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A collection of Salt files for deploying, managing and automating Ceph.

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A collection of Salt files for deploying, managing and automating Ceph.

The goal is to manage multiple Ceph clusters with a single salt master. At this time, only a single Ceph cluster can be managed.

This diagram should explain the intended flow for the orchestration runners and related salt states.


DeepSea currently supports the following functionality:

  • Automatic discovery, deployment, configuration and life cycle management of Ceph clusters
  • Initial support for importing Ceph clusters deployed by other tools, e.g. using
  • RADOS Gateway deployment (for single site deployments)
  • CephFS MDS deployment and CephFS creation
  • Sharing CephFS or S3 buckets via NFS Ganesha
  • iSCSI target management via lrbd
  • Deployment and configuration of Prometheus and Grafana for monitoring / performance data visualization

Get Involved

To learn more about DeepSea, take a look at the Wiki.

There is also a dedicated mailing list deepsea-users. If you have any questions, suggestions for improvements or any other feedback, please join us there! We look forward to your contribution.

If you think you've found a bug or would like to suggest an enhancement, please submit it via the bug tracker on GitHub.

If you would like to contribute to DeepSea, refer to the contribution guidelines.

Developers and Admins

For those interested in learning about some of the uses of Salt in DeepSea, see here for explanations and examples.


You need at least a minimum of 4 nodes to be able to test and use DeepSea properly.

To be able to use less than 4 nodes during the deployment stages (e.g. in a development/testing environment), you could set the option

as an environment variable or globally as a pillar variable in
. Setting
allows you to:
  • Deploy monitors without the presence of a
  • Deply a cluster with at least one (instead of 3/4/3) storage/monitor/mgr nodes

Add DeepSea repo to your admin host

DeepSea needs to be installed on the Salt master node.

On openSUSE distributions, this step could be performed by installing the RPM package from the openSUSE build service, following the installation instructions.

On other distributions or when using a development version, install Salt via the distribution's preferred installation method and check out the git repository:

$ git clone
$ cd DeepSea
$ sudo make install

Cluster Preparation

The cluster deployment process has several phases. First, you need to prepare all nodes of the cluster by configuring Salt and then deploy and configure Ceph.

The following procedure describes the cluster preparation in detail.

Install a minimum of four machines (or define

either as an environment variable or a pillar variable during the deployment process) with SUSE Leap 42.3 or Tumbleweed and add the DeepSea repo to your defined "admin" node:
# zypper ar
# zypper refresh

Make sure that each node can resolve the host names of all other nodes.

The Salt master needs to resolve all its Salt minions by their host names, as well as all Salt minions need to resolve the Salt master by its host name.

If you don't have a DNS Server you could also add all hosts of your cluster to the

` file.

Configure, enable, and start the NTP time synchronization server on all nodes:

# systemctl enable ntpd.service
# systemctl start ntpd.service

Note that the Cluster deployment with DeepSea will not work with Firewall/AppArmor enabled.

Check whether the AppArmor service is running and disable it on each cluster node to avoid problems:

# systemctl disable apparmor.service

Check whether the Firewall service is running and disable it on each cluster node to avoid problems:

# systemctl disable SuSEfirewall2.service

Install DeepSea on the node which will be the Salt master:

# zypper install deepsea

The command installs the

packages as a dependency.

Check that the

service is enabled and started - enable and start it if needed:
# systemctl enable salt-master.service
# systemctl start salt-master.service

Install the package

on all minion nodes:
# zypper in salt-minion

Configure all minions (including the master minion) to connect to the master. If your Salt master is not reachable by the host name "salt", edit the file

or create a new file
with the following content:
master: host_name_of_salt_master

If you performed any changes to the configuration files mentioned above, restart the Salt service on all Salt minions:

# systemctl restart salt-minion.service

Check that the file

on the Salt master points to your Salt master.

If your Salt master is reachable via more host names, use the one suitable for the storage cluster. If you used the default host name for your Salt master in the example domain, then the file looks as follows:

master_minion: salt.example

Check that the

service is enabled and started on all nodes (including the master node). Enable and start it if needed:
# systemctl enable salt-minion.service`
# systemctl start salt-minion.service

Accept all salt keys on the Salt master: ```

salt-key --accept-all

Verify that the keys have been accepted:

salt-key --list-all

In order to avoid conflicts with other minions managed by the Salt master, DeepSea
needs to know which Salt minions should be considered part of the Ceph cluster to
be deployed. This can be configured in file `/srv/pillar/ceph/deepsea_minions.sls`,
by defining a naming pattern. By default, DeepSea targets all minions that have a
grain `deepsea` applied to them. This can be accomplished by running the following
Salt command on all Minions that should be part of your Ceph cluster:

salt -L grains.append deepsea default

Alternatively, you can change `deepsea_minions` in `deepsea_minions.sls` to any valid
Salt target definition. See `man deepsea-minions` for details.

Cleanup your Disks - only needed if your disks were used in a cluster before

Prior to deploying a cluster with DeepSea make sure that all disks that were used as OSD by previous clusters are empty without partitions. To ensure this, you have to manually zap all the disks. Remember to replace 'X' with the correct disk letter.

Attention - This command will remove all your data from that disk, please be careful!

Wipe the beginning of each partition:

for partition in /dev/sdX[0-9] ; do \

dd if=/dev/zero of=$partition bs=4096 count=1 oflag=direct ; done ```

Wipe the partition table:

# sgdisk -Z --clear -g /dev/sdX

Wipe the backup partition tables:

# size=`blockdev --getsz /dev/sdX`
# position=$((size/4096 - 33))
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdX bs=4096 count=33 seek=$position oflag=direct

Now you deploy and configure Ceph. Unless specified otherwise, all steps are mandatory.

Note: Salt Command Conventions

There are two possibilities how to run

salt-run state.orch
- one is with
, the other is with a name of the stage. Both notations have the same impact and it is fully up to your preference which command you want to use. Both notations are used in the following deployment steps. So please choose what you prefer.

Cluster Deployment

Stage 0

During this stage all required updates are applied and your system may be rebooted.

salt-run state.orch ceph.stage.0


salt-run state.orch ceph.stage.prep

Note: If during Stage 0 the Salt master reboots to load new kernel version, you need to run Stage 0 again, otherwise minions will not be targeted.

Stage 1

The discovery stage collects all hardware in your cluster and also collects necessary information for the Ceph configuration. The configuration fragments are stored in the directory


The data is stored in YAML format in

salt-run state.orch ceph.stage.1


salt-run state.orch ceph.stage.discovery

After the previous command finishes successfully, create a

file in

You can find an example in our docs folder. Please change the example file to fit to your needs, e.g. by changing


If you need more detailed information please refer to the Policy wiki page.

If you need to change the cluster's network setting, edit

and adjust the lines starting with

Stage 2

The configuration stage parses the

file and merges the included files into their final form. Cluster and role related contents are placed in
, while Ceph specific content is placed in

Run the following command to trigger the configuration stage:

# salt-run state.orch ceph.stage.2

or ```

salt-run state.orch ceph.stage.configure

The configuration step may take several seconds. After the command finishes, you
can view the pillar data for the specified minions (for example named
`ceph_minion1`, `ceph_minion2` ...) by running:

salt 'ceph_minion*' pillar.items

#### Stage 3
Now you run the deployment stage. In this stage, the pillar is validated and monitors and ODS daemons are started on the storage nodes. Run the following to start the stage:

salt-run state.orch ceph.stage.3


salt-run state.orch ceph.stage.deploy

The command may take several minutes. If it fails, you have to fix the issue and run the previous stages again. After the command succeeds, run the following to check the status:

ceph -s

If you only want to deploy a Ceph cluster without any additional services,
congratulations - you're done. Otherwise you have to continue with Stage 4.

Stage 4

The last step of the Ceph cluster deployment is the services stage. Here you instantiate any of the currently supported services: iSCSI Gateway, CephFS, RADOS Gateway, and NFS Ganesha. In this stage, the necessary pools, authorizing keyrings and starting services are created.

To start the stage, run the following:

salt-run state.orch ceph.stage.4


salt-run state.orch ```

Test intial deployment and generating load

Once a cluster is deployed one might want to verify functionality or run benchmarks to verify the cluster works as expected.

In order to gain some confidence in your cluster after the inital deployment (stage 3) run:

# salt-run state.orch ceph.benchmarks.baseline

This runs an osd benchmark on each OSD and aggregates the results. It reports your average OSD performance and points out OSDs that deviate from the average.

Please note that for now the baseline benchmark assumes all uniform OSDs.

To load test CephFS run:

# salt-run state.orch ceph.benchmarks.cephfs

This requires a running MDS (deploy in stage 4) and at least on minion with the

role. The
stage will then mount the CephFS instance on the mds-client and run a bunch of
tests. See the benchmark readme for further details.
# salt-run state.orch ceph.benchmarks.rbd

This runs fio using the RBD backend against the cluster as a whole. This requires at least one minion with the

role. See the benchmark readme for further details.

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