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autopilot-rs

Description

A simple, cross-platform GUI automation module for Python and Rust.

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AutoPy Introduction and Tutorial

Introduction

AutoPy is a simple, cross-platform GUI automation library for Python. It includes functions for controlling the keyboard and mouse, finding colors and bitmaps on-screen, and displaying alerts.

Currently supported on macOS, Windows, and X11 with the XTest extension.

Getting Started

Requirements

  • Python 2.7, or Python 3.5 and up.
  • Rust 1.23.0-nightly 2019-02-06 or later (unless using a binary wheel distribution).
  • macOS 10.6 and up.
  • Windows 7 and up.
  • X11 with the XTest extension.

Installation

First, see if a binary wheel is available for your machine by running:

$ pip install -U autopy

If that fails, install rustup and then run:

$ rustup default nightly-2019-10-05
$ pip install -U setuptools-rust
$ pip install -U autopy

Another option is to build from the latest source on the GitHub repository:

$ git clone git://github.com/autopilot-rs/autopy-rs.git
$ cd autopy
$ make
$ make install

Note: AutoPy currently requires the

2019-10-05
Rust nightly in order to build from source. This is to maintain compatibility with an older version of PyO3, as the latest version has dropped Python 2 support. Python 2 support will likely be dropped from AutoPy as well sometime later this year, depending on how necessary it is to upgrade to a more recent version of PyO3 or Rust. In the meantime, it may be necessary to install the required nightly via the following when building locally:
rustup install nightly 2019-10-05 --force

This is due to rustup complaining that it doesn't include certain components such as

rustfmt
.

Additional instructions for installing from source on Windows are available here.

Hello World

The following is the source for a "hello world" script in autopy. Running this code will cause an alert dialog to appear on every major platform:

import autopy


def hello_world(): autopy.alert.alert("Hello, world") hello_world()

Cross platform alerts

Tutorials

Controlling the Mouse

AutoPy includes a number of functions for controlling the mouse. For a full list, consult the API Reference. E.g., to immediately "teleport" the mouse to the top left corner of the screen:

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.mouse.move(0, 0)

To move the mouse a bit more realistically, we could use:

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.mouse.smooth_move(0, 0)

Even better, we could write our own function to move the mouse across the screen as a sine wave:

import autopy
import math
import time
import random
import sys

TWO_PI = math.pi * 2.0

def sine_mouse_wave(): """ Moves the mouse in a sine wave from the left edge of the screen to the right. """ width, height = autopy.screen.size() height /= 2 height -= 10 # Stay in the screen bounds.

for x in range(int(width)):
    y = int(height * math.sin((TWO_PI * x) / width) + height)
    autopy.mouse.move(x, y)
    time.sleep(random.uniform(0.001, 0.003))

sine_mouse_wave()

Demonstration video

Controlling the Keyboard

The following will enter the keys from the string "Hello, world!" in the currently focused input at 100 WPM:

import autopy


autopy.key.type_string("Hello, world!", wpm=100)

Alternatively, individual keys can be entered using the following:

import autopy


autopy.key.tap(autopy.key.Code.TAB, [autopy.key.Modifier.META]) autopy.key.tap("w", [autopy.key.Modifier.META])

Working with Bitmaps

All of autopy's bitmap routines can be found in the module

autopy.bitmap
. A useful way to explore autopy is to use Python's built-in
help()
function, for example in
help(autopy.bitmap.Bitmap)
. AutoPy's functions are documented with descriptive docstrings, so this should show a nice overview.
>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.bitmap.capture_screen()

This takes a screenshot of the main screen, copies it to a bitmap, displays its memory address, and then immediately destroys it. Let's do something more useful, like look at its pixel data:

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.bitmap.capture_screen().get_color(0, 0)
15921906

AutoPy uses a coordinate system with its origin starting at the top-left, so this should return the color of pixel at the top-left corner of the screen. The number shown looks a bit unrecognizable, but we can format it with Python's built-in

hex
function:
>>> import autopy
>>> hex(autopy.bitmap.capture_screen().get_color(0, 0))
'0xF2F2F2'

Alternatively, we can use:

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.color.hex_to_rgb(autopy.screen.get_color(0, 0))
(242, 242, 242)

which converts that hex value to a tuple of

(r, g, b)
values. (Note that
autopy.screen.get_color()
, used here, is merely a more convenient and efficient version of
autopy.bitmap.capture_screen().get_color()
.)

To save the screen capture to a file, we can use:

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.bitmap.capture_screen().save('screengrab.png')

The filetype is either parsed automatically from the filename, or given as an optional parameter. Currently only jpeg and png files are supported.

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.bitmap.Bitmap.open('needle.png')

Aside from analyzing a bitmap's pixel data, the main use for loading a bitmap is finding it on the screen or inside another bitmap. For example, the following prints the coordinates of the first image found in a bitmap (scanned from left to right, top to bottom):

import autopy


def find_image_example(): needle = autopy.bitmap.Bitmap.open('needle.png') haystack = autopy.bitmap.Bitmap.open('haystack.png')

pos = haystack.find_bitmap(needle)
if pos:
    print("Found needle at: %s" % str(pos))

find_image_example()

It's also possible to do a bounded search by passing a tuple

((x, y), (width,
height))
:
haystack.find_bitmap(needle, rect=((10, 10), (100, 100)))

Projects using AutoPy

  • AutoPyDriverServer, AutoPy through WebDriver or a webdriver-compatible server.
  • guibot, A tool for GUI automation using a variety of computer vision and desktop control backends.
  • spynner, Programmatic web browsing module with AJAX support for Python.
  • SUMO, An open source, highly portable, microscopic and continuous road traffic simulation package designed to handle large road networks.

API Reference

Hope you enjoy using autopy! For a more in depth overview, see the API Reference.

Contributing

If you are interested in this project, please consider contributing. Here are a few ways you can help:

License

This project is licensed under either the Apache-2.0 or MIT license, at your option.

Unless you explicitly state otherwise, any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the work by you, as defined in the Apache-2.0 license, shall be dual licensed as above, without any additional terms or conditions.

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