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axios
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Description

Promise based HTTP client for the browser and node.js

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axios

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Promise based HTTP client for the browser and node.js

Table of Contents

Features

  • Make XMLHttpRequests from the browser
  • Make http requests from node.js
  • Supports the Promise API
  • Intercept request and response
  • Transform request and response data
  • Cancel requests
  • Automatic transforms for JSON data
  • Client side support for protecting against XSRF

Browser Support

Chrome

Firefox Safari Opera Edge IE
Latest ✔ Latest ✔ Latest ✔ Latest ✔ Latest ✔ 11 ✔

Browser Matrix

Installing

Using npm:

$ npm install axios

Using bower:

$ bower install axios

Using yarn:

$ yarn add axios

Using jsDelivr CDN:


Using unpkg CDN:


Example

note: CommonJS usage

In order to gain the TypeScript typings (for intellisense / autocomplete) while using CommonJS imports with

require()
use the following approach:
const axios = require('axios').default;

// axios. will now provide autocomplete and parameter typings

Performing a

GET
request
const axios = require('axios');

// Make a request for a user with a given ID axios.get('/user?ID=12345') .then(function (response) { // handle success console.log(response); }) .catch(function (error) { // handle error console.log(error); }) .then(function () { // always executed });

// Optionally the request above could also be done as axios.get('/user', { params: { ID: 12345 } }) .then(function (response) { console.log(response); }) .catch(function (error) { console.log(error); }) .then(function () { // always executed });

// Want to use async/await? Add the async keyword to your outer function/method. async function getUser() { try { const response = await axios.get('/user?ID=12345'); console.log(response); } catch (error) { console.error(error); } }

NOTE:

async/await
is part of ECMAScript 2017 and is not supported in Internet Explorer and older browsers, so use with caution.

Performing a

POST
request
axios.post('/user', {
    firstName: 'Fred',
    lastName: 'Flintstone'
  })
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (error) {
    console.log(error);
  });

Performing multiple concurrent requests

function getUserAccount() {
  return axios.get('/user/12345');
}

function getUserPermissions() { return axios.get('/user/12345/permissions'); }

Promise.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()]) .then(function (results) { const acct = results[0]; const perm = results[1]; });

axios API

Requests can be made by passing the relevant config to

axios
.
axios(config)
// Send a POST request
axios({
  method: 'post',
  url: '/user/12345',
  data: {
    firstName: 'Fred',
    lastName: 'Flintstone'
  }
});
// GET request for remote image in node.js
axios({
  method: 'get',
  url: 'http://bit.ly/2mTM3nY',
  responseType: 'stream'
})
  .then(function (response) {
    response.data.pipe(fs.createWriteStream('ada_lovelace.jpg'))
  });
axios(url[, config])
// Send a GET request (default method)
axios('/user/12345');

Request method aliases

For convenience aliases have been provided for all supported request methods.

axios.request(config)
axios.get(url[, config])
axios.delete(url[, config])
axios.head(url[, config])
axios.options(url[, config])
axios.post(url[, data[, config]])
axios.put(url[, data[, config]])
axios.patch(url[, data[, config]])
NOTE

When using the alias methods

url
,
method
, and
data
properties don't need to be specified in config.

Concurrency (Deprecated)

Please use

Promise.all
to replace the below functions.

Helper functions for dealing with concurrent requests.

axios.all(iterable) axios.spread(callback)

Creating an instance

You can create a new instance of axios with a custom config.

axios.create([config])
const instance = axios.create({
  baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/',
  timeout: 1000,
  headers: {'X-Custom-Header': 'foobar'}
});

Instance methods

The available instance methods are listed below. The specified config will be merged with the instance config.

axios#request(config)
axios#get(url[, config])
axios#delete(url[, config])
axios#head(url[, config])
axios#options(url[, config])
axios#post(url[, data[, config]])
axios#put(url[, data[, config]])
axios#patch(url[, data[, config]])
axios#getUri([config])

Request Config

These are the available config options for making requests. Only the

url
is required. Requests will default to
GET
if
method
is not specified.
{
  // `url` is the server URL that will be used for the request
  url: '/user',

// method is the request method to be used when making the request method: 'get', // default

// baseURL will be prepended to url unless url is absolute. // It can be convenient to set baseURL for an instance of axios to pass relative URLs // to methods of that instance. baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/',

// transformRequest allows changes to the request data before it is sent to the server // This is only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', 'PATCH' and 'DELETE' // The last function in the array must return a string or an instance of Buffer, ArrayBuffer, // FormData or Stream // You may modify the headers object. transformRequest: [function (data, headers) { // Do whatever you want to transform the data

return data;

}],

// transformResponse allows changes to the response data to be made before // it is passed to then/catch transformResponse: [function (data) { // Do whatever you want to transform the data

return data;

}],

// headers are custom headers to be sent headers: {'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest'},

// params are the URL parameters to be sent with the request // Must be a plain object or a URLSearchParams object params: { ID: 12345 },

// paramsSerializer is an optional function in charge of serializing params // (e.g. https://www.npmjs.com/package/qs, http://api.jquery.com/jquery.param/) paramsSerializer: function (params) { return Qs.stringify(params, {arrayFormat: 'brackets'}) },

// data is the data to be sent as the request body // Only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', 'DELETE , and 'PATCH' // When no transformRequest is set, must be of one of the following types: // - string, plain object, ArrayBuffer, ArrayBufferView, URLSearchParams // - Browser only: FormData, File, Blob // - Node only: Stream, Buffer data: { firstName: 'Fred' },

// syntax alternative to send data into the body // method post // only the value is sent, not the key data: 'Country=Brasil&City=Belo Horizonte',

// timeout specifies the number of milliseconds before the request times out. // If the request takes longer than timeout, the request will be aborted. timeout: 1000, // default is 0 (no timeout)

// withCredentials indicates whether or not cross-site Access-Control requests // should be made using credentials withCredentials: false, // default

// adapter allows custom handling of requests which makes testing easier. // Return a promise and supply a valid response (see lib/adapters/README.md). adapter: function (config) { /* ... */ },

// auth indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used, and supplies credentials. // This will set an Authorization header, overwriting any existing // Authorization custom headers you have set using headers. // Please note that only HTTP Basic auth is configurable through this parameter. // For Bearer tokens and such, use Authorization custom headers instead. auth: { username: 'janedoe', password: 's00pers3cret' },

// responseType indicates the type of data that the server will respond with // options are: 'arraybuffer', 'document', 'json', 'text', 'stream' // browser only: 'blob' responseType: 'json', // default

// responseEncoding indicates encoding to use for decoding responses (Node.js only) // Note: Ignored for responseType of 'stream' or client-side requests responseEncoding: 'utf8', // default

// xsrfCookieName is the name of the cookie to use as a value for xsrf token xsrfCookieName: 'XSRF-TOKEN', // default

// xsrfHeaderName is the name of the http header that carries the xsrf token value xsrfHeaderName: 'X-XSRF-TOKEN', // default

// onUploadProgress allows handling of progress events for uploads // browser only onUploadProgress: function (progressEvent) { // Do whatever you want with the native progress event },

// onDownloadProgress allows handling of progress events for downloads // browser only onDownloadProgress: function (progressEvent) { // Do whatever you want with the native progress event },

// maxContentLength defines the max size of the http response content in bytes allowed in node.js maxContentLength: 2000,

// maxBodyLength (Node only option) defines the max size of the http request content in bytes allowed maxBodyLength: 2000,

// validateStatus defines whether to resolve or reject the promise for a given // HTTP response status code. If validateStatus returns true (or is set to null // or undefined), the promise will be resolved; otherwise, the promise will be // rejected. validateStatus: function (status) { return status >= 200 && status < 300; // default },

// maxRedirects defines the maximum number of redirects to follow in node.js. // If set to 0, no redirects will be followed. maxRedirects: 5, // default

// socketPath defines a UNIX Socket to be used in node.js. // e.g. '/var/run/docker.sock' to send requests to the docker daemon. // Only either socketPath or proxy can be specified. // If both are specified, socketPath is used. socketPath: null, // default

// httpAgent and httpsAgent define a custom agent to be used when performing http // and https requests, respectively, in node.js. This allows options to be added like // keepAlive that are not enabled by default. httpAgent: new http.Agent({ keepAlive: true }), httpsAgent: new https.Agent({ keepAlive: true }),

// proxy defines the hostname, port, and protocol of the proxy server. // You can also define your proxy using the conventional http_proxy and // https_proxy environment variables. If you are using environment variables // for your proxy configuration, you can also define a no_proxy environment // variable as a comma-separated list of domains that should not be proxied. // Use false to disable proxies, ignoring environment variables. // auth indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used to connect to the proxy, and // supplies credentials. // This will set an Proxy-Authorization header, overwriting any existing // Proxy-Authorization custom headers you have set using headers. // If the proxy server uses HTTPS, then you must set the protocol to https. proxy: { protocol: 'https', host: '127.0.0.1', port: 9000, auth: { username: 'mikeymike', password: 'rapunz3l' } },

// cancelToken specifies a cancel token that can be used to cancel the request // (see Cancellation section below for details) cancelToken: new CancelToken(function (cancel) { }),

// decompress indicates whether or not the response body should be decompressed // automatically. If set to true will also remove the 'content-encoding' header // from the responses objects of all decompressed responses // - Node only (XHR cannot turn off decompression) decompress: true // default

}

Response Schema

The response for a request contains the following information.

{
  // `data` is the response that was provided by the server
  data: {},

// status is the HTTP status code from the server response status: 200,

// statusText is the HTTP status message from the server response statusText: 'OK',

// headers the HTTP headers that the server responded with // All header names are lower cased and can be accessed using the bracket notation. // Example: response.headers['content-type'] headers: {},

// config is the config that was provided to axios for the request config: {},

// request is the request that generated this response // It is the last ClientRequest instance in node.js (in redirects) // and an XMLHttpRequest instance in the browser request: {} }

When using

then
, you will receive the response as follows:
axios.get('/user/12345')
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response.data);
    console.log(response.status);
    console.log(response.statusText);
    console.log(response.headers);
    console.log(response.config);
  });

When using

catch
, or passing a rejection callback as second parameter of
then
, the response will be available through the
error
object as explained in the Handling Errors section.

Config Defaults

You can specify config defaults that will be applied to every request.

Global axios defaults

axios.defaults.baseURL = 'https://api.example.com';
axios.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;
axios.defaults.headers.post['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded';

Custom instance defaults

// Set config defaults when creating the instance
const instance = axios.create({
  baseURL: 'https://api.example.com'
});

// Alter defaults after instance has been created instance.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;

Config order of precedence

Config will be merged with an order of precedence. The order is library defaults found in lib/defaults.js, then

defaults
property of the instance, and finally
config
argument for the request. The latter will take precedence over the former. Here's an example.
// Create an instance using the config defaults provided by the library
// At this point the timeout config value is `0` as is the default for the library
const instance = axios.create();

// Override timeout default for the library // Now all requests using this instance will wait 2.5 seconds before timing out instance.defaults.timeout = 2500;

// Override timeout for this request as it's known to take a long time instance.get('/longRequest', { timeout: 5000 });

Interceptors

You can intercept requests or responses before they are handled by

then
or
catch
.
// Add a request interceptor
axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) {
    // Do something before request is sent
    return config;
  }, function (error) {
    // Do something with request error
    return Promise.reject(error);
  });

// Add a response interceptor axios.interceptors.response.use(function (response) { // Any status code that lie within the range of 2xx cause this function to trigger // Do something with response data return response; }, function (error) { // Any status codes that falls outside the range of 2xx cause this function to trigger // Do something with response error return Promise.reject(error); });

If you need to remove an interceptor later you can.

const myInterceptor = axios.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});
axios.interceptors.request.eject(myInterceptor);

You can add interceptors to a custom instance of axios.

const instance = axios.create();
instance.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});

Handling Errors

axios.get('/user/12345')
  .catch(function (error) {
    if (error.response) {
      // The request was made and the server responded with a status code
      // that falls out of the range of 2xx
      console.log(error.response.data);
      console.log(error.response.status);
      console.log(error.response.headers);
    } else if (error.request) {
      // The request was made but no response was received
      // `error.request` is an instance of XMLHttpRequest in the browser and an instance of
      // http.ClientRequest in node.js
      console.log(error.request);
    } else {
      // Something happened in setting up the request that triggered an Error
      console.log('Error', error.message);
    }
    console.log(error.config);
  });

Using the

validateStatus
config option, you can define HTTP code(s) that should throw an error.
axios.get('/user/12345', {
  validateStatus: function (status) {
    return status < 500; // Resolve only if the status code is less than 500
  }
})

Using

toJSON
you get an object with more information about the HTTP error.
axios.get('/user/12345')
  .catch(function (error) {
    console.log(error.toJSON());
  });

Cancellation

You can cancel a request using a cancel token.

The axios cancel token API is based on the withdrawn cancelable promises proposal.

You can create a cancel token using the

CancelToken.source
factory as shown below:
const CancelToken = axios.CancelToken;
const source = CancelToken.source();

axios.get('/user/12345', { cancelToken: source.token }).catch(function (thrown) { if (axios.isCancel(thrown)) { console.log('Request canceled', thrown.message); } else { // handle error } });

axios.post('/user/12345', { name: 'new name' }, { cancelToken: source.token })

// cancel the request (the message parameter is optional) source.cancel('Operation canceled by the user.');

You can also create a cancel token by passing an executor function to the

CancelToken
constructor:
const CancelToken = axios.CancelToken;
let cancel;

axios.get('/user/12345', { cancelToken: new CancelToken(function executor(c) { // An executor function receives a cancel function as a parameter cancel = c; }) });

// cancel the request cancel();

Note: you can cancel several requests with the same cancel token.

Using application/x-www-form-urlencoded format

By default, axios serializes JavaScript objects to

JSON
. To send data in the
application/x-www-form-urlencoded
format instead, you can use one of the following options.

Browser

In a browser, you can use the

URLSearchParams
API as follows:

const params = new URLSearchParams();
params.append('param1', 'value1');
params.append('param2', 'value2');
axios.post('/foo', params);

Note that

URLSearchParams
is not supported by all browsers (see caniuse.com), but there is a polyfill available (make sure to polyfill the global environment).

Alternatively, you can encode data using the

qs
library:

const qs = require('qs');
axios.post('/foo', qs.stringify({ 'bar': 123 }));

Or in another way (ES6),

import qs from 'qs';
const data = { 'bar': 123 };
const options = {
  method: 'POST',
  headers: { 'content-type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' },
  data: qs.stringify(data),
  url,
};
axios(options);

Node.js

Query string

In node.js, you can use the

querystring
module as follows:

const querystring = require('querystring');
axios.post('http://something.com/', querystring.stringify({ foo: 'bar' }));

or 'URLSearchParams' from 'url module' as follows:

const url = require('url');
const params = new url.URLSearchParams({ foo: 'bar' });
axios.post('http://something.com/', params.toString());

You can also use the

qs
library.

NOTE

The

qs
library is preferable if you need to stringify nested objects, as the
querystring
method has known issues with that use case (https://github.com/nodejs/node-v0.x-archive/issues/1665).

Form data

In node.js, you can use the

form-data
library as follows:

const FormData = require('form-data');

const form = new FormData(); form.append('my_field', 'my value'); form.append('my_buffer', new Buffer(10)); form.append('my_file', fs.createReadStream('/foo/bar.jpg'));

axios.post('https://example.com', form, { headers: form.getHeaders() })

Alternatively, use an interceptor:

axios.interceptors.request.use(config => {
  if (config.data instanceof FormData) {
    Object.assign(config.headers, config.data.getHeaders());
  }
  return config;
});

Semver

Until axios reaches a

1.0
release, breaking changes will be released with a new minor version. For example
0.5.1
, and
0.5.4
will have the same API, but
0.6.0
will have breaking changes.

Promises

axios depends on a native ES6 Promise implementation to be supported. If your environment doesn't support ES6 Promises, you can polyfill.

TypeScript

axios includes TypeScript definitions.

typescript
import axios from 'axios';
axios.get('/user?ID=12345');

Resources

Credits

axios is heavily inspired by the $http service provided in Angular. Ultimately axios is an effort to provide a standalone

$http
-like service for use outside of Angular.

License

MIT

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