for the first time will set the password of the
MARIADB_ROOT_USER
user to the value of
MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD
.
$ docker run --name mariadb -e MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123 bitnami/mariadb:latest

or by modifying the

docker-compose.yml
file present in this repository:

services:
  mariadb:
  ...
    environment:
      - MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123
  ...

Warning The

MARIADB_ROOT_USER
user is always created with remote access. It's suggested that the
MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD
env variable is always specified to set a password for the
MARIADB_ROOT_USER
user. In case you want to allow the
MARIADB_ROOT_USER
user to access the database without a password set the environment variable
ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
. This is recommended only for development.

Allowing empty passwords

By default the MariaDB image expects all the available passwords to be set. In order to allow empty passwords, it is necessary to set the

ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
env variable. This env variable is only recommended for testing or development purposes. We strongly recommend specifying the
MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD
for any other scenario.
$ docker run --name mariadb -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes bitnami/mariadb:latest

or by modifying the

docker-compose.yml
file present in this repository:

services:
  mariadb:
  ...
    environment:
      - ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
  ...

Creating a database on first run

By passing the

MARIADB_DATABASE
environment variable when running the image for the first time, a database will be created. This is useful if your application requires that a database already exists, saving you from having to manually create the database using the MySQL client.
$ docker run --name mariadb \
    -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes \
    -e MARIADB_DATABASE=my_database \
    bitnami/mariadb:latest

or by modifying the

docker-compose.yml
file present in this repository:

services:
  mariadb:
  ...
    environment:
      - ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
      - MARIADB_DATABASE=my_database
  ...

Creating a database user on first run

You can create a restricted database user that only has permissions for the database created with the

MARIADB_DATABASE
environment variable. To do this, provide the

MARIADB_USER
environment variable and to set a password for the database user provide the
MARIADB_PASSWORD
variable (alternatively, you can set the
MARIADB_PASSWORD_FILE
with the path to a file that contains the user password). MariaDB supports different authentication mechanisms, such as
pam
or
mysql_native_password
. To set it, use the
MARIADB_AUTHENTICATION_PLUGIN
variable.
$ docker run --name mariadb \
  -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes \
  -e MARIADB_USER=my_user \
  -e MARIADB_PASSWORD=my_password \
  -e MARIADB_DATABASE=my_database \
  bitnami/mariadb:latest

or by modifying the

docker-compose.yml
file present in this repository:

services:
  mariadb:
  ...
    environment:
      - ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
      - MARIADB_USER=my_user
      - MARIADB_PASSWORD=my_password
      - MARIADB_DATABASE=my_database
  ...

Note! The

root
user will be created with remote access and without a password if
ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD
is enabled. Please provide the
MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD
env variable instead if you want to set a password for the
root
user.

Slow filesystems

In some platforms, the filesystem used for persistence could be slow. That could cause the database to take extra time to be ready. If that's the case, you can configure the

MARIADB_INIT_SLEEP_TIME
environment variable to make the initialization script to wait extra time (in seconds) before proceeding with the configuration operations.

Setting up a replication cluster

A zero downtime MariaDB master-slave replication cluster can easily be setup with the Bitnami MariaDB Docker image using the following environment variables:

  • MARIADB_REPLICATION_MODE
    : The replication mode. Possible values
    master
    /
    slave
    . No defaults.
  • MARIADB_REPLICATION_USER
    : The replication user created on the master on first run. No defaults.
  • MARIADB_REPLICATION_PASSWORD
    : The replication users password. No defaults.
  • MARIADB_REPLICATION_PASSWORD_FILE
    : Path to a file that contains the replication user password. This will override the value specified in
    MARIADB_REPLICATION_PASSWORD
    . No defaults.
  • MARIADB_MASTER_HOST
    : Hostname/IP of replication master (slave parameter). No defaults.
  • MARIADB_MASTER_PORT_NUMBER
    : Server port of the replication master (slave parameter). Defaults to
    3306
    .
  • MARIADB_MASTER_ROOT_USER
    : User on replication master with access to
    MARIADB_DATABASE
    (slave parameter). Defaults to
    root
  • MARIADB_MASTER_ROOT_PASSWORD
    : Password of user on replication master with access to
    MARIADB_DATABASE
    (slave parameter). No defaults.
  • MARIADB_MASTER_ROOT_PASSWORD_FILE
    : Path to a file that contains the password of user on replication master with access to
    MARIADB_DATABASE
    . This will override the value specified in
    MARIADB_MASTER_ROOT_PASSWORD
    . No defaults.

In a replication cluster you can have one master and zero or more slaves. When replication is enabled the master node is in read-write mode, while the slaves are in read-only mode. For best performance its advisable to limit the reads to the slaves.

Step 1: Create the replication master

The first step is to start the MariaDB master.

$ docker run --name mariadb-master \
  -e MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD=master_root_password \
  -e MARIADB_REPLICATION_MODE=master \
  -e MARIADB_REPLICATION_USER=my_repl_user \
  -e MARIADB_REPLICATION_PASSWORD=my_repl_password \
  -e MARIADB_USER=my_user \
  -e MARIADB_PASSWORD=my_password \
  -e MARIADB_DATABASE=my_database \
  bitnami/mariadb:latest

In the above command the container is configured as the

master
using the
MARIADB_REPLICATION_MODE
parameter. A replication user is specified using the
MARIADB_REPLICATION_USER
and
MARIADB_REPLICATION_PASSWORD
parameters.

Step 2: Create the replication slave

Next we start a MariaDB slave container.

$ docker run --name mariadb-slave --link mariadb-master:master \
  -e MARIADB_REPLICATION_MODE=slave \
  -e MARIADB_REPLICATION_USER=my_repl_user \
  -e MARIADB_REPLICATION_PASSWORD=my_repl_password \
  -e MARIADB_MASTER_HOST=master \
  -e MARIADB_MASTER_ROOT_PASSWORD=master_root_password \
  bitnami/mariadb:latest

In the above command the container is configured as a

slave
using the
MARIADB_REPLICATION_MODE
parameter. The
MARIADB_MASTER_HOST
,
MARIADB_MASTER_ROOT_USER
and
MARIADB_MASTER_ROOT_PASSWORD
parameters are used by the slave to connect to the master. It also takes a dump of the existing data in the master server. The replication user credentials are specified using the
MARIADB_REPLICATION_USER
and
MARIADB_REPLICATION_PASSWORD
parameters and should be the same as the one specified on the master.

You now have a two node MariaDB master/slave replication cluster up and running. You can scale the cluster by adding/removing slaves without incurring any downtime.

With Docker Compose the master/slave replication can be setup using:

version: '2'

services: mariadb-master: image: 'bitnami/mariadb:latest' ports: - '3306' volumes: - /path/to/mariadb-persistence:/bitnami/mariadb environment: - MARIADB_REPLICATION_MODE=master - MARIADB_REPLICATION_USER=repl_user - MARIADB_REPLICATION_PASSWORD=repl_password - MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD=master_root_password - MARIADB_USER=my_user - MARIADB_PASSWORD=my_password - MARIADB_DATABASE=my_database mariadb-slave: image: 'bitnami/mariadb:latest' ports: - '3306' depends_on: - mariadb-master environment: - MARIADB_REPLICATION_MODE=slave - MARIADB_REPLICATION_USER=repl_user - MARIADB_REPLICATION_PASSWORD=repl_password - MARIADB_MASTER_HOST=mariadb-master - MARIADB_MASTER_PORT_NUMBER=3306 - MARIADB_MASTER_ROOT_PASSWORD=master_root_password

Scale the number of slaves using:

$ docker-compose up --detach --scale mariadb-master=1 --scale mariadb-slave=3

The above command scales up the number of slaves to

3
. You can scale down in the same manner.

Note: You should not scale up/down the number of master nodes. Always have only one master node running.

Configuration file

The image looks for user-defined configurations in

/opt/bitnami/mariadb/conf/my_custom.cnf
. Create a file named
my_custom.cnf
and mount it at
/opt/bitnami/mariadb/conf/my_custom.cnf
.

For example, in order to override the

max_allowed_packet
directive:

Step 1: Write your
my_custom.cnf
file with the following content.

[mysqld]
max_allowed_packet=32M

Step 2: Run the mariaDB image with the designed volume attached.

$ docker run --name mariadb \
    -p 3306:3306 \
    -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes \
    -v /path/to/my_custom.cnf:/opt/bitnami/mariadb/conf/my_custom.cnf:ro \
    -v /path/to/mariadb-persistence:/bitnami/mariadb \
    bitnami/mariadb:latest

or by modifying the

docker-compose.yml
file present in this repository:

services:
  mariadb:
  ...
    volumes:
      - /path/to/my_custom.cnf:/opt/bitnami/mariadb/conf/my_custom.cnf:ro
      - /path/to/mariadb-persistence:/bitnami/mariadb
  ...

After that, your changes will be taken into account in the server's behaviour.

Refer to the MariaDB server option and variable reference guide for the complete list of configuration options.

Overwrite the main Configuration file

It is also possible to use your custom

my.cnf
and overwrite the main configuration file.
$ docker run --name mariadb  -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes -v /path/to/my.cnf:/opt/bitnami/mariadb/conf/my.cnf:ro bitnami/mariadb:latest

Customize this image

The Bitnami MariaDB Docker image is designed to be extended so it can be used as the base image for your custom configuration.

Extend this image

Before extending this image, please note there are certain configuration settings you can modify using the original image:

  • Settings that can be adapted using environment variables. For instance, you can change the ports used by MariaDB, by setting the environment variables
    MARIADB_PORT_NUMBER
    or the character set using
    MARIADB_CHARACTER_SET
    respectively.

If your desired customizations cannot be covered using the methods mentioned above, extend the image. To do so, create your own image using a Dockerfile with the format below:

FROM bitnami/mariadb
## Put your customizations below
...

Here is an example of extending the image with the following modifications:

  • Install the
    vim
    editor
  • Modify the MariaDB configuration file
  • Modify the ports used by MariaDB
  • Change the user that runs the container
FROM bitnami/mariadb
LABEL maintainer "Bitnami "

Install 'vim'

USER 0 # Required to perform privileged actions RUN install_packages vim USER 1001 # Revert to the original non-root user

modify configuration file.

RUN ini-file set --section "mysqld" --key "collation-server" --value "utf8_general_ci" "/opt/bitnami/mariadb/conf/my.cnf"

Modify the ports used by MariaDB by default

It is also possible to change these environment variables at runtime

ENV MARIADB_PORT_NUMBER=3307 EXPOSE 3307

Modify the default container user

USER 1002

Based on the extended image, you can use a Docker Compose file like the one below to add other features:

  • Add a custom configuration
version: '2'

services: mariadb: build: . ports: - '3306:3307' volumes: - /path/to/my_custom.cnf:/opt/bitnami/mariadb/conf/my_custom.cnf:ro - data:/bitnami/mariadb/data volumes: data: driver: local

Logging

The Bitnami MariaDB Docker image sends the container logs to the

stdout
. To view the logs:
$ docker logs mariadb

or using Docker Compose:

$ docker-compose logs mariadb

You can configure the containers logging driver using the

--log-driver
option if you wish to consume the container logs differently. In the default configuration docker uses the
json-file
driver.

Maintenance

Upgrade this image

Bitnami provides up-to-date versions of MariaDB, including security patches, soon after they are made upstream. We recommend that you follow these steps to upgrade your container.

Step 1: Get the updated image

$ docker pull bitnami/mariadb:latest

or if you're using Docker Compose, update the value of the image property to

bitnami/mariadb:latest
.

Step 2: Stop and backup the currently running container

Stop the currently running container using the command

$ docker stop mariadb

or using Docker Compose:

$ docker-compose stop mariadb

Next, take a snapshot of the persistent volume

/path/to/mariadb-persistence
using:
$ rsync -a /path/to/mariadb-persistence /path/to/mariadb-persistence.bkp.$(date +%Y%m%d-%H.%M.%S)

You can use this snapshot to restore the database state should the upgrade fail.

Step 3: Remove the currently running container

$ docker rm -v mariadb

or using Docker Compose:

$ docker-compose rm -v mariadb

Step 4: Run the new image

Re-create your container from the new image.

$ docker run --name mariadb bitnami/mariadb:latest

or using Docker Compose:

$ docker-compose up mariadb

Useful Links

Notable Changes

10.4.13-debian-10-r12, 10.3.23-debian-10-r14, 10.2.32-debian-10-r14 and 10.1.45-debian-10-r15

  • This image has been adapted so it's easier to customize. See the Customize this image section for more information.

10.1.36-r14 and 10.2.27-r36

  • Decrease the size of the container. It is not necessary Node.js anymore. MariaDB configuration moved to bash scripts in the
    rootfs/
    folder.
  • The recommended mount point to persist data changes to
    /bitnami/mariadb
    .
  • The MariaDB configuration files are not persisted in a volume anymore. Now, they can be found at
    /opt/bitnami/mariadb/conf
    .
  • Backwards compatibility is not guaranteed when data is persisted using docker-compose. You can use the workaround below to overcome it:
$ docker-compose down
# Change the mount point
sed -i -e 's#mariadb_data:/bitnami#mariadb_data:/bitnami/mariadb#g' docker-compose.yml
# Pull the latest bitnami/mariadb image
$ docker pull bitnami/mariadb:latest
$ docker-compose up -d

10.1.28-r2 and 10.2.16-r2

  • The MariaDB container has been migrated to a non-root user approach. Previously the container ran as the
    root
    user and the MariaDB daemon was started as the
    mysql
    user. From now on, both the container and the MariaDB daemon run as user
    1001
    . As a consequence, the data directory must be writable by that user. You can revert this behavior by changing
    USER 1001
    to
    USER root
    in the Dockerfile.

10.2.14-r2 and 10.1.32-r1

  • The mariadb conf file is not in a persistent volume by default.
  • The user is able to specify a custom file in the default location '/opt/bitnami/mariadb/conf/my.cnf'.

10.1.28-r2

  • The mariadb container has been migrated to a non-root container approach. Previously the container run as root user and the mariadb daemon was started as mysql user. From now own, both the container and the mariadb daemon run as user 1001. As a consequence, the configuration files are writable by the user running the mariadb process.

10.1.24-r2

  • VOLUME
    instruction has been removed from the
    Dockerfile
    .

10.1.21-r2

  • MARIADB_MASTER_USER
    has been renamed to
    MARIADB_MASTER_ROOT_USER
  • MARIADB_MASTER_PASSWORD
    has been renamed to
    MARIADB_MASTER_ROOT_PASSWORD
  • MARIADB_ROOT_USER
    has been added to the available env variables. It can be used to specify the admin user.
  • ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD
    has been added to the available env variables. It can be used to allow blank passwords for MariaDB.
  • By default the MariaDB image requires a root password to start. You can specify it using the
    MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD
    env variable or disable this requirement by setting the
    ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD
    env variable to
    yes
    (testing or development scenarios).

10.1.13-r0

  • All volumes have been merged at
    /bitnami/mariadb
    . Now you only need to mount a single volume at
    /bitnami/mariadb
    for persistence.
  • The logs are always sent to the
    stdout
    and are no longer collected in the volume.

Contributing

We'd love for you to contribute to this container. You can request new features by creating an issue, or submit a pull request with your contribution.

Issues

If you encountered a problem running this container, you can file an issue. For us to provide better support, be sure to include the following information in your issue:

  • Host OS and version
  • Docker version (
    docker version
    )
  • Output of
    docker info
  • Version of this container (
    echo $BITNAMI_IMAGE_VERSION
    inside the container)
  • The command you used to run the container, and any relevant output you saw (masking any sensitive information)

License

Copyright (c) 2015-2020 Bitnami

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

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