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actix
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Description

Actor framework for Rust.

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Actix

Actor framework for Rust

crates.io Documentation Version License Dependency Status
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Documentation

Features

  • Async and sync actors
  • Actor communication in a local/thread context
  • Uses futures for asynchronous message handling
  • Actor supervision
  • Typed messages (No
    Any
    type)
  • Runs on stable Rust 1.46+

Usage

To use

actix
, add this to your
Cargo.toml
:
[dependencies]
actix = "0.12"

Initialize Actix

In order to use actix you first need to create a

System
.
fn main() {
    let system = actix::System::new();

system.run();

}

Actix uses the Tokio runtime.

System::new()
creates a new event loop.
System.run()
starts the Tokio event loop, and will finish once the
System
actor receives the
SystemExit
message.

Implementing an Actor

In order to define an actor you need to define a struct and have it implement the

Actor
trait.

use actix::{Actor, Addr, Context, System};

struct MyActor;

impl Actor for MyActor { type Context = Context;

fn started(&mut self, ctx: &mut Self::Context) {
    println!("I am alive!");
    System::current().stop(); // 

Spawning a new actor is achieved via the

start
and
create
methods of the Actor trait. It provides several different ways of creating actors; for details, check the docs. You can implement the
started
,
stopping
and
stopped
methods of the Actor trait.
started
gets called when the actor starts and
stopping
when the actor finishes. Check the API docs for more information on the actor lifecycle.

Handle Messages

An Actor communicates with another Actor by sending messages. In actix all messages are typed. Let's define a simple

Sum
message with two
usize
parameters and an actor which will accept this message and return the sum of those two numbers. Here we use the
#[actix::main]
attribute as an easier way to start our
System
and drive our main function so we can easily
.await
for the responses sent back from the
Actor
.
use actix::prelude::*;

// this is our Message // we have to define the response type (rtype) #[derive(Message)] #[rtype(result = "usize")] struct Sum(usize, usize);

// Actor definition struct Calculator;

impl Actor for Calculator { type Context = Context; }

// now we need to implement Handler on Calculator for the Sum message. impl Handler for Calculator { type Result = usize; // ) -> Self::Result { msg.0 + msg.1 } }

#[actix::main] // println!("SUM: {}", result), _ => println!("Communication to the actor has failed"), } }

All communications with actors go through an

Addr
object. You can
do_send
a message without waiting for a response, or you can
send
an actor a specific message. The
Message
trait defines the result type for a message.

Actor State And Subscription For Specific Messages

You may have noticed that the methods of the

Actor
and
Handler
traits accept
&mut self
, so you are welcome to store anything in an actor and mutate it whenever necessary.

Address objects require an actor type, but if we just want to send a specific message to an actor that can handle the message, we can use the

Recipient
interface. Let's create a new actor that uses
Recipient
.
use actix::prelude::*;
use std::time::Duration;

#[derive(Message)] #[rtype(result = "()")] struct Ping { pub id: usize, }

// Actor definition struct Game { counter: usize, name: String, recipient: Recipient, }

impl Actor for Game { type Context = Context; }

// simple message handler for Ping message impl Handler for Game { type Result = ();

fn handle(&amp;mut self, msg: Ping, ctx: &amp;mut Context<self>) {
    self.counter += 1;

    if self.counter &gt; 10 {
        System::current().stop();
    } else {
        println!("[{0}] Ping received {1}", self.name, msg.id);

        // wait 100 nanoseconds
        ctx.run_later(Duration::new(0, 100), move |act, _| {
            act.recipient.do_send(Ping { id: msg.id + 1 });
        });
    }
}

}

fn main() { let mut system = System::new();

// To get a Recipient object, we need to use a different builder method
// which will allow postponing actor creation
let addr = system.block_on(async {
    Game::create(|ctx| {
        // now we can get an address of the first actor and create the second actor
        let addr = ctx.address();

        let addr2 = Game {
            counter: 0,
            name: String::from("Game 2"),
            recipient: addr.recipient(),
        }
        .start();

        // let's start pings
        addr2.do_send(Ping { id: 10 });

        // now we can finally create first actor
        Game {
            counter: 0,
            name: String::from("Game 1"),
            recipient: addr2.recipient(),
        }
    });
});

system.run();

}

Chat Example

See this chat example which shows more comprehensive usage in a networking client/server service.

Contributing

All contributions are welcome, if you have a feature request don't hesitate to open an issue!

License

This project is licensed under either of

  • Apache License, Version 2.0, (LICENSE-APACHE or https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0)
  • MIT license (LICENSE-MIT or https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT)

at your option.

Code of Conduct

Contribution to the actix repo is organized under the terms of the Contributor Covenant. The Actix team promises to intervene to uphold that code of conduct.

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