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It is a tutorial project to let people understand the backend framework step-by-step.

From phase1 to phase11, you will see know a CRUD endpoint is refactored from 250 lines to only 80 lines. Also, you will learn modern coding skills, such as struct tag(~=Java annotation), reflection, middleware.

這是一個教學用專案,讓你一步一步理解backend framework的基本結構。 從第一版到第十一版,你將會看到一個250行的CRUD endpoint,被改寫成只有80行。 而且,你將會學習到現在編程技巧,例如:struct tag(大約等同Java annotation),reflection和middleware。


| Branch | Description | | -----------|--------| | phase1 | Demonstrate the codes written by novice developer. No attention to code reusability decreases maintainability and productivity. | | phase2 | Introduce of mux library. The routing information is centralized in main.go. | | phase3 | Remove hardcoded database username and password in source code. Introduces dependency injection of database object. | | phase4 | Introduce ORM. | | phase5 | Introduce input binder. Also, demonstrates the power(and pain) of reflection. | | phase6 | Introduce input validator. | | phase7 | Introduce middleware to handle http output. | | phase8 | Introduce database transaction manager. Remove of global database object in handler. | | phase9 | Add user model into the system. Introduce jwt authorization in middleware. | | phase10 | Wrap up repetitive code in CRUD handler | | phase11 | Introduce 3rd party middleware. Make the system become production-ready. |

| 分支 | 說明 | | -----------|--------| | phase1 | 一個菜鳥所寫的程式碼。沒有著重程式重用性,讓程式變得難以維護,也降低人們的生產力。 | | phase2 | 引入mux程式庫。Routing資料現在全集中在main.go。 | | phase3 | 刪掉在程式碼中hardcoded的資料庫用戶名字和密碼。引入資料庫物件的dependency injection。 | | phase4 | 引入ORM. | | phase5 | 引入輸入處理器,也說明reflection的強大(和痛苦)。 | | phase6 | 引入輸入檢查器。 | | phase7 | 引入中間件來負責HTTP輸出。 | | phase8 | 引入資料庫交易管理者。刪掉在handler的全域資料庫物件。 | | phase9 | 加入用戶物件到系統。在中間件層加入jwt身份驗證 | | phase10 | 把重複性程式碼變成獨立程序| | phase11 | 引入第三方套件,讓系統質素到達能上線級別。 |

Getting Started

Mercurial and Git

Some libraries require installation of Mercurial and Git. Please install these yourselves.
If you are using ubuntu, you may run the following command:
(Remarks: Never ask me anything about Windows environment)

sudo apt-get install mercurial git


sudo apt-get install mercurial git

Go 1.5+

The Go packages in ubuntu is outdated. Thus I suggest you downloading the latest Go Compiler yourselves.
In following step, the Go compiler will be stored in your home directory.

  1. Extract the go1.X-linux-amd64.tar.gz file into ~/go-compiler:
    mkdir ~/go-compiler && tar -xvf go1.6.linux-amd64.tar.gz -C ~/go-compiler --strip-components 1
  2. Create the a folder to store all go source code:
    mkdir ~/go
  3. Open ~/.bashrc add following lines in the bottom
    export PATH=$PATH:[homedirectory]/go-compiler/bin
    export GOROOT=[home
    export GOPATH=[home_directory]/go
  4. restart your terminal
  5. Run: go version
    If your compiler installed correctly, you will see something like "go version go1.6 linux/amd64"
  6. cd ~/go/src && git clone

在ubuntu中的Go package是老舊的,我建議你下載最新Go 編譯器

  1. 把下載到的go1.X-linux-amd64.tar.gz解壓縮到 ~/go-compiler:
    mkdir ~/go-compiler && tar -xvf go1.6.linux-amd64.tar.gz -C ~/go-compiler --strip-components 1
  2. 建立資料夾,用來存放所有的原始碼:
    mkdir ~/go
  3. 打開 ~/.bashrc,把以下內容加到最底:
    export PATH=$PATH:[homedirectory]/go-compiler/bin
    export GOROOT=[home
    export GOPATH=[home_directory]/go
  4. 重開你的terminal
  5. 執行: go version
    如果你的Go編譯器正確設定,你應該會看到"go version go1.6 linux/amd64"
  6. cd ~/go/src && git clone

PostgreSQL 9.3+

If you are using ubuntu, I would suggest you simply run: "sudo apt-get install postgresql"
The default installation is enough for development purpose.
The ~/go/src/demo/schema folder contains readme.txt. It will teach you how to create the objects in database.

如果你正在使用ubuntu,我建議你直接執行"sudo apt-get install postgresql"
資料夾 ~/go/src/demo/schema內的readme.txt,會教你怎樣一步一步地建立資料庫內所需物件

Need Help?

If you have a question or feature request, ask me in facebook. GitHub will be used exclusively for bug reports and pull requests.
I also provide backend courses. Please contract me if you want to pay for more knowledge.

如果你有疑問或請求,從facebook找我. GitHub只用作錯誤回報和pull request.


If you think this tutorial is really helpful, I suggest you donate your 2 hours salary to Free Software foundation or Open Culture foundation


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