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awslabs

Description

Prevents you from committing secrets and credentials into git repositories

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===========

git-secrets


Prevents you from committing passwords and other sensitive information to a git repository.

.. contents:: :depth: 2

Synopsis

::

git secrets --scan [-r|--recursive] [--cached] [--no-index] [--untracked] [...]
git secrets --scan-history
git secrets --install [-f|--force] []
git secrets --list [--global]
git secrets --add [-a|--allowed] [-l|--literal] [--global] 
git secrets --add-provider [--global]  [arguments...]
git secrets --register-aws [--global]
git secrets --aws-provider []

Description

git-secrets
scans commits, commit messages, and
--no-ff
merges to prevent adding secrets into your git repositories. If a commit, commit message, or any commit in a
--no-ff
merge history matches one of your configured prohibited regular expression patterns, then the commit is rejected.

Installing git-secrets

git-secrets
must be placed somewhere in your PATH so that it is picked up by
git
when running
git secrets
.

*nix (Linux/macOS) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You can use the

install
target of the provided Makefile to install
git secrets
and the man page. You can customize the install path using the PREFIX and MANPREFIX variables.

::

make install

Windows ~~~~~~~

Run the provided

install.ps1
powershell script. This will copy the needed files to an installation directory (
%USERPROFILE%/.git-secrets
by default) and add the directory to the current user
PATH
.

::

PS > ./install.ps1

Homebrew (for macOS users) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

::

brew install git-secrets

.. warning::

**You're not done yet! You MUST install the git hooks for every repo that
you wish to use with** ``git secrets --install``.

Here's a quick example of how to ensure a git repository is scanned for secrets on each commit::

cd /path/to/my/repo
git secrets --install
git secrets --register-aws

Advanced configuration

Add a configuration template if you want to add hooks to all repositories you initialize or clone in the future.

::

git secrets --register-aws --global

Add hooks to all your local repositories.

::

git secrets --install ~/.git-templates/git-secrets
git config --global init.templateDir ~/.git-templates/git-secrets

Add custom providers to scan for security credentials.

::

git secrets --add-provider -- cat /path/to/secret/file/patterns

Before making public a repository

With git-secrets is also possible to scan a repository including all revisions:

::

git secrets --scan-history

Options

Operation Modes ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Each of these options must appear first on the command line.

--install
Installs git hooks for a repository. Once the hooks are installed for a git repository, commits and non-fast-forward merges for that repository will be prevented from committing secrets.

--scan
Scans one or more files for secrets. When a file contains a secret, the matched text from the file being scanned will be written to stdout and the script will exit with a non-zero status. Each matched line will be written with the name of the file that matched, a colon, the line number that matched, a colon, and then the line of text that matched. If no files are provided, all files returned by
git ls-files
are scanned.

--scan-history
Scans repository including all revisions. When a file contains a secret, the matched text from the file being scanned will be written to stdout and the script will exit with a non-zero status. Each matched line will be written with the name of the file that matched, a colon, the line number that matched, a colon, and then the line of text that matched.

--list
Lists the
git-secrets
configuration for the current repo or in the global git config.

--add
Adds a prohibited or allowed pattern.

--add-provider
Registers a secret provider. Secret providers are executables that when invoked output prohibited patterns that
git-secrets
should treat as prohibited.

--register-aws
Adds common AWS patterns to the git config and ensures that keys present in
~/.aws/credentials
are not found in any commit. The following checks are added:
- AWS Access Key IDs via ``(A3T[A-Z0-9]|AKIA|AGPA|AIDA|AROA|AIPA|ANPA|ANVA|ASIA)[A-Z0-9]{16}``
- AWS Secret Access Key assignments via ":" or "=" surrounded by optional
  quotes
- AWS account ID assignments via ":" or "=" surrounded by optional quotes
- Allowed patterns for example AWS keys (``AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE`` and
  ``wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY``)
- Known credentials from ``~/.aws/credentials``

.. note::

While the patterns registered by this command should catch most
instances of AWS credentials, these patterns are **not** guaranteed to
catch them **all**. ``git-secrets`` should be used as an extra means of
insurance -- you still need to do your due diligence to ensure that you
do not commit credentials to a repository.

--aws-provider
Secret provider that outputs credentials found in an INI file. You can optionally provide the path to an INI file.

Options for

--install
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

-f, --force
Overwrites existing hooks if present.


    When provided, installs git hooks to the given directory. The current
    directory is assumed if 
 is not provided.
If the provided ```` is not in a git repository, the
directory will be created and hooks will be placed in
``/hooks``. This can be useful for creating git template
directories using with ``git init --template ``.

You can run git init on a repository that has already been initialized. From the git init documentation <https:>_:

From the git documentation: Running ``git init`` in an existing repository
is safe. It will not overwrite things that are already there. The
primary reason for rerunning ``git init`` is to pick up newly added
templates (or to move the repository to another place if
``--separate-git-dir`` is given).

The following git hooks are installed:

  1. pre-commit: Used to check if any of the files changed in the commit use prohibited patterns.
  2. commit-msg: Used to determine if a commit message contains a prohibited patterns.
  3. prepare-commit-msg: Used to determine if a merge commit will introduce a history that contains a prohibited pattern at any point. Please note that this hook is only invoked for non fast-forward merges.

.. note::

Git only allows a single script to be executed per hook. If the
repository contains Debian-style subdirectories like ``pre-commit.d``
and ``commit-msg.d``, then the git hooks will be installed into these
directories, which assumes that you've configured the corresponding
hooks to execute all of the scripts found in these directories. If
these git subdirectories are not present, then the git hooks will be
installed to the git repo's ``.git/hooks`` directory.

Examples ^^^^^^^^

Install git hooks to the current directory::

cd /path/to/my/repository
git secrets --install

Install git hooks to a repository other than the current directory::

git secrets --install /path/to/my/repository

Create a git template that has

git-secrets
installed, and then copy that template into a git repository::
git secrets --install ~/.git-templates/git-secrets
git init --template ~/.git-templates/git-secrets

Overwrite existing hooks if present::

git secrets --install -f

Options for

--scan
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

-r, --recursive
Scans the given files recursively. If a directory is encountered, the directory will be scanned. If
-r
is not provided, directories will be ignored.
``-r`` cannot be used alongside ``--cached``, ``--no-index``, or
``--untracked``.

--cached
Searches blobs registered in the index file.

--no-index
Searches files in the current directory that is not managed by git.

--untracked
In addition to searching in the tracked files in the working tree,
--scan
also in untracked files.

...
The path to one or more files on disk to scan for secrets.
If no files are provided, all files returned by ``git ls-files`` are
scanned.

Examples ^^^^^^^^

Scan all files in the repo::

git secrets --scan

Scans a single file for secrets::

git secrets --scan /path/to/file

Scans a directory recursively for secrets::

git secrets --scan -r /path/to/directory

Scans multiple files for secrets::

git secrets --scan /path/to/file /path/to/other/file

You can scan by globbing::

git secrets --scan /path/to/directory/*

Scan from stdin::

echo 'hello!' | git secrets --scan -

Options for

--list
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

--global
Lists only git-secrets configuration in the global git config.

Options for

--add
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

--global
Adds patterns to the global git config

-l, --literal
Escapes special regular expression characters in the provided pattern so that the pattern is searched for literally.

-a, --allowed
Mark the pattern as allowed instead of prohibited. Allowed patterns are used to filter our false positives.


    The regex pattern to search.

Examples ^^^^^^^^

Adds a prohibited pattern to the current repo::

git secrets --add '[A-Z0-9]{20}'

Adds a prohibited pattern to the global git config::

git secrets --add --global '[A-Z0-9]{20}'

Adds a string that is scanned for literally (

+
is escaped)::
git secrets --add --literal 'foo+bar'

Add an allowed pattern::

git secrets --add -a 'allowed pattern'

Options for

--register-aws
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

--global
Adds AWS specific configuration variables to the global git config.

Options for

--aws-provider
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

[]
If provided, specifies the custom path to an INI file to scan. If not provided,
~/.aws/credentials
is assumed.

Options for

--add-provider
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

--global
Adds the provider to the global git config.


    Provider command to invoke. When invoked the command is expected to write
    prohibited patterns separated by new lines to stdout. Any extra arguments
    provided are passed on to the command.

Examples ^^^^^^^^

Registers a secret provider with arguments::

git secrets --add-provider -- git secrets --aws-provider

Cats secrets out of a file::

git secrets --add-provider -- cat /path/to/secret/file/patterns

Defining prohibited patterns

egrep
-compatible regular expressions are used to determine if a commit or commit message contains any prohibited patterns. These regular expressions are defined using the
git config
command. It is important to note that different systems use different versions of egrep. For example, when running on macOS, you will use a different version of
egrep
than when running on something like Ubuntu (BSD vs GNU).

You can add prohibited regular expression patterns to your git config using

git secrets --add 
.

Ignoring false positives

Sometimes a regular expression might match false positives. For example, git commit SHAs look a lot like AWS access keys. You can specify many different regular expression patterns as false positives using the following command:

::

git secrets --add --allowed 'my regex pattern'

You can also add regular expressions patterns to filter false positives to a

.gitallowed
file located in the repository's root directory. Lines starting with
#
are skipped (comment line) and empty lines are also skipped.

First, git-secrets will extract all lines from a file that contain a prohibited match. Included in the matched results will be the full path to the name of the file that was matched, followed by ':', followed by the line number that was matched, followed by the entire line from the file that was matched by a secret pattern. Then, if you've defined allowed regular expressions, git-secrets will check to see if all of the matched lines match at least one of your registered allowed regular expressions. If all of the lines that were flagged as secret are canceled out by an allowed match, then the subject text does not contain any secrets. If any of the matched lines are not matched by an allowed regular expression, then git-secrets will fail the commit/merge/message.

.. important::

Just as it is a bad practice to add prohibited patterns that are too
greedy, it is also a bad practice to add allowed patterns that are too
forgiving. Be sure to test out your patterns using ad-hoc calls to
``git secrets --scan $filename`` to ensure they are working as intended.

Secret providers

Sometimes you want to check for an exact pattern match against a set of known secrets. For example, you might want to ensure that no credentials present in

~/.aws/credentials
ever show up in a commit. In these cases, it's better to leave these secrets in one location rather than spread them out across git repositories in git configs. You can use "secret providers" to fetch these types of credentials. A secret provider is an executable that when invoked outputs prohibited patterns separated by new lines.

You can add secret providers using the

--add-provider
command::
git secrets --add-provider -- git secrets --aws-provider

Notice the use of

--
. This ensures that any arguments associated with the provider are passed to the provider each time it is invoked when scanning for secrets.

Example walkthrough

Let's take a look at an example. Given the following subject text (stored in

/tmp/example
)::
This is a test!
[email protected]
password=******
More test...

And the following registered patterns:

::

git secrets --add 'password\s*=\s*.+'
git secrets --add --allowed --literal '[email protected]'

Running

git secrets --scan /tmp/example
, the result will result in the following error output::
/tmp/example:3:password=******

[ERROR] Matched prohibited pattern

Possible mitigations:

  • Mark false positives as allowed using: git config --add secrets.allowed ...
  • List your configured patterns: git config --get-all secrets.patterns
  • List your configured allowed patterns: git config --get-all secrets.allowed
  • Use --no-verify if this is a one-time false positive

Breaking this down, the prohibited pattern value of

password\s*=\s*.+
will match the following lines::
/tmp/example:2:[email protected]
/tmp/example:3:password=******

...But the first match will be filtered out due to the fact that it matches the allowed regular expression of

[email protected]
. Because there is still a remaining line that did not match, it is considered a secret.

Because that matching lines are placed on lines that start with the filename and line number (e.g.,

/tmp/example:3:...
), you can create allowed patterns that take filenames and line numbers into account in the regular expression. For example, you could whitelist an entire file using something like::
git secrets --add --allowed '/tmp/example:.*'
git secrets --scan /tmp/example && echo $?
# Outputs: 0

Alternatively, you could allow a specific line number of a file if that line is unlikely to change using something like the following:

::

git secrets --add --allowed '/tmp/example:3:.*'
git secrets --scan /tmp/example && echo $?
# Outputs: 0

Keep this in mind when creating allowed patterns to ensure that your allowed patterns are not inadvertently matched due to the fact that the filename is included in the subject text that allowed patterns are matched against.

Skipping validation

Use the

--no-verify
option in the event of a false positive match in a commit, merge, or commit message. This will skip the execution of the git hook and allow you to make the commit or merge.

About

  • Author:
    Michael Dowling 
    _
  • Issue tracker: This project's source code and issue tracker can be found at
    https://github.com/awslabs/git-secrets 
    _
  • Special thanks to Adrian Vatchinsky and Ari Juels of Cornell University for providing suggestions and feedback.

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