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hosts

by StevenBlack

StevenBlack /hosts

Consolidating and Extending hosts files from several well-curated sources. You can optionally pick e...

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Take Note!

  • This version of the Hosts file generator, and tests, are for Python 3.5+ only.

* With the exception of issues and PRs regarding changes to

hosts/data/StevenBlack/hosts

, all other issues regarding the content of the produced hosts files should be made with the appropriate data source that contributed the content in question. The contact information for all of the data sources can be found in the

hosts/data/

directory.

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Unified hosts file with base extensions

This repository consolidates several reputable

hosts

files, and merges them into a unified hosts file with duplicates removed. A variety of tailored hosts files are provided.

List of all hosts file variants

This repository offers 15 different host file variants, in addition to the base variant.

The Non GitHub mirror is the link to use for some hosts file managers likeHostsman for Windows that don't work with GitHub download links.

Host file recipe | Readme | Raw hosts | Unique domains | Non GitHub mirror ---------------- |:------:|:---------:|:--------------:|:-------------: Unified hosts = (adware + malware) | Readme | link | 57,463 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews | Readme | link | 58,405 | linkUnified hosts + gambling | Readme | link | 59,787 | linkUnified hosts + porn | Readme | link | 77,058 | linkUnified hosts + social | Readme | link | 60,220 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + gambling | Readme | link | 60,729 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + porn | Readme | link | 78,000 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + social | Readme | link | 61,162 | linkUnified hosts + gambling + porn | Readme | link | 79,382 | linkUnified hosts + gambling + social | Readme | link | 62,544 | linkUnified hosts + porn + social | Readme | link | 79,814 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + gambling + porn | Readme | link | 80,324 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + gambling + social | Readme | link | 63,486 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + porn + social | Readme | link | 80,756 | linkUnified hosts + gambling + porn + social | Readme | link | 82,138 | linkUnified hosts + fakenews + gambling + porn + social | Readme | link | 83,080 | link

Expectation: These unified hosts files should serve all devices, regardless of OS.

Sources of hosts data unified in this variant

Updated

hosts

files from the following locations are always unified and included:

Host file source | Description | Home page | Raw hosts | Update frequency | License | Issues -----------------|-------------|:---------:|:---------:|:----------------:|:-------:|:------: Steven Black's ad-hoc list | Additional sketch domains as I come across them. |link | raw | occasionally | MIT | issuesAdAway | AdAway is an open source ad blocker for Android using the hosts file. |link | raw | frequently | CC BY 3.0 | issuesadd.2o7Net | 2o7Net tracking sites based on hostsfile.org content. |link | raw | occasionally | MIT | issuesadd.Dead | Dead sites based on hostsfile.org content. |link | raw | occasionally | MIT | issuesadd.Risk | Risk content sites based on hostsfile.org content. |link | raw | occasionally | MIT | issuesadd.Spam | Spam sites based on hostsfile.org content. |link | raw | occasionally | MIT | issuesMitchell Krog's - Badd Boyz Hosts | Sketchy domains and Bad Referrers from my Nginx and Apache Bad Bot and Spam Referrer Blockers |link | raw | weekly | MIT | issueshostsVN | Hosts block ads of Vietnamese |link | raw | occasionally | MIT | issuesKADhosts | Fraud/adware/scam websites. |link | raw | frequently | CC BY-SA 4.0 | issuesMalware Domain List | Malware Domain List is a non-commercial community project. |link | raw | weekly | 'can be used for free by anyone' | issuesMVPS hosts file | The purpose of this site is to provide the user with a high quality custom HOSTS file. |link | raw | monthly | CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 | issuesDan Pollock – someonewhocares | How to make the internet not suck (as much). |link | raw | frequently | non-commercial with attribution | issuesTiuxo hostlist - ads | Categorized hosts files for DNS based content blocking |link | raw | occasional | CC BY 4.0 | issuesUncheckyAds | Windows installers ads sources sites based on https://unchecky.com/ content. |link | raw | occasionally | MIT | issuesURLHaus | A project from abuse.ch with the goal of sharing malicious URLs. |link | raw | weekly | CC0 | issuesyoyo.org | Blocking with ad server and tracking server hostnames. |link | raw | frequently | | issues

Extensions

The unified hosts file is optionally extensible. Extensions are used to include domains by category. Currently, we offer the following categories:

fakenews

,

social

,

gambling

, and

porn

.

Extensions are optional, and can be combined in various ways with the base hosts file. The combined products are stored in the [

alternates

](https://github.com/StevenBlack/hosts/tree/master/alternates) folder.

Data for extensions are stored in the [

extensions

](https://github.com/StevenBlack/hosts/tree/master/extensions) folder. You manage extensions by curating this folder tree, where you will find the data for

fakenews

,

social

,

gambling

, and

porn

extension data that we maintain and provide for you.

Generate your own unified hosts file

To generate your own unified hosts file you will need Python 3.5 or later.

First, install the dependencies with:

pip3 install --user -r requirements.txt

Note we recommend the

--user

flag which installs the required dependencies at the user level. More information about it can be found on pip documentation.

To run unit tests, in the top-level directory, run:

python3 testUpdateHostsFile.py

The

updateHostsFile.py

script will generate a unified hosts file based on the sources in the local

data/

subfolder. The script will prompt you whether it should fetch updated versions (from locations defined by the

update.json

text file in each source's folder). Otherwise, it will use the

hosts

file that's already there.

Usage

Using Python 3:

python3 updateHostsFile.py [--auto] [--replace] [--ip nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn] [--extensions ext1 ext2 ext3]

Command line options:

--help

, or

-h

: display help.

--auto

, or

-a

: run the script without prompting. When

--auto

is invoked,

  • Hosts data sources, including extensions, are updated.
  • No extensions are included by default. Use the ```
  • -extensions
    or 
  • e ``` flag to include any you want.
  • Your active hosts file is not replaced unless you include the ```
  • -replace
    flag.
    
--backup

, or

-b

: Make a backup of existing hosts file(s) as you generate over them.

--extensions <ext1> <ext2> <ext3></ext3></ext2></ext1>

, or

-e <ext1> <ext2> <ext3></ext3></ext2></ext1>

: the names of subfolders below the

extensions

folder containing additional category-specific hosts files to include in the amalgamation. Example:

--extensions porn

or

-e social porn

.

--flush-dns-cache

, or

-f

: skip the prompt for flushing the DNS cache. Only active when

--replace

is also active.

--ip nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn

, or

-i nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn

: the IP address to use as the target. Default is

0.0.0.0

.

--keepdomaincomments

, or

-k

:

true

(default) or

false

, keep the comments that appear on the same line as domains. The default is

true

.

--noupdate

, or

-n

: skip fetching updates from hosts data sources.

--output <subfolder></subfolder>

, or

-o <subfolder></subfolder>

: place the generated source file in a subfolder. If the subfolder does not exist, it will be created.

--replace

, or

-r

: trigger replacing your active hosts

--skipstatichosts

, or

-s

:

false

(default) or

true

, omit the standard section at the top, containing lines like

127.0.0.1 localhost

. This is useful for configuring proximate DNS services on the local network.

--nogendata

, or

-g

:

false

(default) or

true

, skip the generation of the readmeData.json file used for generating readme.md files. This is useful if you are generating host files with additional whitelists or blacklists and want to keep your local checkout of this repo unmodified.

--compress

, or

-c

:

false

(default) or

true

, Compress the hosts file ignoring non-necessary lines (empty lines and comments) and putting multiple domains in each line. Reducing the number of lines of the hosts file improves the performances under Windows (with DNS Client service enabled).

--minimise

, or

-m

:

false

(default) or

true

, like

--compress

, but puts each domain on a separate line. This is necessary because many implementations of URL blockers that rely on

hosts

files do not conform to the standard which allows multiple hosts on a single line.

--blacklist <blacklistfile></blacklistfile>

, or

-x <blacklistfile></blacklistfile>

: Append the given blacklist file in hosts format to the generated hosts file.

--whitelist <whitelistfile></whitelistfile>

, or

-w <whitelistfile></whitelistfile>

: Use the given whitelist file to remove hosts from the generated hosts file.

Using NixOS:

To install hosts file on your machine add the following into your

configuration.nix

:

{ networking.extraHosts = let hostsPath = https://raw.githubusercontent.com/StevenBlack/hosts/master/hosts; hostsFile = builtins.fetchurl hostsPath; in builtins.readFile "${hostsFile}"; }
  • NOTE: Change
    hostsPath
    if you need other versions of hosts file.
  • NOTE: The call to
    fetchurl
    is impure. Use
    fetchFromGitHub
    with the exact commit if you want to always get the same result.

How do I control which sources are unified?

Add one or more additional sources, each in a subfolder of the

data/

folder, and specify the

url

key in its

update.json

file.

Add one or more optional extensions, which originate from subfolders of the

extensions/

folder. Again the url in

update.json

controls where this extension finds its updates.

Create an optional

blacklist

file. The contents of this file (containing a listing of additional domains in

hosts

file format) are appended to the unified hosts file during the update process. A sample

blacklist

is included, and may be modified as you need.

  • NOTE: The
    blacklist
    is not tracked by git, so any changes you make won't be overridden when you
    git pull
    this repo from
    origin
    in the future.

How do I include my own custom domain mappings?

If you have custom hosts records, place them in file

myhosts

. The contents of this file are prepended to the unified hosts file during the update process.

The

myhosts

file is not tracked by git, so any changes you make won't be overridden when you

git pull

this repo from

origin

in the future.

How do I prevent domains from being included?

The domains you list in the

whitelist

file are excluded from the final hosts file.

The

whitelist

uses partial matching. Therefore if you whitelist

google-analytics.com

, that domain and all its subdomains won't be merged into the final hosts file.

The

whitelist

is not tracked by git, so any changes you make won't be overridden when you

git pull

this repo from

origin

in the future.

How can I contribute hosts records?

If you discover sketchy domains you feel should be included here, here are some ways to contribute them.

Option 1: contact one of our hosts sources

The best way to get new domains included is to submit an issue to any of the data providers whose home pages are listed here. This is best because once you submit new domains, they will be curated and updated by the dedicated folks who maintain these sources.

Option 2: add your domains to Steven Black's personal data file

Fork this hosts this repo and add your links to https://github.com/StevenBlack/hosts/blob/master/data/StevenBlack/hosts.

Then, submit a pull request.

WARNING: this is less desirable than Option 1 because the ongoing curation falls on us. So this creates more work for us.

Option 3: create your own hosts list as a repo on GitHub

If you're able to curate your own collection of sketchy domains, then curate your own hosts list. Then signal the existence of your repo as a new issue and we may include your new repo into the collection of sources we pull whenever we create new versions.

What is a hosts file?

A hosts file, named

hosts

(with no file extension), is a plain-text file used by all operating systems to map hostnames to IP addresses.

In most operating systems, the

hosts

file is preferential to

DNS

. Therefore if a domain name is resolved by the

hosts

file, the request never leaves your computer.

Having a smart

hosts

file goes a long way towards blocking malware, adware, and other irritants.

For example, to nullify requests to some doubleclick.net servers, adding these lines to your hosts file will do it:

# block doubleClick's servers 0.0.0.0 ad.ae.doubleclick.net 0.0.0.0 ad.ar.doubleclick.net 0.0.0.0 ad.at.doubleclick.net 0.0.0.0 ad.au.doubleclick.net 0.0.0.0 ad.be.doubleclick.net # etc...

We recommend using

0.0.0.0

instead of

127.0.0.1

Traditionally most host files use

127.0.0.1

, the loopback address, to establish an IP connection to the local machine.

We prefer to use

0.0.0.0

, which is defined as a non-routable meta-address used to designate an invalid, unknown, or non-applicable target.

Using

0.0.0.0

is empirically faster, possibly because there's no wait for a timeout resolution. It also does not interfere with a web server that may be running on the local PC.

Why not use

0

instead of

0.0.0.0

?

We tried that. Using

0

doesn't work universally.

Location of your hosts file

To modify your current

hosts

file, look for it in the following places and modify it with a text editor.

macOS (until 10.14.x macOS Mojave), iOS, Android, Linux:

/etc/hosts

file.

macOS Catalina:

/private/etc/hosts

file.

Windows:

%SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts

file.

Gentoo

Gentoo users may find [

sb-hosts

](https://github.com/PF4Public/gentoo-overlay/tree/master/net-misc/sb-hosts) in ::pf4public Gentoo overlay

Updating hosts file on Windows

(NOTE: See also some third-party Hosts managers, listed below.)

On Linux and macOS, run the Python script. On Windows more work is required due to compatibility issues so it's preferable to run the batch file as follows:

updateHostsWindows.bat

This file MUST be run in command prompt with administrator privileges in the repository directory. In addition to updating the hosts file, it can also replace the existing hosts file, and reload the DNS cache. It goes without saying that for this to work, you must be connected to the internet.

To open a command prompt as administrator in the repository's directory, do the following:

Windows XP: Start → Run →

cmd

Windows Vista, 7: Start Button → type

cmd

→ right-click Command Prompt → "Run as Administrator"

Windows 8: Start → Swipe Up → All Apps → Windows System → right-click Command Prompt → "Run as Administrator"

Windows 10: Start Button → type

cmd

→ right-click Command Prompt → "Run as Administrator"

You can also refer to the "Third-Party Hosts Managers" section for further recommended solutions from third parties.

Reloading hosts file

Your operating system will cache DNS lookups. You can either reboot or run the following commands to manually flush your DNS cache once the new hosts file is in place.

| The Google Chrome browser may require manually cleaning up its DNS Cache on

chrome://net-internals/#dns

page to thereafter see the changes in your hosts file. See: https://superuser.com/questions/723703:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Windows

Open a command prompt with administrator privileges and run this command:

ipconfig /flushdns

Before flushing the DNS cache, open a command prompt with administrator privileges and run this command:

sc config "Dnscache" start=disabled sc stop "Dnscache"

Linux

Open a Terminal and run with root privileges:

Debian/Ubuntu

sudo service network-manager restart

Linux Mint

sudo /etc/init.d/dns-clean start

Linux with systemd:

sudo systemctl restart network.service

Fedora Linux:

sudo systemctl restart NetworkManager.service

Arch Linux/Manjaro with Network Manager:

sudo systemctl restart NetworkManager.service

Arch Linux/Manjaro with Wicd:

sudo systemctl restart wicd.service

RHEL/Centos:

sudo /etc/init.d/network restart

FreeBSD:

sudo service nscd restart

To enable the

nscd

daemon initially, it is recommended that you run the following commands:

sudo sysrc nscd\_enable="YES" sudo service nscd start

Then modify the

hosts

line in your

/etc/nsswitch.conf

file to the following:

hosts: cache files dns

Others: Consult this Wikipedia article.

macOS

Open a Terminal and run:

sudo dscacheutil -flushcache;sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder

Release management

This repository uses release-it, an excellent CLI release tool for GitHub repos and npm packages, to automate creating releases. This is why the package.json and.release-it.json files are bundled.

Goals of this unified hosts file

The goals of this repo are to:

  1. automatically combine high-quality lists of hosts,

  2. provide situation-appropriate extensions,

  3. de-dupe the resultant combined list,

  4. and keep the resultant file reasonably sized.

A high-quality source is defined here as one that is actively curated. A hosts source should be frequently updated by its maintainers with both additions and removals. The larger the hosts file, the higher the level of curation is expected.

It is expected that this unified hosts file will serve both desktop and mobile devices under a variety of operating systems.

Third-Party Hosts Managers

  • Unified Hosts AutoUpdate (for Windows): The Unified Hosts AutoUpdate package is purpose-built for this unified hosts project as well as in active development by community members. You can install and uninstall any blacklist and keep it automatically up to date, and can be placed in a shared network location and deployed across an organization via group policies. And since it is in active development by community members, your bug reports, feature requests, and other feedback are most welcome.

  • ViHoMa is a Visual Hosts file Manager, written in Java, by Christian Martínez. Check it out!

Interesting Applications

  • Hostile is a nifty command line utility to easily add or remove domains from your hosts file. If our hosts files are too aggressive for you, you can use

hostile

to remove domains, or you can use

hostile

in a bash script to automate a post process each time you download fresh versions of hosts.

  • macOS Scripting for Configuration, Backup and Restore helps customizing, re-installing and using macOS. It also provides a script to install and update the hosts file using this project on macOS. In combination with a launchd it updates the hosts file every x days (default is 4). To install both download the GitHub repo and run the install script from the directory one level up.

  • Pi-hole is a network-wide DHCP server and ad blocker that runs on Raspberry Pi. Pi-hole uses this repository as one of its sources. This is a very interesting project to set up yourself, or you can buy one pre-loaded.

Block ads and malware via local BIND9 DNS server (for Debian, Raspbian & Ubuntu): Set up a local DNS server with a

/etc/bind/named.conf.blocked

file, sourced from here.

dnsmasq conversion script This GitHub gist has a short shell script (bash, will work on any 'nix) and uses

wget

&

awk

present in most distros, to fetch a specified hosts file and convert it the format required by dnsmasq. Supports IPv4 and IPv6. Designed to be used as either a shell script, or can be dropped into /etc/cron.weekly (or wherever suits). The script is short and easily edited, also has a short document attached with notes on dnsmasq setup.

Contribute!

Please read our Contributing Guide. Among other things, this explains how we organize files and folders in this repository.

We are always interested in discovering well-curated sources of hosts. If you find one, please open an issue to draw our attention.

Before you create or respond to any issue, please read our code of conduct.

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