Github url

node-jsonwebtoken

by auth0

JsonWebToken implementation for node.js http://self-issued.info/docs/draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token...

12.7K Stars 897 Forks Last release: Not found MIT License 433 Commits 71 Releases

Available items

No Items, yet!

The developer of this repository has not created any items for sale yet. Need a bug fixed? Help with integration? A different license? Create a request here:

jsonwebtoken

| Build | Dependency | |-----------|---------------| | Build Status | Dependency Status |

An implementation of JSON Web Tokens.

This was developed against

draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token-08

. It makes use of node-jws

Install

$ npm install jsonwebtoken

Migration notes

Usage

jwt.sign(payload, secretOrPrivateKey, [options, callback])

(Asynchronous) If a callback is supplied, the callback is called with the

err

or the JWT.

(Synchronous) Returns the JsonWebToken as string

payload

could be an object literal, buffer or string representing valid JSON.

Please note that

exp

or any other claim is only set if the payload is an object literal. Buffer or string payloads are not checked for JSON validity.

If

payload

is not a buffer or a string, it will be coerced into a string using

JSON.stringify

.

secretOrPrivateKey

is a string, buffer, or object containing either the secret for HMAC algorithms or the PEM encoded private key for RSA and ECDSA. In case of a private key with passphrase an object

{ key, passphrase }

can be used (based on crypto documentation), in this case be sure you pass the

algorithm

option.

options

:

algorithm

(default:

HS256

)

expiresIn

: expressed in seconds or a string describing a time span zeit/ms. > Eg:

60

,

"2 days"

,

"10h"

,

"7d"

. A numeric value is interpreted as a seconds count. If you use a string be sure you provide the time units (days, hours, etc), otherwise milliseconds unit is used by default (

"120"

is equal to

"120ms"

).

notBefore

: expressed in seconds or a string describing a time span zeit/ms. > Eg:

60

,

"2 days"

,

"10h"

,

"7d"

. A numeric value is interpreted as a seconds count. If you use a string be sure you provide the time units (days, hours, etc), otherwise milliseconds unit is used by default (

"120"

is equal to

"120ms"

).

audience
  • issuer
  • jwtid
  • subject
  • noTimestamp
  • header
  • keyid
  • mutatePayload
    : if true, the sign function will modify the payload object directly. This is useful if you need a raw reference to the payload after claims have been applied to it but before it has been encoded into a token.

There are no default values for

expiresIn

,

notBefore

,

audience

,

subject

,

issuer

. These claims can also be provided in the payload directly with

exp

,

nbf

,

aud

,

sub

and

iss

respectively, but you can't include in both places.

Remember that

exp

,

nbf

and

iat

are NumericDate, see related Token Expiration (exp claim)

The header can be customized via the

options.header

object.

Generated jwts will include an

iat

(issued at) claim by default unless

noTimestamp

is specified. If

iat

is inserted in the payload, it will be used instead of the real timestamp for calculating other things like

exp

given a timespan in

options.expiresIn

.

Synchronous Sign with default (HMAC SHA256)

var jwt = require('jsonwebtoken'); var token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, 'shhhhh');

Synchronous Sign with RSA SHA256

js // sign with RSA SHA256 var privateKey = fs.readFileSync('private.key'); var token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, privateKey, { algorithm: 'RS256' });

Sign asynchronously

js jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, privateKey, { algorithm: 'RS256' }, function(err, token) { console.log(token); });

Backdate a jwt 30 seconds

js var older\_token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar', iat: Math.floor(Date.now() / 1000) - 30 }, 'shhhhh');

Token Expiration (exp claim)

The standard for JWT defines an

exp

claim for expiration. The expiration is represented as a NumericDate:

A JSON numeric value representing the number of seconds from 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z UTC until the specified UTC date/time, ignoring leap seconds. This is equivalent to the IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition [POSIX.1] definition "Seconds Since the Epoch", in which each day is accounted for by exactly 86400 seconds, other than that non-integer values can be represented. See RFC 3339 [RFC3339] for details regarding date/times in general and UTC in particular.

This means that the

exp

field should contain the number of seconds since the epoch.

Signing a token with 1 hour of expiration:

jwt.sign({ exp: Math.floor(Date.now() / 1000) + (60 \* 60), data: 'foobar' }, 'secret');

Another way to generate a token like this with this library is:

jwt.sign({ data: 'foobar' }, 'secret', { expiresIn: 60 \* 60 }); //or even better: jwt.sign({ data: 'foobar' }, 'secret', { expiresIn: '1h' });

jwt.verify(token, secretOrPublicKey, [options, callback])

(Asynchronous) If a callback is supplied, function acts asynchronously. The callback is called with the decoded payload if the signature is valid and optional expiration, audience, or issuer are valid. If not, it will be called with the error.

(Synchronous) If a callback is not supplied, function acts synchronously. Returns the payload decoded if the signature is valid and optional expiration, audience, or issuer are valid. If not, it will throw the error.

Warning: When the token comes from an untrusted source (e.g. user input or external requests), the returned decoded payload should be treated like any other user input; please make sure to sanitize and only work with properties that are expected

token

is the JsonWebToken string

secretOrPublicKey

is a string or buffer containing either the secret for HMAC algorithms, or the PEM encoded public key for RSA and ECDSA. If

jwt.verify

is called asynchronous,

secretOrPublicKey

can be a function that should fetch the secret or public key. See below for a detailed example

As mentioned in this comment, there are other libraries that expect base64 encoded secrets (random bytes encoded using base64), if that is your case you can pass

Buffer.from(secret, 'base64')

, by doing this the secret will be decoded using base64 and the token verification will use the original random bytes.

options
  • algorithms
    : List of strings with the names of the allowed algorithms. For instance,
    ["HS256", "HS384"]
    .
  • audience
    : if you want to check audience (
    aud
    ), provide a value here. The audience can be checked against a string, a regular expression or a list of strings and/or regular expressions. > Eg:
    "urn:foo"
    ,
    /urn:f[o]{2}/
    ,
    [/urn:f[o]{2}/, "urn:bar"]
  • complete
    : return an object with the decoded
    { payload, header, signature }
    instead of only the usual content of the payload.
  • issuer
    (optional): string or array of strings of valid values for the
    iss
    field.
  • jwtid
    (optional): if you want to check JWT ID (
    jti
    ), provide a string value here.
  • ignoreExpiration
    : if
    true
    do not validate the expiration of the token.
  • ignoreNotBefore
    ...
  • subject
    : if you want to check subject (
    sub
    ), provide a value here
  • clockTolerance
    : number of seconds to tolerate when checking the
    nbf
    and
    exp
    claims, to deal with small clock differences among different servers
  • maxAge
    : the maximum allowed age for tokens to still be valid. It is expressed in seconds or a string describing a time span zeit/ms. > Eg:
    1000
    ,
    "2 days"
    ,
    "10h"
    ,
    "7d"
    . A numeric value is interpreted as a seconds count. If you use a string be sure you provide the time units (days, hours, etc), otherwise milliseconds unit is used by default (
    "120"
    is equal to
    "120ms"
    ).
  • clockTimestamp
    : the time in seconds that should be used as the current time for all necessary comparisons.
  • nonce
    : if you want to check
    nonce
    claim, provide a string value here. It is used on Open ID for the ID Tokens. (Open ID implementation notes)
// verify a token symmetric - synchronous var decoded = jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh'); console.log(decoded.foo) // bar // verify a token symmetric jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh', function(err, decoded) { console.log(decoded.foo) // bar }); // invalid token - synchronous try { var decoded = jwt.verify(token, 'wrong-secret'); } catch(err) { // err } // invalid token jwt.verify(token, 'wrong-secret', function(err, decoded) { // err // decoded undefined }); // verify a token asymmetric var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, function(err, decoded) { console.log(decoded.foo) // bar }); // verify audience var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo' }, function(err, decoded) { // if audience mismatch, err == invalid audience }); // verify issuer var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo', issuer: 'urn:issuer' }, function(err, decoded) { // if issuer mismatch, err == invalid issuer }); // verify jwt id var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo', issuer: 'urn:issuer', jwtid: 'jwtid' }, function(err, decoded) { // if jwt id mismatch, err == invalid jwt id }); // verify subject var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo', issuer: 'urn:issuer', jwtid: 'jwtid', subject: 'subject' }, function(err, decoded) { // if subject mismatch, err == invalid subject }); // alg mismatch var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { algorithms: ['RS256'] }, function (err, payload) { // if token alg != RS256, err == invalid signature }); // Verify using getKey callback // Example uses https://github.com/auth0/node-jwks-rsa as a way to fetch the keys. var jwksClient = require('jwks-rsa'); var client = jwksClient({ jwksUri: 'https://sandrino.auth0.com/.well-known/jwks.json' }); function getKey(header, callback){ client.getSigningKey(header.kid, function(err, key) { var signingKey = key.publicKey || key.rsaPublicKey; callback(null, signingKey); }); } jwt.verify(token, getKey, options, function(err, decoded) { console.log(decoded.foo) // bar });

jwt.decode(token [, options])

(Synchronous) Returns the decoded payload without verifying if the signature is valid.

Warning: This will not verify whether the signature is valid. You should not use this for untrusted messages. You most likely want to use

jwt.verify

instead.

Warning: When the token comes from an untrusted source (e.g. user input or external request), the returned decoded payload should be treated like any other user input; please make sure to sanitize and only work with properties that are expected

token

is the JsonWebToken string

options

:

json

: force JSON.parse on the payload even if the header doesn't contain

"typ":"JWT"

.

complete

: return an object with the decoded payload and header.

Example

// get the decoded payload ignoring signature, no secretOrPrivateKey needed var decoded = jwt.decode(token); // get the decoded payload and header var decoded = jwt.decode(token, {complete: true}); console.log(decoded.header); console.log(decoded.payload)

Errors & Codes

Possible thrown errors during verification. Error is the first argument of the verification callback.

TokenExpiredError

Thrown error if the token is expired.

Error object:

  • name: 'TokenExpiredError'
  • message: 'jwt expired'
  • expiredAt: [ExpDate]
jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh', function(err, decoded) { if (err) { /\* err = { name: 'TokenExpiredError', message: 'jwt expired', expiredAt: 1408621000 } \*/ } });

JsonWebTokenError

Error object:

  • name: 'JsonWebTokenError'
  • message:
    • 'jwt malformed'
    • 'jwt signature is required'
    • 'invalid signature'
    • 'jwt audience invalid. expected: [OPTIONS AUDIENCE]'
    • 'jwt issuer invalid. expected: [OPTIONS ISSUER]'
    • 'jwt id invalid. expected: [OPTIONS JWT ID]'
    • 'jwt subject invalid. expected: [OPTIONS SUBJECT]'
jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh', function(err, decoded) { if (err) { /\* err = { name: 'JsonWebTokenError', message: 'jwt malformed' } \*/ } });

NotBeforeError

Thrown if current time is before the nbf claim.

Error object:

  • name: 'NotBeforeError'
  • message: 'jwt not active'
  • date: 2018-10-04T16:10:44.000Z
jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh', function(err, decoded) { if (err) { /\* err = { name: 'NotBeforeError', message: 'jwt not active', date: 2018-10-04T16:10:44.000Z } \*/ } });

Algorithms supported

Array of supported algorithms. The following algorithms are currently supported.

alg Parameter Value | Digital Signature or MAC Algorithm ----------------|---------------------------- HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 hash algorithm HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 hash algorithm HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 hash algorithm RS256 | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-256 hash algorithm RS384 | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-384 hash algorithm RS512 | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-512 hash algorithm PS256 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 hash algorithm (only node ^6.12.0 OR >=8.0.0) PS384 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 hash algorithm (only node ^6.12.0 OR >=8.0.0) PS512 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 hash algorithm (only node ^6.12.0 OR >=8.0.0) ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 curve and SHA-256 hash algorithm ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 curve and SHA-384 hash algorithm ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 curve and SHA-512 hash algorithm none | No digital signature or MAC value included

Refreshing JWTs

First of all, we recommend you to think carefully if auto-refreshing a JWT will not introduce any vulnerability in your system.

We are not comfortable including this as part of the library, however, you can take a look at this example to show how this could be accomplished. Apart from that example there are an issue and a pull request to get more knowledge about this topic.

TODO

  • X.509 certificate chain is not checked

Issue Reporting

If you have found a bug or if you have a feature request, please report them at this repository issues section. Please do not report security vulnerabilities on the public GitHub issue tracker. The Responsible Disclosure Program details the procedure for disclosing security issues.

Author

Auth0

License

This project is licensed under the MIT license. See the LICENSE file for more info.

We use cookies. If you continue to browse the site, you agree to the use of cookies. For more information on our use of cookies please see our Privacy Policy.